Clay mineralogy of the Paleozoic-Lower Mesozoic sedimentary sequence from the northern part of the Arabian Platform, Hazro (Diyarbakir, Southeast Anatolia)
Abstract: The Paleozoic–Lower Mesozoic units in the Diyarbakir-Hazro region consist of sandstone (subarkose, quartz arenite), mudstone, shale, coal, marl, dolomitic marl, limestone (biomicrite, lithobiosparite, biosparite with lithoclast, dololithobiosparite, dolomitic cherty sparite) and dolomite (dolosparite, dolosparite with lithoclast, biodolosparite with glauconite). These units exhibit no slaty cleavage although they are oriented parallel to bedding planes. The sedimentary rocks contain mainly calcite, dolomite, quartz, feldspar, goethite and phyllosilicates (kaolinite, illite–smectite (I–S), illite and glauconite) associated with small amounts of gypsum, jarosite, hematite and gibbsite. The amounts of quartz and feldspar in the Silurian-Devonian units and of dolomite in the Permian-Triassic units increase. Kaolinite is more commonly observed in the Silurian-Devonian and Permian units, whereas illite and I–S are found mostly in the Middle Devonian and Triassic units. Vertical distributions of clay minerals depend on lithological differences rather than diagenetic/metamorphic grade. Authigenetic kaolinites as pseudo-hexagonal bouquets and glauconite and I–S as fine-grained flakes or filaments are more abundantly present in the levels of clastic and carbonate rocks. Illite quantities in R3 and R1 I–S vary between 80 and 95 %. 2M1+1Md illites/I–S are characterized by moderate b cell values (9.005–9.040, mean 9.020 Å), whereas glauconites have higher values in the range of 9.054–9.072, mean 9.066 Å. KI values of illites (0.72–1.56, mean 1.03 Δ2θ°) show no an important vertical difference. Inorganic (mineral assemblages, KI, polytype) and organic maturation (vitrinite reflection) parameters in the Paleozoic-Triassic units agree with each others in majority that show high-grade diagenesis and catagenesis (light petroleum-wet gas hydrocarbon zone), respectively. The Paleozoic-Triassic sequence in this region was deposited in the environment of a passive continental margin and entirely resembles the Eastern Taurus Para-Autochthon Unit (Geyikdagi Unit) in respect of lithology and diagenetic grade.
Dasycladalean green algae and some problematic algae from the Upper Triassic of the Nayband Formation (northeast Iran)
Abstract: This paper describes the dasycladales green algae from two sections of the Rhaetian Howz-e Khan Member of the Nayband Formation, northwest of the Dig-e Rostam motorway service area (south of the type locality of the Formation near the town Naybandan). Both sections are composed of bedded fine-grained limestones containing partly abundant dasycladales algae associated with foraminifers, which are mainly aulotortid types. Additionally scattered samples were collected from several beds of the Howz-e Khan Member in this area. The following dasycladalean taxa are described: Chinianella carpatica (Bystricky), Griphoporella curvata (Gümbel), Griphoporella lutensis nov. sp., some undetermined dasycladacean taxa, problematic algae like Lithocodium aggregatum Elliott, Bacinella irregularis Radoicic, and Thaumatoporella parvovesiculifera (Raineri). While Chinianella carpatica is not numerous and the other described algae are rare, Griphoporella curvata is extremely abundant in the investigated material. This paper describes Ch. carpatica for the first time from the Triassic of Iran and also includes a discussion of the strong variability of G. curvata. Additionally we include an informal description of a problematic fossil (animal: shell fragment?; plant: alga?).
Late Miocene and Pliocene history of the Danube Basin: inferred from development of depositional systems and timing of sedimentary facies changes
Abstract: The development of the northern Danube Basin (nDB) was closely related to the Late Miocene geodynamic evolution of the Pannonian Basin System. It started with a wide rifting which led to subsidence of several basin depocenters which were gradually filled during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene. In the Late Pliocene the subsidence continued only in the basin’s central part, while the northern marginal zone suffered inversion and the uplifted sedimentary fill began to be eroded. Individual stages of the basin development are well recorded in its sedimentary succession, where at least three great tectono-sedimentary cycles were documented. Firstly, a lacustrine cycle containing Lower, Middle and lowermost Upper Pannonian sediments (A–F Zones; sensu Papp 1951) deposited in the time span 11.6–8.9 Ma and is represented in the nDB in Slovakia by the Ivanka and Beladice Formations. In the Danube Basin of the southern part in Hungary, where the formations are defined by the appearance of sedimentary facies in time and space, the equivalents are: (1) the deep-water setting marls, clays and sandy turbidites of the Endrod and Szolnok Formations leading to the overlying strata deposits of the basin paleoslope or delta-slope represented by the Algyo Formation, and (2) the final shallow-water setting deposits of marshes, lagoons and a coastal and delta plain composed of clays, sands and coal seams, represented by the Ujfalu Formation. The second tectono-sedimentary cycle was deposited in an alluvial environment and it comprises the Upper Pannonian (G and H Zones; sensu Papp 1951) and Lower Pliocene sediments dated 8.9–4.1? Ma. The cycle is represented in the nDB, by the Volkovce Formation and in the southern part by the Zagyva Formation in Hungary. The sedimentary environment is characterized by a wide range of facies from fluvial, deltaic and ephemeral lake to marshes. The third tectono-sedimentary cycle comprises the Upper Pliocene sediments. In Slovakia these are represented by the Kolarovo Formation dated 4.1–2.6 Ma. The formation contains material of weathering crust preserved in fissures of Mesozoic carbonates, diluvial deposits and sediments of the alluvial environment.
Shallow-seated controls on the evolution of the Upper Pliocene Kopasz-hegy nested monogenetic volcanic chain in the Western Pannonian Basin (Hungary)
Abstract: Monogenetic, nested volcanic complexes (e.g. Tihany) are common landforms in the Bakony–Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (BBHVF, Hungary), which was active during the Late Miocene up to the Early Pleistocene. These types of monogenetic volcanoes are usually evolved in a slightly different way than their “simple” counterparts. The Kopasz-hegy Volcanic Complex (KVC) is inferred to be a vent complex, which evolved in a relatively complex way as compared to a classical “sensu stricto” monogenetic volcano. The KVC is located in the central part of the BBHVF and is one of the youngest (2.8–2.5 Ma) volcanic erosion remnants of the field. In this study, we carried out volcanic facies analysis of the eruptive products of the KVC in order to determine the possible role of changing magma fragmentation styles and/or vent migration responsible for the formation of this volcano. The evolution of the KVC started with interaction of water-saturated Late Miocene (Pannonian) mud, sand, sandstone with rising basaltic magma triggering phreatomagmatic explosive maar-diatreme forming eruptions. These explosive eruptions in the northern part of the volcanic complex took place in a N–S aligned paleovalley. As groundwater supply was depleted during volcanic activity the eruption style became dominated by more magmatic explosive-fragmentation leading to the formation of a mostly spatter-dominated scoria cone that is capping the basal maar-diatreme deposits. Subsequent vent migration along a few hundred meters long fissure still within the paleovalley caused the opening of the younger phreatomagmatic southern vent adjacent to the already established northern maar. This paper describes how change in eruption styles together with lateral migration of the volcanism forms an amalgamated vent complex.
Quaternary post-collision alkaline volcanism NW of Ahar (NW Iran): geochemical constraints of fractional crystallization process
Abstract: Major and trace elements and Sr–Nd isotopic data are presented for the Quaternary alkaline volcanism NW of Ahar (NW Iran). The exposed rocks mainly consist of alkali basalts, trachybasalts, basaltic trachyandesites and trachyandesites. Alkali basalts and trachybasalts display microlithic porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase in microlithic groundmass. In the more evolved rocks (basaltic trachyandesites and trachyandesites), amphibole and biotite have appeared. Major and trace element abundances vary along continuous trends of decreasing MgO, TiO2, Fe2O3*, CaO, Co, Cr, V and Zn, and increasing K2O, Al2O3, Ba and Th with increasing SiO2. The Sr and Nd isotopic ratios vary from 0.704463 to 0.704921 and from 0.512649 to 0.512774, respectively. Alkali basalts with high 143Nd/144Nd ratio, low 87Sr/86Sr ratio and high MgO, Ni and Cr contents indicate that they were generated from relatively primitive magmas. Ba, Cr and La/Sm ratios versus Rb suggest that fractional crystallization of alkali basalts could have played a significant role in the formation of evolved rocks. Assimilation and fractional crystallization modelling, as well as Rb/Zr, Th/Yb and Ta/Yb ratios clearly indicate that crustal contamination accompanied by the fractional crystallization played an important role in petrogenesis of the trachyandesites. The small compositional differences between magma types, isotopic composition, mineralogy and nonlinear trends on Harker diagrams also indicate that magma mixing was not an essential process in the evolution of the Ahar magmas. Petrogenetic modelling has been used to constrain sources. Trace element ratio plots and REE modelling indicate that the alkali basalts were generated from a spinel-peridotite source via small degrees (~2.5%) of fractional melting.
Late Quaternary fault activity in the Western Carpathians: evidence from the Vikartovce Fault (Slovakia)
Abstract: The Cenozoic structure of the Western Carpathians is strongly controlled by faults. The E-W striking Vikartovce fault is one of the most distinctive dislocations in the region, evident by its geological structure and terrain morphology. This feature has been assumed to be a Quaternary reactivated fault according to many attributes such as its perfect linearity, faceted slopes, the distribution of travertines along the fault, and also its apparent prominent influence on the drainage network. The neotectonic character of the fault is documented herein by morphotectonic studies, longitudinal and transverse valley profile analyses, terrace system analysis, and mountain front sinuosity. Late Pleistocene activity of the Vikartovce fault is now proven by luminescence dating of fault-cut and uplifted alluvial sediments, presently located on the crest of the tilted block. These sediments must slightly pre-date the age of river redirection. Considering the results of both luminescence dating and palynological analyses, the change of river course probably occurred during the final phase of the Riss Glaciation (135±14 ka). The normal displacement along the fault during the Late Quaternary has been estimated to about 105–135 m, resulting in an average slip rate of at least 0.8–1.0 mm•yr–1. The present results identify the Vikartovce fault as one of the youngest active faults in the Central Western Carpathians.
Mogharaeceras priscum (Douville, 1916) a peculiar Barremian ammonite (Desmoceratoidea, Barremitinae) from Northern Sinai (Egypt)
Abstract: The type material of the poorly known and monotypic genus Mogharaeceras is revised. Relationship with Pulchelliidae, Engonoceratidae and Barremitinae are discussed. All the available evidence suggests that Mogharaeceras is an offshoot of Barremitites and that it should be classified in the Barremitinae. New material from Egypt allows us to establish the Late Barremian age of this taxon.