Hydrothermal-to-metasomatic overprint of the neovolcanic rocks evidenced by composite apatite crystals: a case study from the Maglovec Hill, Slanské vrchy Mountains, Slovakia
Abstract: The apatite assemblage from Maglovec hill (Slanské vrchy Mountains near the city of Prešov) from fissures of hydrothermally altered neovolcanic rocks (andesites and related lithologies) was studied. The assemblage consists of two different morphological apatite types (apatite in cores of prismatic crystals and fibrous apatite mantling these cores). The assemblage was investigated by a multi-analytical approach to reveal its unique chemical composition and structure. Both types of apatite display zoning visible in back-scattered electron (BSE) images. Core apatite is relatively homogenous with porous rims appearing darker in the BSE images at the contact with fibrous apatite, and occasionally with darker regions along fractures. These parts are depleted in trace elements, mostly in LREE. Fibrous apatites display concentric and/or patchy zoning. Dark regions in fibrous apatite occasionally display a porous structure. In part of fibrous crystals, substitution of (CO3)2− for phosphorus is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy by the presence of a band at ~ 1071 cm−1. This method also confirmed the presence of OH in different populations in the structure of all apatite types. The three most important observed peaks are caused by vibrations of hydroxyls influenced by different adjacent anions: hydroxyl (band at ~ 3575 cm−1); fluorine (band at ~ 3535–3540 cm−1); chlorine (band at ~ 3494 cm−1). In REE‑depleted parts of both apatite types, fine inclusions of monazite and rarely Th-rich silicate are observed. The acquired data suggest a hydrothermal origin of this assemblage and indicate a formation sequence of distinct apatite types. Moreover, minerals from the epidote group were identified, which have not been described from this locality before as well as vanadium-rich magnetites that form exsolution lamellae in ilmenite grains.
Petrology and dating of the Permian lamprophyres from the Malá Fatra Mts. (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)
Abstract: Calc–alkaline lamprophyres are known from several localities in the Malá Fatra Mountains. They form dykes (0.5–3 m) of varying degree of alteration that have intruded the surrounding granitoid rocks which are often incorporated xenoliths. Clinopyroxenes (diopside to augite), amphiboles (kaersutitic), biotites (annite) and plagioclases are major primary minerals of the dykes, accessory minerals include apatite, ilmenite, rutile, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite. Apatite has a relatively low F, but increased Cl content compared to typical apatite from lamprophyres or magmatic apatite from granitic rocks in the Western Carpathians. The chemical composition of the lamprophyres indicates their calc–alkaline character, but affinity to alkaline lamprophyres is suggested by the Ti enrichment in clinopyroxene, amphibole and biotite. According to modal classification of the minerals, the studied rocks correspond to spessartite. The differences in the chemical composition of the rocks (including Sr and Nd isotopes) probably result from the contamination of primary magma by crustal material during magma ascent. The age of the lamprophyres, based on U/Pb dating in apatite, is 263.4 ± 2.6 Ma.
Miocene fan delta conglomerates in the north-western part of the Danube Basin: provenance, paleoenvironment, paleotransport and depositional mechanisms
Abstract: The Blatné Depression located in the NW part of the Danube Basin represents the northernmost sub-basins of the Pannonian Basin System. Its subsidence is associated with oblique collision of the Central Western Carpathians with the European platform, followed by the back-arc basin rifting stage in the Pannonian domain. The conglomerates recognized in the Cífer-2 well document the latest Burdigalian–early Langhian deposition in fan delta lobes situated above the footwall and hanging wall of a WSW–ENE trending fault system, the activity of which preceded the opening of the late Langhian–Serravallian accommodation space with a NE–SW direction. The provenance area of the “Cífer conglomerate” was linked to the Tatric Super-unit complexes. Similar rocks crop out in the southern part of the Malé Karpaty Mts. and are also present in the pre-Cenozoic basement of the Danube Basin. Documented extensive erosion of the crystalline basement and its sedimentary cover lasted until the early/middle Miocene boundary. The “Cífer conglomerate” has distinct clast composition. The basal part consists of poorly sorted conglomerate with sub-angular clasts of metamorphic rocks. Toward the overlying strata, the clasts consist of poorly sorted conglomerates with sub-rounded to well-rounded carbonates and granitoids. The uppermost part consists of poorly sorted conglomerates with sub-rounded to rounded clasts of carbonate, granitoid and metamorphic rock. Within the studied samples a transition from clast to matrix supported conglomerates was observed.
Accessory minerals and evolution of tin-bearing S-type granites in the western segment of the Gemeric Unit (Western Carpathians)
Abstract: The S-type accessory mineral assemblage of zircon, monazite-(Ce), fluorapatite and tourmaline in the cupolas of Permian granites of the Gemeric Unit underwent compositional changes and increased variability and volume due to intensive volatile flux. The extended S-type accessory mineral assemblage in the apical parts of the granite resulted in the formation of rare-metal granites from in-situ differentiation and includes abundant tourmaline, zircon, fluorapatite, monazite-(Ce), Nb–Ta–W minerals (Nb–Ta rutile, ferrocolumbite, manganocolumbite, ixiolite, Nb–Ta ferberite, hübnerite), cassiterite, topaz, molybdenite, arsenopyrite and aluminophosphates. The rare-metal granites from cupolas in the western segment of the Gemeric Unit represent the topaz–zinnwaldite granites, albitites and greisens. Zircon in these evolved rare-metal Li–F granite cupolas shows a larger xenotime-(Y) component and heterogeneous morphology compared to zircons from deeper porphyritic biotite granites. The zircon Zr/Hfwt ratio in deeper rooted porphyritic granite varies from 29 to 45, where in the differentiated upper granites an increase in Hf content results in a Zr/Hfwt ratio of 5. The cheralite component in monazite from porphyritic granites usually does not exceed 12 mol. %, however, highly evolved upper rare-metal granites have monazites with 14 to 20 mol. % and sometimes > 40 mol. % of cheralite. In granite cupolas, pure secondary fluorapatite is generated by exsolution of P from P-rich alkali feldspar and high P and F contents may stabilize aluminophosphates. The biotite granites contain scattered schorlitic tourmaline, while textural late-magmatic tourmaline is more alkali deficient with lower Ca content. The differentiated granites contain also nodular and dendritic tourmaline aggregations. The product of crystallization of volatile-enriched granite cupolas are not only variable in their accessory mineral assemblage that captures high field strength elements, but also in numerous veins in country rocks that often contain cassiterite and tourmaline. Volatile flux is documented by the tetrad effect via patterns of chondrite normalized REEs (T1,3 value 1.46). In situ differentiation and tectonic activity caused multiple intrusive events of fluid-rich magmas rich in incompatible elements, resulting in the formation of rare-metal phases in granite roofs. The emplacement of volatile-enriched magmas into upper crustal conditions was followed by deeper rooted porphyritic magma portion undergoing second boiling and re-melting to form porphyritic granite or granite-porphyry during its ascent.
Integrated stratigraphy of the Upper Barremian–Aptian sediments from the south-eastern Crimea
Abstract: Previous studies made in different parts of the world have shown that Barremian–Aptian times imply many difficulties in deciphering the biostratigraphy, microfossil evolution and correlation of bioevents. In an attempt to improve our knowledge of this period in a particular area of the Tethyan realm, we present the first integrated study of microbiota (including planktonic foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils, ostracods and palynomorphs) and magnetostratigraphy of the upper Barremian–Aptian sediments from south-eastern Crimea. The nannofossils display the classical Tethyan chain of bioevents in this interval, while the planktonic foraminifera demonstrate an incomplete succession of stratigraphically important taxa. Our study enabled the recognition of a series of biostratigraphic units by means of four groups of microfossils correlated to polarity chrons. The detailed analysis of the microfossil distribution led to a biostratigraphic characterization of the Barremian/Aptian transition and brought to light an interval, which may correspond to the OAE1a.