GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, OCTOBER 2010, 61, 5, 437—447 doi: 10.2478/v10096-010-0026-z
The Western Carpathians are characterized by a complicat-
ed, fragmented crustal structure which was formed during
the Hercynian, Paleo- and Neo-Alpine orogenic stages. This
inhomogeneity of the crustal structure is the main source of
complicated features of the magnetic field (Fig. 1). Recent
works from geology (Fusán et al. 1987; Biely et al. 1996;
Plašienka et al. 1997; Bezák et al. 2008) and geophysics
(Bielik 1995, 1998; Vozár et al. 1999, 2003; Kubeš et al.
2001; Bielik et al. 2006), are helpful for explanation of the
deep sources of magnetic anomalies in the new magnetic
map of Slovakia (Kubeš et al. 2008).
The beginning of regional geomagnetic measurements
within the area of the Slovak Republic is dated to the end of
the 1950s and beginning of the 1960s. The first results were
obtained by measuring the vertical component of the mag-
netic field in the Východoslovenská nížina Lowland (Man
1961) and in the Podunajská nížina Lowland (Man 1962). A
synoptic airborne mapping of former Czechoslovakia (the
scale 1 : 200,000, magnetic and radiometric measurements,
2 km flight-line spacing, permalloy detector) was carried out
almost at the same time (1957—1960). In the framework of
the above-mentioned mapping, the area of Slovakia was
measured, though without regions where the Neogene volca-
nic rocks are found. These were omitted with the remark
“heavily disturbed magnetic field”. The results of this map-
ping are contained in the pack of the aeromagnetic maps
1 : 200,000 (Mašín 1963).
Magnetic field of the Western Carpathians (Slovakia):
reflections on the structure of the crust
, VLADIMÍR BEZÁK
, UDOVÍT KUCHARIČ
, MIROSLAV FILO
, VLASTIMIL KONEČNÝ
, MILAN KOHÚT
and AUGUSTÍN GLUCH
State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; firstname.lastname@example.org
Geophysical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 28 Bratislava, Slovak Republic;
Geological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 840 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; email@example.com
(Manuscript received February 16, 2010; accepted in revised form June 10, 2010)
Abstract: A new digital magnetic map of Slovakia on the scale of 1 : 200,000 and 1 : 500,000 was compiled at the end of
2008 as the output of database magnetic objects from the whole territory of Slovakia at a scale of 1 : 50,000. The variable
geological structure of the West Carpathian crust is depicted in the equally variable magnetic field of this region. A
sizable number of magnetic anomalies with manifold character have been recognized. The basic anomalies distribution
was divided into two groups: anomalies connected with rocks of the pre-Neogene basement and anomalies which origi-
nate in Neogene and Quaternary volcanic products. Most of the significant anomalies in the pre-Neogene basement
were interpreted, modelled and consequently its geological and tectonic classification was worked out. On the basis of
the anomalous field features, the following sources of anomalies have been distinguished: a) known, located on the
surface, or at shallow depths verified by boreholes, mainly expressed by simple morphology, b) deep-seated and ex-
pressed by complicated morphology, reinterpreted or newly interpreted and also problematic. According to our present
knowledge the interpretations are insufficient and remain open for further investigation. The above mentioned sources
of magnetic anomalies are classified in terms of tectonic provenience to the main tectonic units.
Key words: Slovakia, magnetic field, magnetic map, geological and tectonic interpretation.
A systematic detailed airborne mapping of the Slovak Re-
public 1 : 25,000 (250 m flight-line spacing; 1 second sam-
pling frequency) was initiated in 1974, with simultaneous
application of the airborne proton magnetometry and gamma-
ray spectrometry. The all crystalline cores were covered by
this mapping to the end of 1983 (Malé Karpaty Mts, Považský
Inovec Mts, Tribeč Mts, Strážovské vrchy Hills, Malá Fatra
Mts, Slovenské Rudohorie Mts, Branisko and Čierna hora
Mts) including interjacent depressions. These measurements
also included the all Neogene volcanic mountains (Central
Slovak area, Slanské vrchy Mts and Vihorlat Mts) as well as
parts of the Inner Carpathian Paleogene (Skorušinské vrchy
Hills, Chočské vrchy Hills, Šarišská vrchovina Highlands)
and the basins situated in the South of Slovakia (Lučenecká
kotlina, Rimavská kotlina and Košická kotlina basins). A sig-
nificant part of the Levočské vrchy Hills was covered in the
years 1991—1992. This technology was applied to a total area
of 26,160 km
(Gnojek & Janák 1986).
The high quality results from the areal measurements of the
vertical (Z) component in the Východoslovenská nížina Low-
land and Podunajská nížina Lowland have been recalculated
in T (the total vector of the magnetic field) and incorporated
into the data set from the airborne proton magnetometry. This
produced a database of T anomalies covering about 70 % of
the territory of Slovakia. Many of the registered anomalies
have been interpreted by Gnojek in Vozár et al. (1999).
The rest of the territory mainly the high-elevation areas
(Ve ká Fatra Mts, Vysoké Tatry Mts, Nízke Tatry Mts) and
the Flysch of the Eastern part of Slovakia were measured by
KUBEŠ, BEZÁK, KUCHARIČ, FILO, VOZÁR, KONEČNÝ, KOHÚT and GLUCH
MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE WESTERN CARPATHIANS (SLOVAKIA)
ground application of the proton magnetometry with the
density of 1—3 points/km
(Kubeš et al. 2008). This produced
a comprehensive database of magnetic anomalies T, which is
the basis for the new magnetic map of the Slovak Republic.
Many anomalies recognized by airborne measurements
have been verified by the ground survey. The interpretation
of younger magnetic rocks (Neogene and Quaternary) is fur-
ther complicated by the abundance of normal and reverse
magnetic polarization. All the measurements were reduced
to the normal magnetic field (IGRF 1995 – International
Geomagnetic Reference Field).
The density of the measurements is sufficient for construc-
tion of a map with a scale of 1 : 50,000. Every difference in
the magnetic field above 15 nT can be considered as anoma-
lous and should be explained by a geological reason. Most of
the measured magnetic anomalies were interpreted in detail
in separate publications (Kubeš et al. 2002; Filo et al. 2003;
Bezák et al. 2004b; Kubeš & Kucharič 2005).
The interpretations of subsurface anomalies in this work
are almost without changes, but some new possibilities of in-
terpretation are indicated in the group of deep seated sources
of anomalies. A classification of anomaly sources has been
done in concordance with a new Tectonic map of the Slovak
Republic (Bezák et al. 2004a).
The newest investigation utilizing the magnetic database
(Kubeš et al. 2001) was carried out by Rozimant et al. (2009)
in which the relation between Curie point and the depth of
the magnetic crust in Slovakia was studied.
Modelling of the anomaly sources was done by the meth-
odology of Talwani & Heirtzler (1964) and geophysical soft-
ware Oasis Montaj.
The interpretation of the thickness of volcanic complexes
is based on geological knowledge about the horizontal and
subhorizontal bedding of lower margin magnetic active
rocks deposited on environments with non-magnetic or
slightly magnetic content. The relation between geological
objects, relief of the field and magnetic field changes in the
three altitude levels (80 m, 500 m and 2000 m) indicates that
a magnetically active volcanic complex with a thickness of
100 m invokes at a height of 500 meters an anomaly with an
amplitude of about 40 nT. In other words, a magnetic anom-
aly with a magnitude of 100 nT at an altitude of 500 m above
the terrain represents a volcanic complex with a thickness of
200 m, a value of 200 nT, means a thickness of 500 m, and
finally a value of 400 nT indicates a thickness of almost
1000 m. The thickness of the volcanic complex from the
Slanské vrchy Hills, and Vihorlat Mts was interpreted simi-
larly (Beneš 1971). In this case it was ascertained, that a vol-
canic complex with a thickness of 100 m recalls, at the
altitude of 300 m an anomalous effect of 70 nT, a thickness
of about 500 m causes an anomaly of about 350 nT and a
thickness of almost 1000 m is depicted by an anomaly of
about 700 nT. The interpretation of the thickness of volcanic
complexes is given in the Atlas of geophysical maps and
profiles (Kubeš et al. 2001).
Magnetic properties of minerals and rocks
The intensity of the magnetic properties of rocks depends
directly on magnetic minerals, the (ferrimagnetic) content of
magnetic minerals and on concentration within the rock vol-
ume as well. These are magnetite, ulvöspinel, maghemite, il-
menite and pyrrhotite. On the other hand, ulvöspinel,
ilmenite and hematite are common examples of antiferri-
magnetism and therefore the resultant magnetic susceptibility
is not so impressive, due to internal magnetic structure.
Bulk magnetic susceptibility ( – KAPPA) is the main
parameter for rocks distinguishing from the magnetic point
of view and according to this, magnetic rocks within Slova-
kia can be separated into the following groups:
• Practically non-magnetic – less than 300*10
• Very slightly magnetic – = 300—1000*10
units of SI;
• Slightly magnetic – = 1000—10,000*10
units of SI;
• Magnetic – = 10,000—50,000*10
units of SI;
• Strongly magnetic – above 50,000*10
units of SI.
A voluminous magnetic properties study has been carried
out on samples collected from natural and artificial outcrops
and selected boreholes, as well. The magnitudes of magnetic
susceptibility and remanent magnetic polarization (RMP)
were assessed. Magnetic properties are given in the Table 1,
according to data given by Husák & Stránska (1980), Grecu-
la & Kucharič et al. (1985, 1992) and Gregorová et al.
(2003). Variability in the parameters under study is obvious
(this is the typical feature of magnetic rocks) and therefore
the significance of average values is only on the informative
The variability in the presented results of the magnetic
properties is mainly influenced by the following factors:
a) concentration and type of magnetic minerals;
b) magnetic properties of individual minerals;
c) type of magnetic mineral distribution in the rocks;
d) type and intensity of metamorphoses and tectonic ac-
e) weathering processes.
As we have mentioned earlier, the values presented in Ta-
ble 1 are very roughly informative. Especially class of meta-
morphosed rocks is greatly variegated depending on the type
of metamorphic processes.
On the basis of the data obtained, we can state that the
group with practically no magnetic rocks includes the Qua-
ternary sediments, Neogene sediments without volcanic frac-
tion, sediments of the Flysch Belt and Paleogene units and
almost the whole filling of the Mesozoic. The group of
slightly magnetic rocks comprises fine-grained volcaniclas-
tics, several types of slates, and metamorphites from the low-
er part of green schist facies, acid Permian volcanics and
most of the granites. The group of moderate magnetic rocks
is represented by medium-grained Neogene volcaniclastics,
intermediate Permian volcanics, amphibolites and some
types of mica schists, gneisses and granitoids. Coarse-
grained volcaniclastics, breccias, and unfaulted products of
andesite volcanism, paleobasalts, ultramafic bodies from the
Meliaticum and Ochtiná tectonic unit and Rochovce granite
are assigned to the group of strongly magnetic rocks.
KUBEŠ, BEZÁK, KUCHARIČ, FILO, VOZÁR, KONEČNÝ, KOHÚT and GLUCH
In spite of remarkable variability in their magnetic proper-
ties, the basic knowledge of volcanic rocks about direct de-
pendency between basicity and magnetic properties is valid.
Moreover magnetic parameters can be extremely diminished
in the central parts of Neogene volcanic zones where the sec-
ondary alteration (propylitization, adularization, silicifica-
tion) was recognized. In this regard originally magnetic rock
may be inverted completely into a non-magnetic medium.
Granitoids belong to special group, because for a long pe-
riod they were considered as a non-magnetic medium within
the territory of Slovakia. Verification of the Rochovce mag-
netic anomaly, by a deep borehole, ascertained the occur-
rence of magnetic granite of the Cretaceous age.
Since then we have learned that magnetic anomalies can
also be created by tonalites, as well as by the special types of
granites with mafic enclaves. Our contribution does not dis-
cuss the event of secondary magnetite creation in the pro-
cesses of mechanical deformation and repetitive alterations,
which are responsible for increase of magnetic properties
(Grant et al. 1985). Clarification of these factors requires ad-
Table 1: Magnetic properties of rocks.
ditional investigation. Some works have appeared regarding
magnetic anisotropy study connected with tectonic-meta-
morphic events in the Veporicum (Hrouda et al. 2002).
Similarly, the group of metamorphosed rocks – mica
schists, para- and ortho-gneisess mainly provide an extremely
large range of bulk magnetic susceptibility and therefore are
almost impossible to rank into one uniform category.
A review of the main magnetic complexes and their
The values for the intensity of magnetic field in Slovakia
occupy a very wide interval extending from —1000 to
+1100 nT, and thus produce variable types of magnetic
anomalies depending on volume, shape, depth and magnetic
properties of disturbing bodies.
Even a first view of the magnetic map (Fig. 1) shows, that
a completely different magnetic field was recognized above
areas, where Neogene and Quaternary volcanics occur.
KAPPA . 10
min max X
min max X
Quartz porphyrs, porphyroids
Granodiorites and tonalites
Mica-schists, Kohút zone, South Veporicum unit
Mica-schists, North Veporicum and Tatricum units
Amphibolites and other mafic rocks
Dark phyllites (Paleozoic)
Variegated shales (Mesozoic)
Sandy shales (Mezozoic)
Pyrox. andesites pyroklastics
Alkalic bazaltes, bazanites
Quartz diorite (propylitized.)
MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE WESTERN CARPATHIANS (SLOVAKIA)
volcanic field. Contours of magnetic anomalies in pre-Neogene u
nits: solid line – surface and subsurface anomalies; dash line
– deep-seated sources, numbers indicate depth of upper edge of
KUBEŠ, BEZÁK, KUCHARIČ, FILO, VOZÁR, KONEČNÝ, KOHÚT and GLUCH
These areas are depicted on the Fig. 2. Magnetic field is very
variegated from both the morphological and polarity changes
points of views. In spite of the very impressive features, the
sources of the field are typically superficial – in the Central
Slovak volcanic area. Deeper-seated volcanites, which create
extensive anomalies in the Podunajská nížina Lowland
(Gnojek & Kubeš 1991) and the Východoslovenská nížina
Lowland (Gnojek et al. 1991), possess a smoother character
of measured field and lower values as well.
The Western Carpathians are fundamentally structured in
the sense of the Tectonic map of Slovakia (Bezák et al. 2004a)
into Outer and Inner parts. The Outer Carpathians are com-
posed of the accretion prism of Flysch Belt nappes, which are
overthrusted onto the European Platform. The NW and N mar-
ginal part of Slovak territory contains anomalies caused by the
effect of deep-seated Proterozoic rock complexes of the Euro-
pean Platform (Brunia), beneath the Flysch Belt.
The Inner Western Carpathians are created by three main
Paleo-Alpine crustal units (Tatricum, Veporicum and Ge-
mericum) and the superficial nappe systems of the Fatricum,
Hronicum, Meliaticum, Turnaicum and Silicicum (Fig. 2).
The crustal units contain fragments of Hercynian tectonic
units. These tectonic units contain basic magmatic complex-
es, which are the sources of magnetic anomalies. There are
basic volcanites in Mesozoic complexes of the Meliaticum
and Upper Paleozoic complexes in the Hronicum and
Ochtiná Unit (Vozárová & Vozár 1988). The Early Paleozoic
primarily Hercynian tectonic units in the Gemericum also
contain basic—ultrabasic volcanics (Rakovec, Klátov and
Gelnica tectonic units). All these complexes are depicted on
regional geological maps 1 : 50,000 (Bajaník et al. 1984).
The crystalline basement in the Tatricum and Veporicum
comprises complexes of amphibolites and basic types of
granitoids which are the source of magnetic anomalies. A pe-
culiarity is an occurrence of mica schist complexes in the
Southern Veporicum which possess high values of magnetic
susceptibility. A special type is the Rochovce granite of Cre-
taceous age located in the contact zone between the Vepori-
cum and Gemericum.
Other type of magnetic anomaly sources are deep seated,
mainly in the basement of Neogene basins. Physical proper-
ties and tectonic coherence enable highly probable interpre-
tations in some cases. Some of these rocks are verified by
Over 60 magnetic anomalies in the territory of Slovakia
(Fig. 2), induced by variable scales of petrographic types and
age classifications have been recognized and described. It is
necessary to stress that not all magnetic bodies are reflected
on the presented map, due to its delimited proportion in rela-
tion to the network of measurements.
Compendium of magnetic anomaly sources
Anomalies on the magnetic map of Slovakia can be divid-
ed into the following basic groups:
• Magnetic anomaly sources in the pre-Neogene units;
• Magnetic anomaly sources induced by Neogene and
Quaternary volcanic products.
Magnetic anomalies in the pre-Neogene units
Due to tectonic competence and lithology magnetic anom-
aly sources in the pre-Neogene units can be allocated as fol-
lows (Fig. 2):
Magnetic anomaly sources inside superficial nappes of the
Inner Western Carpathians
A – mafic volcanics of the Hronicum
B – mafic and ultramafic volcanics of Meliaticum
Magnetic anomaly sources inside the Paleozoic basement of
C – mafic, ultramafic volcanics and phyllites of the
Ochtiná tectonic unit
D – amphibolites and gneisses of the Klátov tectonic unit
E – mafic metavolcanics of the Rakovec tectonic unit
F – metavolcanics of the Gelnica tectonic unit
Magnetic anomaly sources in crystalline complexes of the
Tatricum and Veporicum
G – amphibolites and metamorphic rocks with interca-
lation of mafic rocks
H – mica schists of lower Hercynian tectonic unit
I – basic varieties of Hercynian granitoids
Special type of deep-seated anomaly sources
J – Rochovce granite
K – Cadomian basement in the Northern zone of the
Western Carpathians (Brunia)
L – combination of effects of Cadomian (?) basement
in the Southern zone and its overlying units
M – ultramafic rocks
N – problematic magnetic anomaly sources.
In terms of morphology of anomalous field and probability
of interpretation we can distribute anomaly sources into two
a) located on the surface or at a shallow depth or deep-
seated but verified by boreholes (group A—K and M);
b) deep-seated, newly interpreted or reinterpreted and
problematic (group L and N).
Surface and subsurface anomaly sources
Permian basic and intermediate volcanic products from the
Ipoltica Group (Vozárová & Vozár 1988) in the Hronicum
(group A) caused the largest magnetic anomalies in the Malé
Karpaty Mts (A
) in the southern part of Strážovské
) and in the Nízke Tatry Mts (A
). All these
volcanics are depicted in the regional maps with a scale of
1 : 50,000 (Mahe & Cambel 1972; Mahe 1982; Biely et al.
1993; Ivanička et al. 2007).
The Slovak karst territory in the South of Slovakia is char-
acterized by the presence of a large number of bordered anom-
) with different amplitude (50—300 nT) which are
assigned to the Meliaticum (Mello et al. 1996). The dominant
sources of these anomalies are serpentinites whose develop-
ment is fragmented due to tectonic activity and whose exten-
sion is small as well as the amplitudes of the anomaly field.
Apart from the serpentinites, metabasalts, green shales and
glaucophanites are developed here as well.
MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE WESTERN CARPATHIANS (SLOVAKIA)
Anomalies in the Gemericum are found in the partial
), Klátov (D
), Rakovec (E
), and Gelnica
) tectonic units. Phyllites and shales, often with a high
content of carbon component, represent the dominant rocks of
the Ochtiná tectonic unit (Vozárová & Vozár 1988). Part of
this unit is composed of mafic and ultramafic metavolcanics.
The position of the unit in question is located in the northern
part of the Gemericum, where it forms a narrow belt on the sur-
face, but its subsurface parts can be interpreted very well thanks
to magnetic results from the footwall of the Neogene unit.
A typical feature of the Klátov tectonic unit is the predomi-
nance of amphibolites, which are associated with gneisses, ser-
pentinized spinel peridotites (antigorite serpentinite) and a
negligible amount of crystalline carbonate as well (Spišiak et al.
1985). The Rakovec tectonic unit is a typical volcano-sedimen-
tary formation with basic volcanites which are the main source
of anomalies. The magnetic anomalies in the Gelnica tectonic
unit are of local provenience and in most cases are generated by
basic volcanics from a bimodal (diabase—keratophyre) forma-
tion, occurrences of which have been recognized both on the
surface and at a shallow depth (Bajaník et al. 1984).
An anomalous effect of the amphibolite body in the crys-
talline of the Tatricum and Veporicum possessing a remark-
able extension was recognized in the area to the NW of the
Malé Karpaty Mts (G
). According to the magnetic field con-
figuration and modelling it is obvious, that the amphibolite
bodies are not so thick (less than 300 m). On the other hand,
the anomaly may be clarified as tonalite occurrences seated
near the surface. Similarly, anomalies detected in the
Považský Inovec Mts (G
) are also caused by amphibo-
lites. Less remarkable anomalies belong to amphibolite bod-
ies with interpreted thicknesses of less than 300 m within the
eastern part of the Tribeč Mts (G
). Amphibolites contribute
to the anomalies in the Slovenské rudohorie Mts together
with the Muráň orthogneisses (G
). The aggregate thickness
of this complex is around 750 m. Amphibolites are responsi-
ble for anomalies within the Nízke Tatry Mts (G
Západné Tatry Mts (G
). Amphibolite bodies are depicted on
the regional geological maps 1 : 50,000 (Mahe & Cambel
1972; Klinec 1976; Biely et al. 1993; Nemčok et al. 1993;
Ivanička et al. 1998, 2007).
A long zone of magnetic anomalies (H
) caused by
mica schists in a lower Hercynian tectonic unit in the sense
of Bezák et al. (1997a) has been observed in the Southern
Veporicum with the NE—SW orientation and with a length of
almost 50 km. An elongation of this zone in the pre-Tertiary
basement to the SW is interpreted by Gnojek (1989) as the
Mica schists were displaced to the surface in the time of
the paleo-Alpine transpression processes. They are depicted
on the geological map of this region (Bezák et al. 1999).
That is a reason why its shape is complicated, and this is
equally reflected in the shape of the magnetic field. The
magnetic properties of the mica schists are so massive, that
their effect can be recognized even though the mica schists
are covered by the 3 km thick granitoid complex of the mid-
dle tectonic unit. In contrast, the mica schists which are in-
terpreted as a member of the middle lithotectonic unit in the
sense of Bezák et al. (1997a) are mostly non-magnetic.
The average measured value of the magnetic field above the
basic varieties of the granitoid environment (group I) is from
40—100 nT. It is clear, that the highest values are detected
above the granite outcrops, or at shallow depths of less than
500 m. The granite bodies from the northern part of Považský
Inovec Mts (I
) and the central part of Tribeč Mts (I
) can also
be assigned to this group. In the majority of cases, magnetic
bodies showed relatively smaller spatial extension as well as a
smaller thickness. Amplitude value changes are not so re-
markable with regard to the depth of sources and their thick-
ness. It could imply deeper source localization, higher
magnetic parameters and so also higher basicity. This assump-
tion can be documented by geological-geophysical interpreta-
tion of the results of magnetic anomalies from the
south-eastern part of the Malé Karpaty Mts (I
), the south-
ern part of Považský Inovec Mts (I
), Rišňovská depresia De-
) and from the Central part of Podunajská nížina
). In the area of the Malá Fatra Mts two anoma-
lous areas (I
) are delineated. The anomalies are sometimes ac-
companied by diminutive placement of amphibolites close to
the surface. The magnetic effect of granitoids has been observed
in the Vysoké Tatry Mts (I
) and below the Paleogene sedi-
ments toward the East (I
) and the Ve ká Fatra Mts (I
A very expressive magnetic anomaly has been detected near
Rochovce village. It originates from the Rochovce granite
) with high magnetite concentration. A structural borehole
KV-3 found granitoids with extraordinarily high magnetic
properties in the interval 600—1600 m (Hraško et al. 2002).
The anomalous field of the European Platform in the foot-
wall of the Western Carpathians
This field has a deep source character which can be inter-
preted as the Brunia Complex (North European Platform) in
the sense of Dudek (1980), underlying the flysch nappes.
The Brunia Complex consists of magnetic and heavy rocks
(gabroamphibolites, basic granitoids). These rocks have re-
gional extensions to the SW into Austria (Gnojek & Heinz
1993) and to the NE into Poland (Żelazniewicz et al. 2009.)
The areas that belong to the NW part of Slovak territory
contain two significant magnetic anomalies (K
central part of the above mentioned anomalies are located out-
side Slovak territory. The sources of both anomalies are inter-
mediate, mafic, exceptionally ultramafic intrusive complexes
in the Cadomian basement. These complexes subside gradual-
ly towards the South almost to depths of about 10—12 km and
more (Pospíšil & Kadlečík 1991). Similar feature are assigned
to the anomaly field K
in the N of Slovakia.
Influence of the supposed Cadomian basement in Southern
On the basis of new data about the neo-Alpine tectonic de-
velopment of the Western Carpathians (e.g. Ratschbacher et
al. 1991; Csontos et al. 1992; Horvath 1993; Plašienka et al.
1997; Bezák et al. 2004a) the south part of the Western Car-
pathians consists of variable tectonic blocks-terranes which
gradually closed the space of the Flysch basin. Tectonic units
of the Southern Veporicum and Gemericum were placed in
KUBEŠ, BEZÁK, KUCHARIČ, FILO, VOZÁR, KONEČNÝ, KOHÚT and GLUCH
the north part of this area, which contains members with very
high magnetic properties (mica schists, Ochtiná Group).
According to the 2D modelling results of anomalies (depth,
extension and shape) it is clearly impossible to clarify the char-
acter of the magnetic field in this region by the effects of these
bodies only (L
). That was a reason, along with the occurrenc-
es of heavy mass in this region (Grand et al. 2002), why an ad-
ditional source of magnetic field had to be added – the rocks
with similar magnetic parameters as the Brunia block possesses.
Such interpretation is supported by occurrences of xenoliths of
unknown crystalline rocks, which were brought by magma in
the Fi akovo area (Konečný 2008). This complex underlying
the mica schist complexes is probably an older basement on
which have been deposited epicontinental mica schist packs.
Other regional anomalies (L
) are situated in the sur-
roundings of Rožňava town. The anomalies cover an area of
almost 300 km
. The upper edge of the magnetic complexes
is interpreted as occurring at a depth 4—4.5 km below the
surface. The extent of the anomalies and their magnetic and
gravity properties make it very probable, that the magnetic
echo originates from a combination of Ochtiná Unit rocks,
mica schists of the lower Hercynian unit and fragments of
the Cadomian(?) basement.
Other types of anomaly in the southern zones include ul-
tramafic rocks, which represent remnants of the Meliata
ocean subducted during the Jurassic period. These fragments
are tectonically transposed mainly on the contact between
the Western Carpathians and the Pelso Unit. The Komarovce
body is a representative example of these anomalies (Gnojek
& Vozár 1994).
The Komárovce magnetic anomaly (M
) is one of the big-
gest in Slovakia. It is situated SW of Košice city. The anomaly
reflects one of the largest ultramafic body in the Western Car-
pathians with an area of about 100 km
(Gnojek et al. 1991).
The borehole KO-1 drilled in the 1960s discovered an ultra-
mafic body at the depth of 943 m. The borehole was finished
at the depth of 1543 m and remained in the ultramafic rocks.
The Zbudza anomaly (M
) was detected in the northern
part of the East Slovak Basin. The borehole Zbudza-1 drilled
in the anomaly area caught a serpentinite body but only sev-
eral meters thick – probably a marginal part of a magnetic
body. The next anomaly was recognized to the south of Prešov
, Bzenov). The first interpretation of this anomaly
was made by Gnojek et al. (1991). As a source of the anomaly,
a body of ultramafic rocks is considered. The thickness of
the body is approximately 600 m and its roof is thought to lie
at a depth of 800 m. The declination of the magnetic body is
towards the north.
Deep sources of anomalies in the pre-Tertiary basement in
the South and East of Slovakia
The group of problematic sources of magnetic anomalies
) in the bedrocks of the Tertiary sediments is the
most difficult to interpret, because they are located mainly at
very big depths and real knowledge about their origin is
lacking. In most cases there are anomalies from the Danube
Basin and the East Slovak Basin.
The most significant anomaly in the Podunajská nížina
Lowland is the Gabčíkovo anomaly (N
), which crosses the
frontier into Hungarian territory. After the first measurements
the anomaly has been reinterpreted by Gnojek & Kubeš
(1991). Several deep boreholes in the anomalous area were
drilled to the depth of almost 3000 m, long before this reinter-
pretation, but none has reached magnetic rocks in the Neogene
filling, or bedrock. We suppose on the basis of the tectonic sit-
uation that the anomaly sources come from the crystalline
complex of Tatricum, and/or Cadomian basement. Obviously,
the origin of these rocks will be in mafic complexes, because
heavy masses are detected in this area (Bielik et al. 1986).
Apart from these, the following two anomalies were de-
tected in this area – Krá ov Brod (N
) a Vlčany (N
may be caused by basic differentiation of granitoids (Gnojek
& Kubeš 1991).
In the wider surroundings of Kolárovo town an extensive
but not very strong magnetic anomaly (N
) has been detected.
It is almost identical with a gravity anomaly (Sitárová et al.
1994). According to the interpretation given by Bezák et al.
(1997b) the anomaly is caused by crystalline complex rocks,
or mafic remnants of a Meliaticum inside the suture zone,
which was utilized for the partial body’s asthenolite rising
during the extension process in the Neogene. The interpreta-
tion of the Strekov anomaly (N
) is clear because it shows the
same features as the Kolárovo one (Filo in Kubeš et al. 2001).
From the depth localization point of view, the only excep-
tion is the Búč anomaly (N
). Due to its shallow position, it is
probably induced by mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Meso-
zoic bedrock. This anomaly probably does not belong to the
Western Carpathians but to a block of the Pelso Unit. The
source of the anomaly is only about 600 m below the surface.
The Bíňa anomaly (N
) in the Eastern part of the Po-
dunajská nížina Lowland probably derives from rocks of a
mica schist complex (Gnojek 1989). The depth of the roof of
this body is about 3—5 km. The anomaly is not located within
magnetic sediments. The interpreted length is 17 km, width
approximately 7 km. It is almost impossible to exclude the
influence of Cadomian basement.
The Východoslovenská nížina Lowland is characterized by
the dominant Sečovce anomaly N
(Gnojek et al. 1991;
Gnojek & Vozár 1994). According to our present knowledge
the bedrock complex (Inačovce-Kričevo Unit sensu Slavik
1974) comprises a set of phyllites of variable composition.
However, this complex cannot be the source of the anomaly.
The boreholes did not catch the bedrock complex. Therefore
the source of the anomaly is probably metamorphosed mafic
rocks at a depth of 6—8 km. It is probable that the Sečovce
anomaly is connected with exhumation of subducted crust of
the North Penninic ocean (Soták et al. 1993) and with intru-
sion of the Tertiary asthenolite (Bielik et al. 1998).
The Šariš anomaly (N
) has been detected in the southern part
of the Šarišská vrchovina Upland. The upper edge of it is
thought to lie at a depth of 1.8—2.5 km. The reason for the mag-
netic field’s configuration may be occurrence of more basic
types of granitoid, but it is impossible to entirely exclude mafic
rocks showing a connection with the North European Platform.
MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE WESTERN CARPATHIANS (SLOVAKIA)
(Nová Sedlica) and N
ing to our preliminary interpretation (deduced from contem-
porary knowledge), are caused by a Neogene volcanics at a
depth of more than 600 m. This is a completely new and as-
Magnetic anomaly sources caused by Neogene and Quater-
nary volcanism products
The strongest magnetic anomalies in the territory of the
Slovak Republic have been detected in the areas where the
Neovolcanite Mountains are developed. These are character-
ized by quick alternation of positive and negative anomalies
within a broad range – from —1100 to + 1000 nT.
The manifestation of Tertiary volcanic rocks within mag-
netic maps depends on several factors including: magnetic
properties, normal, or reverse magnetic polarization, intensi-
ty and type of hydrothermal alterations, planar and vertical
extension of the magnetic body, volcanic complex composi-
tion, conditions of morphology, and methodology of use of
From the above mentioned factors, which influence the
morphology and character of the magnetic field, perhaps the
most dominant magnetic parameters are bulk magnetic sus-
ceptibility and normal, or reverse magnetic polarization. The
rock complexes with reverse magnetic polarization are depict-
ed in the magnetic maps by negative magnetic anomalies.
The value of magnetic anomalies directly depends on their
planar and vertical magnitude. Volcanic rock bodies with
small areal extensions and small thickness (less than 30
meters) need not be depicted by a real anomaly although
geological mapping proved its presence. However, in several
cases, anomalies were detected that are interpreted as mag-
netic bodies with larger dimensions which are covered by
non-magnetic materials of various thicknesses.
Maps of magnetic anomalies from the Central Slovak and
East Slovak Neogene volcanic mountains compiled by
Gnojek (1989), Filo et al. (2003) furnished a picture of the
three-dimensional distributions of magnetic active volcanic
The map presented in the contribution shows the first total
picture of the West Carpathian rock complexes forming the
whole territory of the Slovak Republic in the Earth’s magnetic
field. Almost all the measured anomalies have been described,
most of them modelled and assigned to tectonic units as well.
The most disturbed magnetic field (from the configuration,
intensity values and polarity changing points of view) has
been ascertained above areas, where development of Neo-
gene and Quaternary volcanics took place. The remanent
magnetic polarization dominates over induced magnetic po-
larization in these formations.
Since we were often forced to use only estimated input
data, where knowledge of magnetic properties is lacking, the
possible mistakes may result in questionable depth of the
However, the morphological factor of the magnetic curve
is the most decisive characteristic of the interpretation pro-
cess and therefore this parameter appears the most signifi-
cant for the study of tectonic style. The shape of magnetic
bodies is linked to the magnetic curve and we believe this
link is a crucial contribution to further uncovering and as-
sessing the geological pattern and development with respect
to particular localities.
The interpreted sources of magnetic anomalies have been
classified according to both the tectonic competence and the li-
thology. The variability of the West Carpathian tectonic pattern
as well as the sizeable depth of seating of volume magnetic
sources is a reason why their interpretation is not definite and
offers room for multi variant solutions. Apart from this, several
cases have been observed in which an anomaly is generated by
a superposition of various sources from different tectonic units.
The whole volume of recognized anomalies has been split
into two groups: a) known, expressed by simple morpholo-
gy, located on the surface, at shallow depths or verified by
boreholes, b) reinterpreted or newly interpreted, mostly
deep-seated and expressed by complicated morphology of
anomalous field and problematic, where interpretation is in-
sufficient according to our present knowledge.
Due to the fact that this is the first comprehensive descrip-
tion of magnetic anomalies in the whole territory of Slovakia
it is obvious that the origin of some anomalies remains un-
known or ambiguous. Therefore these magnetic rocks are
suitable for further investigation.
It is beyond question that the map itself will serve as a
suitable tool for structural and tectonic interpretations in the
future from the regional point of view.
Additional magnetic measurements from regions, where they
were missing, means an important step forward in the magnetic
field characterization within the Central European space. The
complete magnetic picture of the Slovak Republic will be one
of the basic stones in the compilation of a magnetic map of Eu-
rope. For instance it makes possible investigation of important
geotectonic zones such as the Cadomian belt on the boundary
between the Bohemian Massif and the Western Carpathians and
its continuation beneath the Alps and to the NE into Poland.
It is also important to investigate oceanic complexes from
the point of view of reconstruction of the Alpine orogene.
The big challenge for the future is an integrated interpreta-
tion together with seismic and gravity data.
Acknowledgment: The authors dedicate this article in mem-
ory of our colleague RNDr. Miroslav Filo, who recognized
and discussed some of the problems considered here. This
contribution has been carried out in the framework of Project
No. 0705 (Magnetic map of Slovak Republic), Project
No. 1606 (Updating of geological structures of Slovakia),
Grants VEGA 0169, 2/0072/08 and APVT-51-002804.
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