International Geological Journal - Official Journal of the Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association

Volume 63 no. 5 / October 2012

Volume 63 no. 5 / October 2012

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Articles in this issue

  • Famennian ostracods from the Istanbul Zone (Gebze, Kocaeli, NW Turkey) and their paleogeographical relations

    Abstract: Famennian (Late Devonian) ostracods of the Thuringian Mega-Assemblage were recovered for the first time from three incomplete sections of the Ayineburnu Member of the Büyükada Formation in the Denizliköy area (Gebze, NW Turkey), which were sampled for conodonts. Conodont faunas define an interval extending from the Upper rhomboidea? or Lower marginifera Zone into the Middle expansa Zone of the standard Upper Devonian conodont zonation. The ostracod faunas found here consist of species mainly with thin-walls, long spines and often smooth surfaces such as Rectonaria, Tricornina, Orthonaria, Triplacera, Beckerhealdia, Timorhealdia, Bohemina, Paraberounella and Acratia. These taxa indicate faunal relationship with Thuringia and the Rhenish Massif in Germany, the Cantabrian Mountains and Pyrenees in Spain, Holy Cross Mountains in Poland, North Africa and China.
  • Provenance analysis of the Permo-Carboniferous fluvial sandstones of the southern part of the Boskovice Basin and the Zöbing Area (Czech Republic, Austria): implications for paleogeographical reconstructions of the post-Variscan collapse basins

    Abstract: The provenance analyses of Permo-Carboniferous fluvial sandstones of the southern part of the Boskovice Basin and the Zöbing area are based on a wide spectrum of analytical techniques (petrography, heavy mineral assemblages, chemistry of garnet, rutile and spinel, zircon study, major and trace elements). The studied sandstones are poorly sorted and reveal a relatively immature composition implying short distance transport, rapid deposition, a high-relief source area, mainly physical weathering and the minor role of chemical weathering. Different source areas for the Boskovice Basin and the Zöbing area were proved. The Zöbing material was predominantly derived from crystalline units, mainly formed by metamorphic complexes, although the portions of magmatic and volcanic material were significant. The source area is supposed to be located in the Moldanubian Unit. The Boskovice Basin deposits, on the other hand, seem to be mainly derived from metamorphic complexes, corresponding especially to the Moravian Unit, with a relatively wider spectrum of metamorphites, together with the derivation of the detritus from pre-existing sedimentary rocks (especially from Moravo-Silesian Paleozoic deposits/Drahany Culm unit). The transport direction in the basin was more complex, both from the west and east. These results did not confirm the possibility of communication between the Boskovice Basin and the Zöbing area during the Late Paleozoic. The existence of “colinear” marginally offset half grabens with predominant transversal sources is here hypothesized. The general heavy mineral evolution in time does not indicate the successive exhumation of a simple structured orogen but may be interpreted as differences in the extent of the source areas.
  • Vertical zonality of fractionated granite plutons reflected in zircon chemistry: the Cinovec A-type versus the Beauvoir S-type suite

    Abstract: We studied vertical changes in the chemical composition of zircon from two contrasting Variscan granite systems. The Beauvoir system (Massif Central, France) composed of three successive intrusions (B1, B2, B3) represents typical peraluminous S-type granite extremely enriched in P, F, Li, Rb, Cs, Be, Sn, Nb, Ta, and poor in Zr, Th, REE and Y. The Cinovec system (Krusne hory Mts/Erzgebirge, Czech Republic/Germany) composed of two successive intrusions (protolithionite granite, zinnwaldite granite) is only slightly peraluminous, P-poor, F, Li, Rb, Cs, U, Th, REE, Y, Sc, Sn, W, Nb, Ta-rich granite, which may be classified as A-type. In both localities, the most fractionated intrusions are located on the top of the system. Samples from borehole GPF-1 (Beauvoir) represent an 800 m long vertical section through the entire granite stock, while CS-1 borehole (Cinovec) reached a depth of 1600 m. Chemical compositions of zircons from both granite systems show distinct vertical zonality, but their shape and elemental speciation is highly contrasting. At Beauvoir, zircon shows a remarkable increase in Hf-content from 2–4 wt. % HfO2 (~0.03 apfu Hf) in the deepest B3-unit to 15–19 wt. % HfO2 (up to 0.18 apfu Hf) in the uppermost B1-unit. The highest contents of F, P, and U were detected in the intermediate unit B2 at a depth of 400–600 m. At Cinovec, Hf shows only moderate enrichment from ca. 2 wt. % HfO2 in the deeper protolithionite granite to 5–10 wt. % HfO2 in the uppermost part of the zinnwaldite granite. High contents of Th (3–8 wt. % ThO2) are entirely bound in the uppermost section of the granite copula to a depth of 200 m, but below this level the contents only sporadically exceed 1 wt. % ThO2. Concentrations of U, Y, HREE, Sc and Bi also reach their highest values in the uppermost parts of the zinnwaldite granite, but their decrease downward is much gentler. Extreme enrichment of outer zones of zircon crystals from some granites with Hf or high contents of Th, U, REE, Y, Nb and of some other elements in zircons from other localities is not considered to be a specific phenomenon characterizing melts of A- or S-type granite, but reflects a high degree of fractionation of systems rich in Na and F.
  • New geochemical data on fossil wood from the Albian of the Dolomites (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Abstract: Information is provided about organic-matter bearing sediments and fossil drift-wood from the Puez area (Col de Puez, Southern Alps) near Wolkenstein (S. Tyrol, Italy). The locality is located on the Trento Plateau which represents a submarine high during the Lower Cretaceous. Its terpenoid hydrocarbon composition indicates that the wood fragment derived from a conifer belonging to the family Podocarpaceae or Araucariaceae. Intense degradation of OM argues for lengthier drifting. Long-term drifting is also indicated by the infestation of the bivalve Teredo (“shipworm”). The finding of a fossil tree trunk sheds some light on the early Lower Cretaceous tectonic history of the Trento Plateau and the Dolomites.
  • Reworked nannofossils from the Lower Miocene deposits in the Magura Nappe (Outer Western Carpathians, Poland)

    Abstract: Studies, based on calcareous nannofossils, proved that the level of reworked microfossils had so far been underestimated. More recently detailed quantitative studies of calcareous nannoplankton of the Magura, Malcov, Zawada and Kremna formations from the Magura Nappe in Poland documented a degree of nannofossil recycling among those formations. In the Late Eocene–Early Oligocene pelagic Leluchów Marl Member of the Malcov Formation the level of redeposition is very low (0–3.80 %), however, in the flysch deposits of the Malcov Formation reworking increased to 31.4 %. Late Oligocene through Early Miocene “molasse” type deposits of the Zawada and Kremna formations contain 43.7–69.0 % of reworked nannofossils. Quantitative analyses of the reworked assemblages confirmed the domination of Paleogene nannofossil species over Cretaceous ones. The most abundant, reworked assemblages belong to the Early–Middle Eocene age.
  • Chronological implications of the paleomagnetic record of the Late Cenozoic volcanic activity along the Moravia-Silesia border (NE Bohemian Massif)

    Abstract: This paper presents the results of a paleomagnetic study carried out on Plio-Pleistocene Cenozoic basalts from the NE part of the Bohemian Massif. Paleomagnetic data were supplemented by 27 newly obtained K/Ar age determinations. Lavas and volcaniclastics from 6 volcanoes were sampled. The declination and inclination values of paleomagnetic vectors vary in the ranges of 130 to 174 and –85 to –68° for reversed polarity (Pleistocene); or 345 to 350° and around 62° for normal polarity (Pliocene). Volcanological evaluation and compilation of older geophysical data from field survey served as the basis for the interpretation of these results. The Pleistocene volcanic stage consists of two volcanic phases, fairly closely spaced in time. Four volcanoes constitute the Bruntal Volcanic Field; two others are located 20 km to the E and 65 km to the NW, respectively. The volcanoes are defined as monogenetic ones, producing scoria cones and lavas. Exceptionally, the largest volcano shows a possibility of remobilization during the youngest volcanic phase, suggested by paleomagnetic properties. The oldest one (4.3–3.3 Ma), Bridlicna Volcano, was simultaneously active with the Lutynia Volcano (Poland) which produced the Zalesi lava relic (normal polarity). Three other volcanoes of the volcanic field are younger and reversely polarized. The Velky Roudny Volcano was active during the Gelasian (2.6–2.1 Ma) and possibly could have been reactivated during the youngest (Calabrian, 1.8–1.1 Ma) phase which gave birth to the Venusina sopka and Uhlirsky vrch volcanoes. The reliability of all available K-Ar data was evaluated using a multidisciplinary approach.