International Geological Journal - Official Journal of the Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association

New evidence on the origin of non-spinose pitted–cancellate species of the early Danian planktonic foraminifera

Pages: 237 - 251

Authors: IGNACIO ARENILLAS, JOSE ANTONIO ARZ

Abstract: Intermediate forms identified in some of the most continuous lower Danian sections allow a better understanding of the origin and evolution of pitted (Globanomalina) and cancellate (Praemurica) planktonic foraminifera. Both Globanomalina and Praemurica are part of a major Paleocene lineage, namely the “non-spinose lineage”, which started to diverge in the early Danian. Transitional specimens strongly suggest the evolution from Parvularugoglobigerina to Globanomalina, and then to Praemurica. These evolutionary turnovers were quite rapid (probably lasting less than 10 kyr), and seem to have begun in the time equivalent of the lower part of the E. simplicissima Subzone, namely the middle part of the standard Zone Pa. The initial evolutionary trends within this non-spinose lineage were the increase of test size and lip thickness, and the evolution from tiny pore-murals to large pore-pits, and from smooth to pitted and finally cancellate walls. Biostratigraphic data suggest that evolution of the wall texture preceded the morphological evolution within each genus. The oldest species of both Globanomalina and Praemurica, namely G. archeocompressa and Pr. taurica, initially retained the external morphology of the ancestral Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina. Since their divergence, Globanomalina and Praemurica followed a separate evolutionary path, evolving into morphologically different species.

Keywords: Paleocene, phylogeny, planktonic foraminifera, wall texture, Parvularugoglobigerina, Globanomalina, Praemurica

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