International Geological Journal - Official Journal of the Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association

Volume 64 no. 3 / June 2013

Volume 64 no. 3 / June 2013

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Articles in this issue

  • Gallium and germanium geochemistry during magmatic fractionation and post-magmatic alteration in different types of granitoids: a case study from the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic)

    Abstract: Contents of Ga and Ge in granites, rhyolites, orthogneisses and greisens of different geochemical types from the Bohemian Massif were studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of typical whole-rock samples. The contents of both elements generally increase during fractionation of granitic melts: Ga from 16 to 77 ppm and Ge from 1 to 5 ppm. The differences in Ge and Ga contents between strongly peraluminous (S-type) and slightly peraluminous (A-type) granites were negligible. The elemental ratios of Si/1000Ge and Al/1000Ga significantly decreased during magmatic fraction: from ca. 320 to 62 and from 4.6 to 1.2, respectively. During greisenization, Ge is enriched and hosted in newly formed hydrothermal topaz, while Ga is dispersed into fluid. The graph Al/Ga vs. Y/Ho seems to be useful tool for geochemical interpretation of highly evolved granitoids.
  • Magma–sediment interaction during the emplacement of syn-sedimentary silicic and mafic intrusions and lavas into and onto Triassic strata (Circum-Rhodope Belt, northern Greece)

    Abstract: Within the Circum-Rhodope Belt in northern Greece, Middle Triassic neritic carbonate metasediments are locally intercalated with quartz-feldspar-phyric metarhyolites. In the same belt, Upper Triassic pelagic lime-marl-layered metasediments are similarly intercalated with low-grade metamorphosed basalt, dolerite and minor andesite and trachydacite. We interpret these sequences as due to magmatism active during the rifting event that eventually led to the opening of the Vardar Ocean. Despite the overprint of Late Jurassic deformation and low greenschist metamorphism, peperitic textures produced by magma–wet sediment interaction are well preserved at the contacts between the silicic volcanic rocks and the originally wet unconsolidated neritic carbonate sediments, suggesting contemporaneous magmatism and sedimentation. The mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks lack peperitic textures at their contacts with the pelagic sedimentary rocks. Thin margin parallel banding in the sedimentary members of the sequence indicates thermally affected original contacts with the mafic volcanic rocks only locally and at a microscopic scale. The absence of peperite in this case is attributed to the consolidated state of the sediments at the time of the mafic magma emplacement.
  • Calpionellid distribution and microfacies across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in western Cuba (Sierra de los Órganos)

    Abstract: A detailed bed-by-bed sampled stratigraphic section of the Guasasa Formation in the Rancho San Vicente area of the “Sierra de los Órganos”, western Cuba, provides well-supported evidence about facies and calpionellid distribution across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. These new data allowed the definition of an updated and sound calpionellid biozonation scheme for the section. In this scheme, the drowning event of a carbonate platform displayed by the facies of the San Vicente Member, the lowermost unit of the section, is dated as Late Tithonian, Boneti Subzone. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary was recognized within the facies of the overlying El Americano Member on the basis of the acme of Calpionella alpina Lorenz. The boundary is placed nearly six meters above the contact between the San Vicente and the El Americano Members, in a facies linked to a sea-level drop. The recorded calpionellid bioevents should allow correlations of the Cuban biozonation scheme herein proposed, with other previously published schemes from distant areas of the Tethyan Domain.
  • Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy of the Well Höflein 6 in the Cretaceous–Paleogene Rhenodanubian Flysch Zone (Vienna Basin, Austria)

    Abstract: Palynological analysis of the Rhenodanubian Flysch Zone section recovered from Well Höflein 6 north of Vienna allows the successful application of non-calcareous dinoflagellate biostratigraphy to the deep-water sediments of the Greifenstein Nappe. All 62 cuttings samples contained organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) and some of them allow age-assessment. The results corroborated the presence of two thrust slices. The upper thrust unit A comprises a Campanian to Lower Eocene succession including, from old to young, the Röthenbach Subgroup, Perneck Formation, Altlengbach Formation and Greifenstein Formation. The lower thrust unit B contains in addition a pre-Campanian base, probably the Wolfpassing Formation of Early to mid-Cretaceous age.
  • Native selenium as a byproduct of microbial oxidation of distorted pyrite crystals: the first occurrence in the Carpathians

    Abstract: Acicular crystals of native selenium up to 30 µm long occur together with barite on the surface of goethite partial pseudomorphs after millimeter-sized pseudotetragonal-prismatic pyrite crystals in calcite veins that cross-cut Senonian sandstones of the Silesian Nappe in the western Polish Outer Carpathians. Native selenium originated from selenium apparently released during bacteria-induced oxidation of pyrite at neutral or near-neutral pH conditions. Oxidizing bacteria preferentially colonized {100} faces of pyrite relative {111} faces.
  • New evidence on the origin of non-spinose pitted–cancellate species of the early Danian planktonic foraminifera

    Abstract: Intermediate forms identified in some of the most continuous lower Danian sections allow a better understanding of the origin and evolution of pitted (Globanomalina) and cancellate (Praemurica) planktonic foraminifera. Both Globanomalina and Praemurica are part of a major Paleocene lineage, namely the “non-spinose lineage”, which started to diverge in the early Danian. Transitional specimens strongly suggest the evolution from Parvularugoglobigerina to Globanomalina, and then to Praemurica. These evolutionary turnovers were quite rapid (probably lasting less than 10 kyr), and seem to have begun in the time equivalent of the lower part of the E. simplicissima Subzone, namely the middle part of the standard Zone Pa. The initial evolutionary trends within this non-spinose lineage were the increase of test size and lip thickness, and the evolution from tiny pore-murals to large pore-pits, and from smooth to pitted and finally cancellate walls. Biostratigraphic data suggest that evolution of the wall texture preceded the morphological evolution within each genus. The oldest species of both Globanomalina and Praemurica, namely G. archeocompressa and Pr. taurica, initially retained the external morphology of the ancestral Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina. Since their divergence, Globanomalina and Praemurica followed a separate evolutionary path, evolving into morphologically different species.