International Geological Journal - Official Journal of the Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association

Volume 67 no. 4 / August 2016

Volume 67 no. 4 / August 2016

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Articles in this issue

  • Stratigraphy, plankton communities, and magnetic proxies at the Jurassic /Cretaceous boundary in the Pieniny Klippen Belt (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Abstract: A well preserved Upper Tithonian–Lower Berriasian Strapkova sequence of hemipelagic limestones improves our understanding of environmental changes occurring at the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the Western Carpathians. Three dinoflagellate and four calpionellid zones have been recognized in the section. The onset of the Alpina Subzone of the standard Calpionella Zone, used as a marker of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary is defined by morphological change of Calpionella alpina tests. Calpionellids and calcified radiolarians numerically dominate in microplankton assemblages. The first occurrence of Nannoconus wintereri indicates the beginning of the nannofossil zone NJT 17b Subzone. The FO of Nannoconus steinmannii minor was documented in the lowermost part of the Alpina Subzone. This co-occurrence of calpionellid and nannoplankton events along the J/K boundary transition is typical of other Tethyan sections. Correlation of calcareous microplankton, of stable isotopes (C, O), and TOC/CaCO3 data distribution was used in the characterization of the J/K boundary interval. δ13C values (from +1.09 to 1.44 ‰ VPDB) do not show any temporal trends and thus show a relatively balanced carbon-cycle regime in sea water across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. The presence of radiolarian laminites, interpreted as contourites, and relatively high levels of bioturbation in the Berriasian prove oxygenation events of bottom waters. The lower part of the Crassicolaria Zone (up to the middle part of the Intermedia Subzone) correlates with the M19r magnetozone. The M19n magnetozone includes not only the upper part of the Crassicollaria Zone and lower part of the Alpina Subzone but also the FO of Nannoconus wintereri and Nannoconus steinmannii minor. The reverse Brodno magnetosubzone (M19n1r) was identified in the uppermost part of M19n. The top of M18r and M18n magnetozones are located in the upper part of the Alpina Subzone and in the middle part of the Ferasini Subzone, respectively. The Ferasini/Elliptica subzonal boundary is located in the lowermost part of the M17r magnetozone. A little bit higher in the M17r magnetozone the FO of Nannoconus steinmannii steinmannii was identified.
  • Shallow-water benthic foraminiferal assemblages and their response to the palaeoenvironmental changes — example from the Middle Miocene of Medvednica Mt. (Croatia, Central Paratethys)

    Abstract: During the Middle Miocene, the northern Croatian Medvednica Mt. was an island within the Pannonian Basin System, situated on the SW margin of the Central Paratethys Sea. Miocene sedimentary rocks (the Late Bade- nian Bulimina–Bolivina Zone and Ammonia beccarii ecozone), from the SW slopes of Medvednica Mt. clearly re ect a transgressive-regressive cycle with emersion during the Badenian/Sarmatian boundary. After the initial phase of transgression, the pioneer Elphidium–Asterigerinata–Ammonia benthic foraminiferal assemblage is present in bioclas- tic limestones, such as those at the Borovnjak locality. This marginal marine assemblage from a highly energetic, normally saline environment is characterized by poor preservation of foraminiferal tests, low diversity and strong domination. Advanced transgression is followed by establishment of the Elphidium–Asterigerinata assemblage, which is found in biocalcsiltites from the laterally deeper and more sheltered environment at Gornje Vrap e. This diverse assemblage is typical for inner/middle shelf environment with suf cient oxygen content. A general shallowing upward trend can be recognized at both localities, followed by visible interchange of different sedimentological and biotic features. Successive and oscillatory regression in the marginal marine environment was followed by salinity uctua- tions and nal brackish conditions with AmmoniaElphidium assemblage. The laterally deeper environment reacted to regressive trends on ner scale with almost regular changes of benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the laminae (Heterolepa–Bolivina assemblage/Bolivina–Cassidulina assemblage/Elphidium–Asterigerinata assemblage). It might re ect sea-level oscillations with periodically increased siliciclastic and nutrient input from land or in uence of sea- sonality on benthic assemblages, which occurred in the advanced phase of the regression near the Badenian/Sarmatian boundary.
  • Structure and tectonic evolution of the NE segment of the Polish-Ukrainian Carpathians during the Late Cenozoic: subsurface cross-sections and palinspastic models

    Abstract: The discrepant arrangement of the Carpathian nappes and syntectonic deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep reveals the oroclinal migration of the subduction direction of the platform margin during the Late Cenozoic. Formation of the nappes was induced by their detachment from disintegrated segments of the European Platform; the segments were shortened as a result of their vertical rotation in zones of compressional sutures. It finds expression in local occurrence of the backward vergence of folding against the generally forward vergence toward the Carpathian Foredeep. The precompressional configuration of sedimentation areas of particular nappes was reconstructed with application of the palinspastic method, on the basis of the hitherto undervalued model which emphasizes the influence of the subduction and differentiated morphology of the platform basement on the tectonic evolution of the fold and thrust belt. Superposition of the palaeogeographic representations and the present geometry of the orogen allows understanding of the impact of the magnitudes of tectonic displacements on the differentiation of the geological structure in the NE segment of the Carpathians. The differentiation has inspired different views of Polish and Ukrainian geologists on structural classification and evolution of the frontal thrusts.
  • Pleistocene volcaniclastic units from North-Eastern Sicily (Italy): new evidence for calc-alkaline explosive volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Abstract: A well-preserved volcaniclastic sequence crops out in Pleistocene marine sediments along the Tyrrhenian coastline of the Calabrian-Peloritani arc (Sicily, Italy), testifying the occurrence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene volcanic activity in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The presence of dominant highly vesicular and minor blocky glassy particles indicates that the volcanic clasts were originated by explosive events related to the ascent and violent emission of volatile-rich magmas accompanied by and/or alternated with hydromagmatic fragmentation due to magma-sea water interaction. Field investigations and sedimentological features of the studied volcaniclastic units suggest a deposition from sediment-water density ows. The chemical classi cation of the pumice clasts indicates prevalent rhyolitic and dacitic compositions with calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline af nity. The geochemical features of immobile trace elements together with the presence of orthopyroxene are indicative of a provenance from an arc-type environment. The age (from 980-910 to 589 ka), the chemical composition and the evidence of subaerial explosive volcanic activity constrain the origin nature and temporal evolution of the arc-type volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian domain. Finally, the new information here provided contribute to a better understanding of the temporal geodynamic evolution of this sector of the Mediterranean domain.
  • Kinematic evolution and quantification of deformation in external orogenic zones: a case study from the Tunisian Atlas

    Abstract: The quantification of deformation is one of the main objectives studied by geologists in order to control the evolution of tectonic structures and their kinematics during different tectonic phases. One of the most reliable methods of this theme is the direct calculation of quantity of deformation based on field data, while respecting several parameters such as the notion of tectonic inheritance and reactivation of pre-existing faults, or the relationship between the elongation and shortening axis with major faults. Thus, such a quantification of deformation in an area may explain the relations of thin- and thick-skinned tectonics during this deformation. The study of structural evolution of the Jebel Elkebar domain in the southern-central Tunisian Atlas permits us to quantify the deformation during the extensional phase by a direct calculation of the vertical throw along normal faults. This approach is verified by calculation of thickness of eroded strata in the uplifted compartment and of resedimented series, named the Kebar Formation, in the downthrown compartment. The obtained results confirm the importance of the Aptian-Albian extensional tectonic regime. The extent of deformation during the compressional phase, related to reactivation of pre-existing faults, is less than that of extensional phases; indeed the compressive reactivation did not compensate the vertical throw of normal faults. The geometry of the Elkebar fold is interpreted in terms of the “fault-related fold” model with a décollement level in the Triassic series. This permitted the partition of deformation between the basement and cover, so that the basement was allowed for a limited transport only, and the maximum of observed deformation was concentrated in the thin-skinned tectonics.
  • The Ankara Mélange: an indicator of Tethyan evolution of Anatolia

    Abstract: The Ankara Mélange is a complex formed by imbricated slices of limestone block mélanges (Karakaya and Hisarlıkaya Formations), Neotethyan ophiolites (Eldivan, Ahlat and Edige ophiolites), post-ophiolitic cover units (Mart and Kavak formations) and Tectonic Mélange Unit (Hisarköy Formation or Dereköy Mélange). The Karakaya and Hisarlıkaya formations are roughly similar and consist mainly of limestone block mélange. Nevertheless, they represent some important geological differences indicating different geological evolution. Consequently, the Karakaya and Hisarlıkaya formations are interpreted as Eurasian and Gondwanian marginal units formed by fragmentation of the Gondwanian carbonate platform during the continental rifting of the Neotethys in the Middle Triassic time. During the latest Triassic, Neotethyan lithosphere began to subduct beneath the Eurasian continent and caused intense deformation of the marginal units. The Eldivan, Ahlat and Edige ophiolites represent different fragments of the Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere emplaced onto the Gondwanian margin during the Albian–Aptian, middle Turonian and middle Campanian, respectively. The Eldivan Ophiolite is a NE–SW trending and a nearly complete assemblage composed, from bottom to top, of a volcanic-sedimentary unit, a metamorphic unit, peridotite tectonites, cumulates and sheeted dykes. The Eldivan Ophiolite is unconformably covered by Cenomanian–Lower Turonian sedimentary unit. The Eldivan Ophiolite is overthrust by the Ahlat Ophiolite in the north and Edige Ophiolite in the west. The Ahlat ophiolite is an east–west oriented assemblage comprised of volcanic-sedimentary unit, metamorphic unit, peridotite tectonites and cumulates. The Edige Ophiolite consists of a volcanic-sedimentary unit, peridotite tectonites, dunite, wherlite, pyro­xenite and gabbro cumulates. The Tectonic Mélange Unit is a chaotic formation of various blocks derived from ophio­lites, from the Karakaya and Hisarlıkaya formations and from post-ophiolitic sedimentary units. It was formed during the collision between Anatolian Promontory and Eurasian Continent in the middle Campanian time.