GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, JUNE 2010, 61, 3, 235—253 doi: 10.2478/v10096-010-0014-3
Devonian in Turkey – a review
M. NAMIK YALÇIN and ISAK YILMAZ
Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological Engineering, TR-34850 Avcôlar-Istanbul, Turkey;
(Manuscript received August 13, 2009; accepted in revised form December 11, 2009)
Abstract: The Devonian Period is represented in Turkey by almost complete non-metamorphic sections of more than
1000 meters, which exhibit varying lithofacial associations. They are parts of thick Paleozoic sedimentary successions
in the Pontides, Taurides and Arabian Plate. The tectonic setting and the paleogeographical origin of these terranes is
different. Therefore, the litho- and biostratigraphy and facies characteristics of these Devonian successions would
enable a comparison and a paleogeographical assignment of these tectono-stratigraphic units. Devonian successions of
the Arabian Plate and of the Taurides are represented by facies associations ranging from tidal flat to a deep shelf.
Whereas, those of the Istanbul and Çamda˘g-Zonguldak areas in the Pontides by a deepening upward sequence from a
shallow shelf into a basin and a stable shelf, respectively. The Devonian of the Arabian Plate and the Taurides can surely
be assigned to Gondwana. A Peri-Gondwanan (Avalonian) setting is suggested for the paleogeographic position of the
Devonian of the Pontides.
Key words: Devonian, Turkey, paleogeography, depositional environment, biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy.
The geological and tectonic frame of Turkey, located in the
Alpine-Himalayan Orogenic Belt, is mainly formed by the
Alpine orogeny. Accordingly, a number of E-W trending
tectono-stratigraphic units are defined, which consist of ter-
ranes of different tectonic settings ranging from oceanic ba-
sins to active and passive continental margins. The
tectono-stratigraphic units as distinguished by many previ-
ous authors from north to south as Pontides, Sakarya Conti-
nent, Menderes and Kôr ehir Blocks, Taurides and the Arabi-
an Plate (Fig. 1), generally represent continental terranes
separated by suture zones. The suture zones are in general
composed of ophiolitic and volcanic rocks of oceanic origin
(Ketin 1966; engör & Yôlmaz 1981; Göncüo˘glu 1997). Not
only the tectonic setting of these terranes is different, but
also the geological age of the incorporated units reflects a
wide spectrum from Infra-Cambrian to Tertiary.
Fig. 1. Tectonic map of Turkey showing the major blocks/terranes and the bounding suture zones. Distribution of Devonian succesions are also
shown and those, which are discussed in detail, are indicated by numbers. 1 – Istanbul Zone, 2 – Çamda˘g area, 3 – Eastern Taurides, 4 – Cen-
tral Taurides, 5 – Alada˘g and Bolkarda˘g Units in Taurides, 6 – Western Taurides, 7 – Karaburun area, 8 – Hakkari area of Arabian Plate,
9 – Hazro area of Arabian Plate, 10 – Amanos area of Arabian Plate. (Modified from engör & Yôlmaz 1981 and Elmas & Yi˘gitba 2001.)
YALÇIN and YILMAZ
Devonian units of different litho-types and of different
paleogeographic origin are parts of thick Paleozoic sedimen-
tary successions of the Pontides, Taurides and Arabian Plate.
Some minor occurrences of sedimentary Devonian are also
reported from the Karaburun area and Aegean Islands in
westernmost Turkey relatively early by Ktenas (1925)
(Fig. 1). This region was studied then by many scientists be-
cause of the complicated stratigraphy and tectonics (Höll
1966; Lehnert-Thiel 1969; Konuk 1979; Erdo˘gan et al. 1990;
Kozur 1995; Kaya & Rezsu 2000; Rosselet & Stampfli
2002; Eren et al. 2004; Çakmako˘glu & Bilgin 2006; Okay et
al. 2006). A relatively thick succession bearing also Devo-
nian units is interpreted by Çakmako˘glu & Bilgin (2006) as
autochthonous. The same succession was considered by Ko-
zur (1995, 1997) and Rosselet et al. (2003) as an allochtho-
nous sedimentary melange. Most recent studies however
showed that Devonian rocks in the Karaburun area are al-
lochthonous blocks and olistolith within the Carboniferous
flysch (Robertson & Ustaömer 2009).
Metamorphic Devonian units are reported from parts of the
Central Anatolian Massif, Menderes Massif in western Turkey
and in eastern Turkey from the Bitlis Massif (Göncüo˘glu &
The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the Turkish
autochthonous and non-metamorphic Devonian. Hereby,
based mainly on the data obtained from previous studies, the
geographical distribution, general geological setting, litho-
and biostratigraphy and facies characteristics of these Devo-
nian successions will be addressed on the basis of the tectono-
stratigraphic subdivision of Turkey.
Devonian of the Arabian Plate in Southeastern
The Devonian of the Arabian Plate is represented in South-
eastern Anatolia by sedimentary sequences observed from
west to east in the Amanos Mountains, Hazro High and
Hakkari area. Furthermore, they are encountered in some
wells around the Diyarbakôr area (Fig. 1). The Devonian of the
northerly located Hazro area is represented by Lower to Upper
Devonian, while the Devonian of the other two regions con-
sists of only Upper Devonian (Bozdo˘gan et al. 1987; Yôlmaz
& Duran 1997). But, in both geological settings the underlying
units are similar. A thick Pre-Cambrian to Upper Ordovician
continuous sedimentary sequence forms the pre-Devonian
basement in both settings (Fig. 2). The Silurian-Devonian
Dada Formation, outcrops only in Diyarbakôr in the Hazro
High and is also encountered in some wells there. According
to observations and records in Kayayolu-2 well this unit was
deposited after a regional break in sedimentation (Bozdo˘gan et
al. 1987; Yôlmaz & Duran 1997). Therefore it is inferred, that
the Dada Formation lies with an angular unconformity on the
Bedinan Formation (Fig. 2). The alternation of sandstones and
shales, in the uppermost part of the Dada Formation in the
Hazro area (Dada III Member of Bozdo˘gan et al. 1987)
grades into the sandstones of Hazro Formation (Perinçek et al.
1991). According to Bozdo˘gan et al. (1987) the age of the
Dada Formation is Early Silurian—Early Devonian. Conse-
quently, the Silurian/Devonian (S/D) boundary has to be lo-
cated within the uppermost part of the Dada Formation.
Some recent efforts to localize the S/D boundary in Hazro area
along the measured stratigraphic section Fetlika and in the
well Fetlika-1 showed that the boundary cannot be localized
only by palinomorphs (Mann et al. 2001; Kranendonck 2004;
Brocke et al. 2004). In the Amanos area and in the Hakkari
area, respectively to the west and east of Southeastern Anato-
lia, Silurian is not represented (Yôlmaz & Duran 1997). Con-
sequently, Upper Devonian Yô˘gônlô and Köprülü Formations
lie with an angular unconformity on the Ordovician Bedinan
Formation (Fig. 2).
Litho- and biostratigraphy of the Devonian in the Hazro
The Devonian succession in the Hazro area north of Di-
yarbakôr (Fig. 1) is named as the Diyarbakôr Group and is
composed of the Dada , Hazro and Kayayolu Formations
(Bozdo˘gan et al. 1987) (Fig. 2). The Kayayolu Formation is
only encountered in wells, whereas outcrops of Dada and
Hazro Formations are represented in the so-called Hazro High.
The total thickness of these units on the surface varies be-
tween 70 and 217 m (Sungurlu 1974; Bozdo˘gan et al. 1987).
In the subsurface they can be up to 500 m thick (Bozdo˘gan et
al. 1987). Within the Dada Formation, three subunits (mem-
bers) are distinguished based on different lithological compo-
sition, which are reflected in log characteristics (Bozdo˘gan et
al. 1987). The Dada I Member consists of dark coloured, or-
ganic rich shales with some limestone interbeds; the Dada II
Member is composed of similar shales alternating with some
sandstones and the Dada III Member consists of an alterna-
tion of sandstones, marls and calcareous siltstones. The Dada
Formation lies unconformably on the Middle—Upper Ordovi-
cian Bedinan Formation and is overlain conformably by the
Devonian Hazro Formation (Bozdo˘gan et al. 1987; Perinçek et
al. 1991). The Dada Formation is rich in fossils of palinomor-
phs, brachiopods, bryozoans, graptolites, conodonts, crinoids,
corals and ostracods. Fossil assemblages reported by different
authors (Çoruh et al. 1997 and references there in) from the
middle and upper parts of the Dada Formation are listed in
the Appendix. According to these fossils and to detailed pali-
nological studies by Bozdo˘gan et al. (1987), Ertu˘g et al.
(1998), Brocke et al. (2004), Bozdo˘gan et al. (2005) a Late
Silurian—Early Devonian age is assigned to the Dada Forma-
tion. As mentioned before, the exact location of Silurian/De-
vonian boundary is still not determined. The Dada Formation
was deposited on a restricted inner shelf, which was devel-
oped on the irregular paleotopography of the eroded Bedinan
Formation. The respective shelf became shallower and was
gradually converted to a tidal flat towards the top of the se-
quence (Yôlmaz & Duran 1997).
The following Hazro Formation consists in general of an al-
ternation of cross-bedded sandstones and siltstones. A 6—8 m
thick dolomitic limestone interval exists in the middle part of
the unit as a marker bed (Bozdo˘gan et al. 1987). The Hazro
Formation is approximately 110—150 m thick. It is overlain in
the subsurface by the dolomites of the Kayayolu Formation
conformably and on the surface in the Hazro area unconform-
DEVONIAN IN TURKEY –A REVIEW
ably by the Permian Ka Formation (Fig. 2). This unit in-
cludes only some few spores, acritarchs and chitinozoa and
some very sparse shells. Based on the palynomorph assem-
blages (spores and acritarchs), it is suggested that the age of
this unit is Pragian (in original Gedinnian)—Emsian (Bozdo˘gan
et al. 1987). The lithofacies of the Hazro Formation indicates
deposition on a tidal flat, with some lagoons and sand bars
(Bozdo˘gan et al. 1987).
The Kayayolu Formation named by Bozdo˘gan et al. (1987)
is composed in its lower parts of grey sandstones and beige
dolomites, with anhydrite nodules. In the upper parts an alter-
nation of dolomites, dolomitic marls, red-green sandstones,
siltstones and shales is present. In some wells it is up to 147 m
thick. It is overlain to the east of Diyarbakôr by the Permian
Tanin Group and west of Diyarbakôr by the Cretaceous Mar-
din Group by an angular unconformity (Bozdo˘gan et al. 1987;
Perinçek et al. 1991; Yôlmaz & Duran 1997; Bozdo˘gan et al.
2005). In the Silvan-Hazro area Tolun (1949) and Lebküchner
(1976) have reported corals, bryozoans, brachiopods and
crinoids. According to these macro fauna and to the palyno-
morph assemblages (spores) reported by Bozdo˘gan et al.
(1987, 2005) the age of the unit is determined as Eifelian—
Frasnian (Middle—Late Devonian). The depositional environ-
ment of the Kayayolu Formation is interpreted by Bozdo˘gan
et al. (1987) as a very shallow lagoon, inter to supratidal area
and a tide-dominated delta plain.
Litho- and biostratigraphy of the Devonian in the Amanos
and Hakkari areas
The Upper Devonian—Lower Carboniferous successions in
the Amanos area to the west and in the Hakkari area to the east
of the Hazro High are distinguished as the Zap Group. The
Yô˘gônlô and Köprülü Formations are the two lithostratigraphic
units forming this group (Perinçek et al. 1991). These litho-
stratigraphic units are lying in both areas on Ordovician aged
Fig. 2. Generalized stratigraphic sections of the Hakkari, Hazro and Amanos areas of the Arabian Plate. Note that Devonian stratigraphy of Hazro
area, which is paleogeographically located further north differs from the Hakkari and Amanos areas (modified from Yôlmaz & Duran 1997).
YALÇIN and YILMAZ
units with an angular unconformity (Fig. 2). In the Amanos
area they are overlain by Jurassic carbonates and in the
Hakkari area by Permian clastics (Perinçek et al. 1991).
The Yô˘gônlô Formation, named first by Açôkba (1978),
consists of pink, dark red-coloured, cross-bedded, quartzitic
sandstones, which occasionally alternate with yellowish
green, grey mudstones and shales. Its thickness varies in the
Amanos Mountains area between 3—575 m (Yalçôn 1980); in
Kahramanmara between 20—25 m (Demirkol 1988); in
Hakkari-Çukurca between 200—295 m (Perinçek et al. 1991).
As mentioned above it overlies the Ordovician Bedinan For-
mation with an angular unconformity and passes gradually
into the Köprülü Formation of upper Strunian—lower
sian age (Perinçek et al. 1991). The Yô˘gônlô Formation is poor
in fossils. In its middle to upper parts some spores, ostracods
and brachiopods indicate a late Famennian to early Tournai-
sian age. In the Hakkari area, ostracods, brachiopods and gas-
tropod shells are identified (Çoruh et al. 1997). Here, in the
transition zone to the Köprülü Formation, spores and pollens
of Retisospora lepidophyta-Vallatisporites Zone are identi-
fied, indicating a late Famennian—early Tournaisian age
(Bozdo˘gan et al. 1987, 2005). Janvier et al. (1984) have re-
ported fishes which suggest a Strunian age. Considering the
unfossiliferous lower parts, an Late Devonian age can be as-
signed to the Yô˘gônlô Formation (Perinçek et al. 1991;
Bozdo˘gan et al. 2005). According to the lithofacies, sedimen-
tary structures and fossil content the depositional environment
of this unit is determined as intra-littoral to shallow marine
(Bozdo˘gan et al. 2005).
The Köprülü Formation is composed of dark grey, clayey
and dolomitic limestones in its lower parts and of greenish,
micaceous shales interbedded with some sandstones and thin
nodular limestones in the upper parts. It is approximately
200 m thick and is conformably underlain and overlain by the
Yô˘gônlô and Belek Formations, respectively. The nodular lime-
stones in the upper parts are rich in fossils. A Late Devonian
age is assigned according to foraminifers, palinomorphs and
brachiopods (Appendix) (Perinçek et al. 1991). The deposi-
tional environment of this unit is also determined as intra-lit-
toral to shallow marine (Bozdo˘gan et al. 2005).
Devonian of the Taurides
Two major NE-SW trending strike-slip faults namely the
Ecemi and the Kôrkkavak faults form the geographical
boundaries between the Eastern and Central Taurides, and be-
tween Central and Western Taurides, respectively (Fig. 1).
Devonian successions in Taurides will be reviewed on the one
hand based on this geographical subdivision of this Alpine
mountain chain and on the other hand based on the tectono-
stratigraphic units suggested by Özgül (1976).
The continuity of the Paleozoic units in Southern Turkey,
which were deposited on the northern margin of northeastern
Fig. 3. Generalized stratigraphic section of the Paleozoic units of the
Bolkarda˘g and Alada˘g Units in the Taurides, where Devonian succes-
sions are allochthonous (modified from Özgül 1997; Yurtsever et
DEVONIAN IN TURKEY –A REVIEW
Gondwana, ended at the beginning of the Mesozoic due to the
opening of the Neotethys Ocean. The south eastern part of the
former Paleozoic terrane remained on the northern margin of
the Arabian Plate to the south of the new ocean, while the
Taurus and Menderes Blocks attained a position north of it.
The closure of the Neotethys Ocean by subduction and the
subsequent collision resulted in imbrications of the Taurus-
Menderes Block and a very complicated geology (Fig. 1). In
the Taurides the tectono-stratigraphic units, the Geyikda˘g,
Alada˘g, Bolkarda˘g, Bozkôr, Alanya and Antalya Units, have
been differentiated with regard to the litho- and tectono-strati-
graphical characteristics of the sequences (Özgül 1976). The
Devonian is represented in the Geyikda˘g, Alada˘g, Bolkarda˘g
and Antalya tectono-stratigraphic units. In the Alada˘g and
Bolkarda˘g tectono-stratigraphic units, Devonian successions
are bounded at their base by major tectonic features and are in-
complete (Fig. 3). Therefore, only Devonian successions in
the Geyikda˘g and Antalya tectono-stratigraphic units will be
presented in detail.
Litho- and biostratigraphy of the Devonian in the Western
In the Western Taurides to the west of the Kôrkkavak fault,
Paleozoic sequences are encountered within the Lycian and
Antalya Nappes, which are thrusted over the Beyda˘glarô au-
tochthon from the northwest and southeast, respectively (Pois-
son 1977; Marcoux 1979; Özgül 1984; enel 1984). The
Paleozoic sequences are represented by different units of Or-
dovician to Permian age, which consist of terrestrial to marine
clastics and carbonates. They belong to the Antalya tectono-
stratigraphic unit according to Özgül (1976) and are thrusted
from south to north, therefore they are allochthonous. Some
low angular unconformities exist between Silurian/Devonian
and Lower/Upper Permian (Fig. 4). In the Tahtalôda˘g region a
remarkable gap exists between Ordovician and Mesozoic car-
bonates, as also observed in the Middle Taurides (Monod
1967; Haude 1972; Marcoux 1979; enel et al. 1981; Gedik
1988). To the north of Alanya, Göncüo˘glu & Kozur (2000)
described early to middle Lochkovian conodonts in the lower
part of a sandstone-dolomite dominated succession uncon-
formably overlying Silurian rocks. To the north of Kemer in
the same region, Devonian is represented by the Hocanônsuyu
Formation which is composed of detritic and evaporitic rocks
(Fig. 4). Light grey to brown thin-bedded mudstones, silt-
stones, sandstones and dolomites at the base of the Devonian
sequence pass into thick-bedded, pink-coloured gypsum beds
and thin-bedded, red-coloured mudstones. A channel-fill de-
posit with some sandstone and gypsum pebbles and the fol-
lowing mud- and sandstone alternation exhibits high-angle
cross-bedding. Some yellowish grey, medium-bedded lime-
stone beds also exist in this particular interval. The uppermost
part of this succession consists of grey, brown, thick-bedded,
cross-bedded, quartzitic sandstones with typical wave ripple-
marks. The ripple marks are asymmetric and the cross-bed-
ding is high angular. Within the sandstones a six meter thick
diabase sill exists ( enel et al. 1981). The thickness of the De-
vonian Hocanônsuyu Formation is 190 m at its type locality. It
lies unconformably on Silurian limestones and passes gradu-
ately into Carboniferous sandstones. Fish fossils (Appendix)
found in red-coloured mudstones by Janvier & Marcoux
(1977), indicate a Devonian age. According to the mentioned
sedimentary structures and fossil content, the depositional en-
vironment of the unit is determined as terrestrial, particularly
estuarine ( enel et al. 1981; Gedik 1988). Towards the top of
the Devonian sequence wave-induced ripple-marks and low
angle cross-bedding suggest a marine depositional environ-
ment, supported by the lack of terrestrial plant remnants and
plant roots at this level.
Litho- and biostratigraphy of the Devonian in the Central
and Eastern Taurides
The para-autochthonous Geyikda˘gô Unit with its Cambrian—
Lower Carboniferous succession includes most of the Paleo-
zoic units in this region. The carbonate and clastic sediments
within this succession generally consist of terrestrial, shallow
and occasionally deeper marine environments (Tutkun 1984;
Metin 1984; Yôlmaz 2004).
The Devonian rocks in the Geyikda˘gô Unit are represented
in terms of lithostratigraphic units by the Sô˘gôrcôk, Büyükeceli
and Akdere Formations in the Central Taurides and by the Ayô
Tepesi, afak Tepe and Gümü ali Formations in Eastern Tau-
rides (Fig. 5). Although they have been named differently, dif-
ferences in lithological composition and facies characteristics
are minor. Hence, these units can easily be correlated. Al-
Fig. 4. Generalized stratigraphic section of the Paleozoic units of
the Western Taurides (modified from Senel et al. 1981).
YALÇIN and YILMAZ
though Demirta lô (1984) in the Central Taurides and
Göncüo˘glu et al. (2004b) in the Eastern Taurides mentioned
that the Silurian is unconformably overlain by the Lower De-
vonian; it is generally believed that the Silurian/Devonian
boundary is transitional (Metin 1983; U˘guz 1989; Özgül &
Kozlu 2002; Yôlmaz 2004).
The Lower Devonian succession, first distinguished by
Özgül et al. (1973) and named as the Ayô Tepesi Formation
commences with sandstone, shale and dolomite (especially in
the uppermost levels) alternation, where quartzitic sandstones
predominate (Fig. 5). The first 140 m of the 450—500 m thick
unit consists of laminated, dark coloured shale and siltstones,
which alternates with thin nodular limestone intervals. In the
following 150 m thick part, an intercalation of sandstone, silt-
stone, shale and limestone is present, where an abundant bio-
turbation caused by vermiculites is typical. The following
80 m thick interval consists of well-bedded, yellow, carbon-
ate-cemented sandstones, which are formed mainly by quartz
(70 %), feldspars (15 %) and some mica, chlorite and tourma-
line. The uppermost parts are composed of dolomitic lime-
stones, some bioturbated siltstones and thick-bedded
fossiliferous limestones. In different regions of the Eastern
Taurides and particularly in the Central Taurides, dolomites or
dolomitic limestones predominate. Fossil content is poor and
many sedimentary structures such as load, pillow and ball
structures, ripple marks, vertical borings, cross-bedding, des-
iccation cracks and imprints of rain-drops exist in the clastic
beds (Yôlmaz et al. 2007). The Ayô Tepesi Formation was de-
posited in a tidal-supratidal environment during the Early De-
vonian. It deepened gradually towards the uppermost levels of
the succession. Metin (1983) reported an Early Devonian age
according to the brachiopods (Appendix).
Ayô Tepesi Formation passes conformably into the Middle
Devonian aged afak Tepe Formation (Fig. 5). The afak
Tepe Formation (Demirta lô 1967) consists of medium to
thick, well-bedded, grey and black, dolomite, dolomitic
limestone, recrystallized limestone with thin shale and occa-
sionally siliceous sandstone alternation. Laterally, the litho-
logy changes to dolomite-dominated sequences or reefoidal
limestones. Amphipora ramosa Philips is observed at the
bottom and top of the sequence as marker horizons. It is ei-
ther accompanied by corals or brachiopods, gastropods,
bryozoans and crinoids. Webster et al. (2008) determined
Arachnocrinus sarizensis n.sp. in the lower levels of the for-
mation in the Eastern Taurides and suggested that A. sarizen-
sis would have been living paleogeographically in a passive
margin environment of the Oldreidia continental mass along
the southern edge of the Paleotethys at approximately 42 de-
grees south latitude.
The afak Tepe Formation exhibits varying thickness and
lithofacies in the Central and Eastern Taurides. It is 230 m
thick in Tufanbeyli, 380 m in Feke and approximately 500 m
Fig. 5. Generalized stratigraphic section of Paleozoic units in the Central and Eastern Taurides. Devonian successions are part of the para-
autochthonous Geyikda˘g Unit (modified from Demirta lô 1984; Yôlmaz 2004).
DEVONIAN IN TURKEY –A REVIEW
in the Ovacôk area. Within the afak Tepe Formation two ma-
jor lithofacies are present, namely a dolomite and a carbonate
facies, which are observed in a lateral transitional relation. Do-
lomitic facies is formed in a tidal flat, whereas carbonate fa-
cies is formed in a subtidal environment representing a higher
water level. These carbonates are thick-bedded, massive, bio-
clastic storm deposits alternating with fine-crystallized dark
coloured limestones (Varol 1992). Amphipora ramosa Philips
found in different areas of the Central and Eastern Taurides
(Özgül et al. 1972; Demirta lô 1984; Metin et al. 1986;
Göncüo˘glu & Kozur 1998; Göncüo˘glu et al. 2000, 2005a) in-
dicates a Middle Devonian age. Özgül et al. (1973) also sug-
gested the same age according to corals; Sayar et al. (2005,
2008) an Eifelian—Givetian age according to brachiopods;
Göncüo˘glu et al. (2004b) an Eifelian—late Givetian age ac-
cording to conodonts (Appendix).
These platform carbonates of the afak Tepe Formation are
conformably overlain by the Gümü ali Formation, which
comprises a massive limestone, nodular limestone and shale
and sandstone alternation, bearing a very rich fossil fauna
(Fig. 5). The lower parts of this 600—650 m thick unit are
composed of dark coloured, reefoidal, very thick-bedded to
massive limestones, which pass into fossiliferous (brachio-
pods, corals, gastropods and bryozoans), thin- to medium-bed-
ded, nodular limestone and dark coloured shale alternation.
Towards the top the ratio of detritic rocks increases and an
intercalation of siltstones, fine sandstones, shales and some
limestones predominates. Hummocky-type bedding, ripple-
marks, trace fossils and bioturbation are very abundant sedi-
mentary structures observed in these levels. A two—three
meter thick, fossiliferous, oolitic, ferrigenous sandstone ho-
rizon (Fig. 5), which can be observed almost in the entire
Taurides, is one of the marker horizons of the Devonian se-
quence in Taurides. The uppermost section of the Gümü ali
Formation consists of nodular, wavy-bedded, bioturbated,
fossiliferous (brachiopods, trilobites), bioclastic limestones,
marls and siltstones.
The very rich fauna in different parts of the Taurides is
reported in many paleontological studies, where aspects of
Devonian biofacies are discussed (Blumenthal 1944; Ünsalaner
1945, 1951; Demirta lô 1967; Özgül et al. 1972, 1973; Tutkun
1984; Çapkôno˘glu 1991; Nalcôo˘glu 2004; Yôlmaz 2004;
Gourvennec 2006). Sayar et al. (2005, 2009) have reported
from the Gümü ali Formation a Frasnian brachiopod fauna
and in the uppermost 30 meters of this unit a Famennian bra-
chiopod fauna (Appendix). Göncüo˘glu et al. (2004b) suggest-
ed a Middle Givetian to Frasnian age according to the shallow
water conodont fauna found in reefoidal limestones of the
Gümü ali Formation. Çapkôno˘glu & Gedik (2002) pointed out
that the conodont fauna of the Gümü ali Formation indicates a
nearshore environment with its polygnathid-icriodid biofacies.
Furthermore, they have determined three new taxa (Appendix).
In a more recent study Yôlmaz & Demircan (2005) have deter-
mined in the upper parts of the formation trace fossils such as
Cruziana isp., Rusophycus isp. (trilobite trace), Planolites isp.,
Palaeophycus isp. A rich coral fauna (Appendix) from the
lower parts of the unit is reported by Hubmann (1991). Akyol
(1980) have found two new species of Auriculimembranispora,
namely A. radiata and A. undulate.
The above mentioned fauna, biofacies characteristics and
sedimentological properties show that the Upper Devonian se-
quence in Central and Eastern Taurides have been deposited in
a reefoidal to storm-affected supratidal environment. This unit
is conformably overlain by the Lower Carboniferous Ziy-
arettepe Formation (Fig. 5).
Devonian of the Pontides
The Devonian in the Pontides is represented by sedimenta-
ry sequences observed in the Istanbul area in the west and in
Çamda˘g-Zonguldak area in the east (Figs. 1 and 6). This par-
ticular area in the Western Pontides belongs to the so-called
Rhodope-Pontide fragment of engör & Yôlmaz (1981), to
the Istanbul Zone of Okay (1989) or to the Istanbul and Zon-
guldak Terranes of Göncüo˘glu et al. (1997). Okay et al.
(1994) have suggested, that this continental sliver was origi-
nally located further north between the Moesian platform
and Crimea as part of the Odessa shelf prior to the Albian.
During the opening of the Western Black Sea basin during
the Albian to Early Eocene it drifted southward along two
major transform faults (Fig. 6). Göncüo˘glu (1997) on the
other hand suggested a Peri-Gondwanan origin for these ter-
ranes. The Devonian successions here are embedded within a
thick Paleozoic sedimentary sequence of Ordovician to Car-
boniferous age. The Cadomian basement of this Paleozoic
sequence is exposed to the south and east of the Istanbul
Zone, in the Armutlu Peninsula and in the Bolu Massif, re-
spectively. The Cadomian basement consists of a high-grade
metamorphosed supra-subduction ophiolite complex, an arc-
type volcanic and volcanoclastic sequence. It is dated to
570—590 Ma (Kozur & Göncüo˘glu 1998; Ustaömer 1999;
Chen et al. 2002; Yigitba et al. 2004).
Devonian in the Pontides was first reported in the Istanbul
area in the mid 19
century (Tchihatcheff 1867) and has been
studied since then intensively (Penck 1919; Paeckelmann
1925, 1938; Abdüsselamo˘glu 1963; Haas 1968; Kaya 1973;
Kullmann 1973; Babin 1973; Carls 1973; Sayar 1979; Gedik
1981; Önalan 1987/1988; Çapkôno˘glu 1997, 2000; Derman
1997; Gedik & Önalan 2001; Herten et al. 2004). A compre-
hensive summary of these studies describing the litho- and
biostratigraphy of the Devonian successions in the Pontides is
presented in the following. The Istanbul and Çamda˘g-Zongul-
dak areas are addressed separately here.
Litho- and biostratigraphy of the Devonian in the Istanbul
The Devonian in the Istanbul area is probably represented
by the upper horizons of the Dolayoba Formation and surely
by the Istinye, Kartal and Büyükada Formations (Önalan
1987/1988). The exact position of the S/D boundary is a mat-
ter of debate. Information on the uppermost Silurian (Ludlow)
comes from the upper parts of Dolayoba Formation and on the
lowermost Devonian (Lochkovian) from the Gebze Member
of the Istinye Formation (Fig. 7). There are no fossil findings
so far in the upper sections of Dolayoba Formation and in the
entire Sedefadasô Member of Istinye Formation. Consequent-
YALÇIN and YILMAZ
ly, the boundary should be somewhere within this approxi-
mately 100 m thick interval. It is set by Önalan (1982, 1987/
88) and by Gedik et al. (2005) at the base of the Sedefadasô
Member, by Herten et al. (2004) according to a chemostrati-
graphic assessment at a certain level to the higher parts of the
Dolayoba Formation in the Esenyalô well. Haas (1968) prefers
a position in the Gebze Member of Istinye Formation. Accord-
ingly, it can be concluded that the Devonian in the Istanbul
area is represented by the Dolayoba Formation (upper parts),
Istinye Formation (Sedefadasô, Gebze, Kaynarca Members)
and Büyükada Formation (Bostancô, Yörükali, Ayineburnu
Dolayoba Formation consists of mainly reefoidal lime-
stones, which are greyish blue, pink, beige-coloured, medi-
um—thick-bedded to massive and partly nodular. The
thickness of the Dolayoba Formation varies between 100—
150 m. The reefoidal lower parts are rich in corals, stromato-
poroids and bryozoans (Kaya 1973). Haas (1968) has reported
from the so-called Tav antepe, Ba˘glarbasô, Cumaköy, Çakôllô-
dere and Pelitli beds of its Akviran Series, which is the equiv-
alent of the Halycites-Kalke of Paeckelmann (1938), a rich
conodont fauna (Appendix). A Wenlock age has been as-
signed to it. From the higher parts of the Dolayoba Formation
he reported brachiopods, trilobites and conodonts (Appendix),
which were also reported by Paeckelmann (1938). He defined
Upper Ludlow as the upper limit for the age of the Dolayoba
Formation. Önalan (1982) has also assigned a Wenlock—
Ludlow age according to fossils, he found in the Yayalar
Member of the Dolayoba Formation. According to these fos-
sils the age of the Dolayoba Formation is determined as Late
Silurian (Wenlock—Ludlow) to Early Devonian (Lochkovian)
(Haas 1968; Önalan 1982; Herten et al. 2004; Boncheva et al.
2005; Göncüo˘glu et al. 2006).
Lithological properties, oolitic, ferrigenous intervals at the
lower zones of the unit, small patch reef formations and well-
bedded intra-reefs, together with a limestone facies represent-
ed by wackestones, packstones, boundstones and mudstones
suggest deposition in a shallow, relatively high energy marine
environment, where some small patchy reef developments
were also present (Önalan 1982, 1987/1988). Quartz grains
and some intraclastic beds indicate periods of intensified ma-
terial transport into the shallow ramp/shelf area, where in gen-
eral a reef facies dominates.
The lower member of Istinye Formation, the Sedefadasô
Member is formed by dark blue-black, fine-laminated, thin—
medium-bedded limestones, which alternate with pink co-
loured, thin-bedded, calcareous shales. The lower and upper
contacts of this member are both transitional with the Dolay-
oba Formation and Gebze Member, respectively (Fig. 7). The
thickness of Sedefadasô Member varies between a few meters
and 80 meters. Until 2005 no fossils were found in this unit.
Boncheva et al. (2005) found conodonts of the woschmidti
Zone in the lower parts of the Sedefadasô Member indicating
an early Lochkovian age. However, the lithostratigraphical as-
signment of this finding has to be reconsidered, as it may also
represent according to its lithofacies the uppermost part of the
Fig. 6. Map showing distribution of Lower Paleozoic and Devonian outcrops in the Western Pontides where the Istanbul Zone and Çamda˘g
area bear most of the Devonian successions (modified from Görür et al. 1997).
DEVONIAN IN TURKEY –A REVIEW
Dolayoba Formation. The age of the Sedefadasô Member was
defined according to its stratigraphic position by Haas (1968)
as Late Silurian (Late Ludlow), by Kaya (1973) and by
Önalan (1987/1988) as Early Devonian (Lochkovian, in the
original Gedinian). According to more recent studies an Early
Devonian age is more likely (Herten et al. 2004; Boncheva et
Dark coloured, thinly parallel-laminated carbonate mud-
stones suggest a deepening, which is probably caused by a
sea-level rise. However, the uneven thickness of the unit also
indicates formation of small-scale depressions of varying size.
Hence, the depositional environment of Sedefadasô Member
can be described as small basinal depressions on the ramp/
shelf area, which were relatively well restricted and less oxy-
genated. Slump structures reported in the lower parts (Görür et
al. 1997) may be related to the deposition on the margins of
these depocenters. Pink coloured calcareous shales, which al-
ternate with carbonate mudstones, indicate that some clastic
material was also transported into these depocenters. Hence
the depocenters were not far from the land area, which sup-
ports the view that, deposition occurred in depressions on the
shelf rather than in an offshore deep basin.
The thick- and well-bedded, dark blue, grey, partly dolomit-
ic limestones with few thin-bedded marl and shale intercala-
tions are typical lithologies of the conformably overlying
Gebze Member. The thickness varies between 100 and 150 m
(Önalan 1987/1988). It passes gradually into the nodular lime-
stones of the Kaynarca Member (Fig. 7). Haas (1968) argued
that its rich brachiopod and conodont fauna (Appendix) shows
an uppermost Ludlow—Lochkovian (Gedinnian in original). A
similar age is also suggested by Abdüsselamo˘glu (1977),
whereas Paeckelmann (1938), Baykal & Kaya (1963), Kaya
(1973), Önalan (1987/88) suggested a Lochkovian (in original
Gedinnian) age which should be considered as more likely for
the Gebze Member of the Istinye Formation. Thin-bedded,
dark coloured carbonate mudstones in the lower parts of this
unit and the transitional nature of its contact with the underly-
ing Sedefadasô Member show that the depositional conditions
were very similar to those of the Sedefadasô Member in the be-
ginning. As indicated by the increasing thickness of beds and
by lithologies such as fossiliferous carbonate wackestones, in-
traclastic pack- and grainstones suggest a transition towards a
ramp/shelf environment (Önalan 1987/1988). Some patch reef
developments and grainstones in the upper parts show that the
ramp was a relatively shallow one, also supported by thin marl
and calcareous shales in its upper parts. The shallowing may
be related to a sea-level fall during the Early Devonian.
The grey, nodular, thick-bedded limestones of the Kaynarca
Member transitionally overlie the Gebze Member. The thick-
ness varies and ranges between 20 and 75 m (Fig. 7). A rich
fauna of brachiopods, corals, conodonts, gastropods and trilo-
bites (Appendix) suggests a Lochkovian-Pragian age (Haas
Fig. 7. Generalized stratigraphic section of Paleozoic units of the Western Pontides in the Istanbul area (modified from Gedik et al. 2005).
YALÇIN and YILMAZ
1968). Abdüsselamo˘glu (1977) mentioned according to con-
odonts a Late Ludlow—Lochkovian age and Önalan (1982) a
Pragian (Siegenian in original) age after Pleurodictyum con-
stantinopolitanum Roemer, reported first by Bey (1867).
Boncheva et al. (2005) suggested for the nodular limestones of
the Kaynarca Member even a Pragian—early Emsian age based
on conodonts. Thick-bedded nodular carbonate mud- and
wackestones and a rich fauna are interpreted as indications of
deposition on a carbonate shelf/ramp environment, which prob-
ably started to get deeper during the earliest Emsian.
The limestones of the Kaynarca Member pass into calcare-
ous siliciclastics of the Kartal Formation, which also contains
some lensoidal limestone beds in its basal part. The siliciclas-
tics of the Kartal Formation are mainly yellowish brown, grey,
thin- to medium-bedded, sandy siltstones and shales. Calcare-
ous shales and limestone interbeds are common in the middle
parts of this unit, which is distinguished as the Kozyata˘gô
Member by Önalan (1987/1988). Towards the top, the se-
quence is mainly formed again by thin-bedded, yellowish
brown shales (Önalan 1987/1988). The Bostancô Member of
the Büyükada Formation overlies the Kartal Formation con-
formably. The thickness of the Kartal Formation varies be-
tween 600 and 800 m (Fig. 7). Calcareous shales and
siltstones are very rich in brachiopods, corals, trilobites, ceph-
alopods and ostracods. According to trilobites (Appendix)
Gandl (1973) assigned an Emsian—Eifelian age. Kullmann
(1973) reported a late Emsian—early Eifelian goniatit fauna
(Appendix). Whereas Kaya (1973) suggested according to
some corals (Appendix) a Pragian (in original Siegenian) –
Emsian age, Babin (1973) favoured an Emsian age on the ba-
sis of a rich pelecypod fauna (Appendix). Carls (1973) deter-
mined also early Emsian brachiopods (Appendix). Conodont
fauna (Appendix) from the Kartal Formation reported by Ge-
dik et al. (2005), by Boncheva et al. (2005) and by Saydam &
Çapkôno˘glu (2005) indicate an Emsian—Eifelian age.
The siliciclastic nature of the sequence together with arenit-
ic rocks and the existence of sparitic, bioclastic carbonate
wacke- and grainstones suggest deposition in a clastic shelf
environment. It was in general a relatively deep shelf as indi-
cated by sedimentary structures like lamination and fossil con-
tent. However, bioclastic intervals, sparitic cement and
arenitic beds show that parts of the shelf were affected by cur-
rents and storm waves. Furthermore, micaceous material such
as sericite, which is very abundant in silty and sandy intervals,
is an indication of a close erosional land area and relatively
short transportation distance. The fining-upward character of
the sequence represented by thin-bedded, laminated shales is
probably related to a deepening of the shelf area either due to a
sea-level rise or due to a flexure of the continental lithosphere
during the early Eifelian.
The Kartal Formation is overlain conformably by bluish
grey, black thin- to medium-bedded, nodular limestones,
which alternate with some thin light brown shales of the
Bostancô Member of the Büyükada Formation. The thickness
of this member varies between 10 and 50 m (Fig. 7). Accord-
ing to goniatites, trilobites, conodonts, ostracods and corals
(Appendix) an Eifelian—Givetian age is assigned to the lower
part of this member (Haas 1968; Kullmann 1973; Gandl
1973). Abdüsselamo˘glu (1963) reported an Emsian—Frasnian
age after conodonts and ostracods. Recently Gedik et al.
(2005) confirmed the Eifelian age based on new conodont
findings (Appendix). The limestones represented mainly by
micritic carbonate mudstones and partly laminated shale inter-
beds, small scale slump structures and well preserved fossils
indicate deposition in a low-energy marine environment. In
the light of the facial properties of underlying and overlying
units it is concluded that the deep shelf was converted into a
continental slope during the Eifelian.
The overlying Yörükali Member, which is first described by
Kaya (1973), consists of cherts and silicified shales with some
radiolarites. The cherts are grey to black, the silicified shales
grey to red. Both are thin-bedded, brittle and include some
small slump structures. The boundary with the underlying
Bostancô and overlying Ayineburnu Member is transitional.
The Yörükali Member may be up to 100 m thick (Fig. 7). Ac-
cording to ostracods (Appendix), Nazik et al. (2007) assigned
a late Frasnian age. Lithological association and sedimentary
structures suggest a deposition in a slope to basinal setting,
that is in a deep marine environment.
The Yörükali Member is conformably overlain by the Ay-
ineburnu Member, consisting of an alternation of blue to grey
nodular limestones and silicified shales. Chert bands and nod-
ules are also present. It passes into the silicified shales and ra-
diolarites of the Baltalimanô Formation. The thickness is
approximately 50 m (Fig. 7). Abdüsselamo˘glu (1963) sug-
gested a late Frasnian—Famennian age according to the con-
odonts (Appendix). Gandl (1973) reported on the basis of the
trilobites (Appendix) an early Frasnian age. Çapkôno˘glu
(2000) however indicated a Famennian age according to the
conodonts of the Upper expansa Zone. Similarly, Gedik et al.
(2005) also suggested Famennian according to new conodont
findings (Appendix). In contrast, Göncüo˘glu et al. (2004a) ex-
tended the upper age limit up to the middle Tournaisian based
on conodont data and argued for the Devonian/Carboniferous
boundary being located within the Ayineburnu Member. Fur-
ther detailed biostratigraphic studies will be required in order
to determine the exact age, but a Frasnian—Famennian age is
surely confirmed, since the silicified black shales, cherts and
lydites of the overlying Baltalimanô Formation are of Tournai-
sian age (Noble et al. 2008). The litho- and biofacies suggest a
deposition in a deep basin. Hence, during the Eifelian to Fa-
mennian period the shelf area changed gradually from a proxi-
mal deep ramp into a basin.
Litho- and biostratigraphy of the Devonian in the Çamda˘g-
In the Çamda˘g-Zonguldak area the Ordovician sequence up
to the marker horizon, the Aydos Formation, is similar to that
in the Istanbul area (Fig. 6), (Dean et al. 1997, 2000;
Göncüo˘glu 1997; Kozur & Göncüo˘glu 1998; Gedik & Önalan
2001). The differences mentioned by Gedik & Önalan (2001)
in the southern block of the Çamda˘g area can be considered
small and can be ascribed to lateral facies changes. However,
the overlying Ordovician—Lower Devonian succession in the
Çamda˘g area is remarkably different than that in the Istanbul
area. This part is represented by the Fôndôklô Formation and
consists of grey to brown shales and sandstones with some
DEVONIAN IN TURKEY –A REVIEW
Fig. 8. Generalized stratigraphic section of Paleozoic units of the Western
Pontides in the Çamda˘g area (modified from Gedik & Önalan 2001).
limestone interbeds. Brachiopods in the upper parts
indicate an Early Devonian age (Gedik & Önalan
2001), which was confirmed recently by Yalçôn et
al. (2007). Hence the Silurian/Devonian boundary
has to be located somewhere within the Fôndôklô
Formation. As in the lower parts of this unit no indi-
cation of a depositional break is observed, the
Silurian/Devonian boundary here has to be consid-
ered conformable as also stated by Gedik & Önalan
(2001). This contradicts the previous observations of
a disconformity at the Silurian/Devonian boundary
(Görür et al. 1997; Kozur & Göncüo˘glu 1998;
Göncüo˘glu et al. 2005b).
Devonian in this area was reported very early by
Berg (1910) based on the occurrence of Orthis and
Atrypa in an alternating sequence of shales, sand-
stones and limestones. He also pointed out the simi-
larity of this sequence with the Devonian in the
Istanbul area, probably with the Kartal Formation.
The Çamda˘g region was an area of interest mainly
because of an oolitic iron occurrence within the
Devonian succession (Kleinsorge & Wijkerslooth
1940; Kipman 1974; Gedik & Önalan 2001). Fur-
thermore within the framework of regional studies
on Paleozoic stratigraphy some aspects of the
Devonian units were also addressed (Aydôn et al.
1987; Kaya & Birkenheide 1988; Derman 1997;
Dean et al. 1997; Görür et al. 1997; Kozur &
Göncüo˘glu 1998; Gedik & Önalan 2001; Kozlu et
al. 2002; Göncüo˘glu & Sachanski 2003; Göncüo˘glu
et al. 2005b; Yalçôn et al. 2007). The Devonian in the Çamda˘g
area is represented by the uppermost parts of the Fôndôklô
Formation, by the Ferizli Formation and lower parts of the
Yôlanlô Formation (Gedik & Önalan 2001). The boundary
with the Carboniferous is located within the lower part of the
Yôlanlô Formation (Okuyucu et al. 2005).
The Fôndôklô Formation in its upper parts consists of an
alternation of grey, light brown, thin- to medium-bedded,
shales, siltstones and cross-bedded, laminated sandstones. The
sequence becomes more calcareous upwards. It is represented
by calcareous siltstones and mudstones, which locally alter-
nate with blue, grey, medium-bedded, fossiliferous lime-
stones. The entire Fôndôklô Formation is 300 to 450 m thick
(Fig. 8). The thickness of Devonian part is approximately
100 m. Brachiopods (Appendix) in this part of this unit sug-
gest an Early Devonian age (Gedik & Önalan 2001). From the
lower parts graptolites, conodonts and nautolids of Silurian
age are reported (Yanev et al. 2006). Recently Boncheva et al.
(2009) confirmed an age span of Silurian—Early Devonian on
the basis of graptolites from the lower part, of acritarchs from
the middle part and of the conodonts from the upper part.
Hence, for the entire Fôndôklô Formation a Silurian—Devonian
age is sure. Whereas Göncüo˘glu et al. (2005b) suggest an
unconformable boundary between the shallow marine
Lochkovian sandstones of the Fôndôklô Formation and the
underlying Pridoli black shales with Orthoceras-limestones,
Gedik & Önalan (2001) support a continuous deposition with-
out any break between black shales and sandstones. Facies
characteristics of the Fôndôklô Formation show a deposition
on a shallow mixed (clastic-carbonate) shelf during the Early
Devonian, which even gets shallower upwards, as indicated
by cross-bedded sandstones.
The Fôndôklô Formation is overlain by red, grey, fine- to
medium-bedded siltstones, shales and reddish, greenish, well
and thick-bedded, fine-grained, cross-bedded sandstones of
the Ferizli Formation. The sequence continues upwards with
thick-bedded calcareous siltstones and sparitic, iron-rich algal
limestones. The thickness of the unit is approximately 100 m
(Fig. 8). This unit is rich in fossils. Gedik & Önalan (2001)
suggest an Early Devonian (Pragian, in original Siegenian)
age according to fossils such as Hysterolides and Rhyconel-
lides, but, Kipman (1974) argued on the basis of brachiopods,
Uncinulus sp. and Megastrophia sp. and with red algae Sole-
nopora for a Middle Devonian age. For the overlying Manas-
tôr Member of the Yôlanlô Formation a middle Eifelian age is
reported in the light of a rich coral fauna (Kaya & Birkenheide
1988) and a Pragian—Emsian age by Göncüo˘glu et al. (2005b).
Therefore, the age of the Ferizli Formation can be considered
as Pragian—Emsian. Oolitic ferrigenous ore deposits, a typical
occurrence within the Ferizli Formation, cross-bedded red co-
loured sandstones show that the shelf area was getting shal-
lower during the late Early Devonian, where high energy
conditions were found. However, probably due to a break of
detritic material transport into the shelf area marine conditions
could prevail and the mixed shelf was gradually converted
into a carbonate shelf. The transition is represented by calcare-
ous silt to mudstones on top of the Ferizli Formation in the
Kabalakdere section (Yalçôn et al. 2007).
YALÇIN and YILMAZ
An alternation of nodular limestones, siltstones and shales,
greenish-yellowish white and thin- to medium-bedded, are
distinguished as the Manastôr Member of the Yôlanlô Forma-
tion (Kipman 1974; Gedik & Önalan 2001). This member
bears a very rich coral fauna, which is studied by Kaya &
Birkenheide (1988) and yielded an Eifelian age. As the Ma-
nastôr Member represents the basal part of the Yôlanlô Forma-
tion, Eifelian can be considered as the lower age limit of the
Yôlanlô Formation. The Yôlanlô Formation consists of grey,
dark grey, black, medium- to thick-bedded limestones, dolo-
mitic limestones and dolomites, which locally alternate with
thin-bedded, black, and calcareous shales. The total thick-
ness of the unit is more than 1000 m. The lower and upper
boundaries, respectively with the Ferizli and Alacaa˘gzô For-
mations are transitional (Gedik et al. 2005). The overlying
Alacaa˘gzô Formation is Namurian in age. Hence the age of
the Yôlanlô Formation is Eifelian—Visean, that is Middle De-
vonian—Early Carboniferous. This is confirmed by the fossil
findings (Appendix) of Aydôn et al. (1987). The transitional
upper boundary with the Alacaa˘gzô Formation is limited to
the Zonguldak area. To the west and south of Zonguldak in
the Çamda˘g area, upper parts of Yôlanlô Formation are erod-
ed and it is overlain either by the Permo-Triassic or younger
units with an angular unconformity (Fig. 8). The deposition-
al environment of the Yôlanlô Formation was a typical marine
carbonate platform/shelf, which lasted from Middle Devo-
nian until Early Carboniferous.
Devonian deposits are also reported from the Karadere-
Zirze area near Eflani (Fig. 1). Here, the Devonian units are
represented by conglomeratic quartzitic sandstones at the
base (Dean et al. 1997, 2000; Derman 1997), which discon-
formably cover the Silurian part of the Fôndôklô Formation.
According to Derman (1997) these sandstones are uncon-
formably overlain by greenish grey shales and red-coloured
mudstones, sandstones and siltstones, also Devonian in age.
This clastic sequence is also unconformably overlain by
Middle Devonian—Lower Carboniferous carbonates of the
Yôlanlô Formation. However, Yanev et al. (2006) reported in
the Karadere area only one unconformity, which is at the
base of the Devonian. These unconformities have been relat-
ed to sea-level changes by Derman (1997). This Devonian
succession with several unconformities, at the base and with-
in the unit itself, can be only partly correlated with the Devo-
nian of the Çamda˘g area.
The stratigraphy of the Devonian in the Istanbul and
Çamda˘g-Zonguldak areas are different from each other. The
Lochkovian—Pragian in the Istanbul area is represented by the
carbonates of the Dolayoba and Istinye Formations, whereas
during the same period the mainly detritic lithologies of the
Fôndôklô and Ferizli Formations were deposited in the
Çamda˘g-Zonguldak area. The lithological properties of the
following Emsian—Eifelian period are also different in the two
areas. The Kartal Formation in Istanbul was deposited on a
clastic shelf and upper parts of the Ferizli Formation and low-
er parts of the Yôlanlô Formation in the Çamda˘g-Zonguldak
area on a carbonate shelf. Also during the Givetian—Famennian
remarkable differences in facies of the two terranes resulted in
different lithological associations. This particular period of the
Devonian in the Istanbul area is characterized by a deepening
upward sequence, whereas it exhibits a stable shallow carbon-
ate platform/shelf environment in the Çamda˘g-Zonguldak
area (Yalçôn et al. 2007). This remarkable difference indicates
different paleogeographical settings of these two areas, which
will be discussed later.
Discussion and conclusions
The remarkably thick sedimentary successions of the Devo-
nian in Turkey are imbedded within an almost complete Pale-
ozoic sequence, ranging from Cambrian or Ordovician to
Carboniferous. Consequently, an almost complete Devonian
stratigraphy is represented at locations of different geological
settings in Turkey. Whereas the Devonian of the Arabian Plate
and of the Taurides exhibits some similarities, that of the Pon-
tides is quite different. The differences are caused by varying
facies, which has also affected the lithological associations.
The Devonian of the Arabian Plate, observed both on the
surface and in several oil wells in Southeastern Anatolia, is ei-
ther eroded at their top as in the Hazro High, so that the Upper
Devonian is often missing or it overlaps older units, as in the
Amanos Mountains and Hakkari, so that the Lower Devonian
is missing. Hence, the Devonian of the Arabian Plate is not so
thick as in the Taurides or Pontides. Devonian sequences at
both localities on the Arabian Plate consist of lithological as-
sociations representing a shallow shelf to tidal flat facies.
In the Taurides of Southern Turkey the Devonian is repre-
sented by a more than 1000 m thick sequence. Its contact with
the Silurian at the base and with the Carboniferous at the top is
transitional. Furthermore, within the Devonian sequence no
indications of significant depositional breaks are observed.
Hence, a complete Devonian sequence is represented. In gen-
eral a shallow marine facies ranging from inter- to supratidal
during the Early Devonian to a deep shelf during the Late De-
vonian is found. Mainly during the Middle Devonian some
reefoidal carbonates were also deposited.
The Devonian in the Pontides of northwestern Turkey, rep-
resented by the so-called Paleozoic of Istanbul and by the Pa-
leozoic of the Çamda˘g-Zonguldak area, exhibits remarkable
differences. The Devonian in the Istanbul area clearly indi-
cates a deepening upward sequence from a shallow shelf into a
basinal facies from the Middle Devonian to Carboniferous,
whereas that the Çamda˘g-Zonguldak area suggests a stable
The Devonian of Taurides and the Arabian Plate is an inte-
gral part of a thick and almost continuous sequence ranging
from Cambrian to Carboniferous. There are some facies
changes from north to south and from east to west, but, these
slightly different Devonian successions can be correlated
from the Taurid-Anatolid Block in the north to the Arabian
Plate in the south. As the Paleozoic of the Arabian Plate can
surely be assigned to Gondwana, the Devonian of the Tau-
rides and of Southeastern Turkey can also be identified as
Gondwanan in origin. Consequently, it can be concluded
that the Devonian of Southern Turkey was deposited on the
northern margin of Gondwana.
The paleogeographic position of the Devonian successions
in the Istanbul and Çamda˘g-Zonguldak areas, however, is a
DEVONIAN IN TURKEY –A REVIEW
matter of debate. The proposed models involve a Laurussian
(e.g. Görür et al. 1997) or Peri-Gondwanan (e.g. Göncüo˘glu
2001) origin as discussed in detail by Yanev et al. (2006).
Some indicators such as the type and age of the Neoproterozo-
ic basement of the Istanbul-Zonguldak Terrane (Okay et al.
2006), affinity of the Ordovician trilobites with Central Eu-
rope, rather than with Baltica (Dean et al. 1997; Dean et al.
2000) support a Peri-Gondwanan origin. However, a com-
pletely different Devonian lithostratigraphy and lithofacies,
absence of the Ordovician glaciomarine deposits, which are
represented both in the Taurides and in the Arabian Plate
(Monod et al. 2003), close similarity of the Devonian-Carbon-
iferous stratigraphy and facies of the Zonguldak area with that
of the Moesian platform (Kozur & Göncüo˘glu 1998) support a
non-Gondwanan origin for the Devonian—Carboniferous of
the Istanbul and Zonguldak area. Therefore, the Devonian suc-
cessions of the Pontides must have been deposited on a terrane
located north of the Paleotethys, as recently discussed by
Yalçôn et al. (2008). Accordingly, Pontides may have been
drifted from Gondwana either by the opening of the Rheic
Ocean during the Ordovician together with Avalonia or Ama-
zonia (Ustaömer et al. 2008, 2009) or later in the Silurian by
the opening of Paleotethys as a part of one of the Superhun
Terranes (Stampfli 2000; Stampfli & Borel 2002; Stampfli &
Kozur 2006). Observations, such as that the Ordovician fauna
of the Istanbul Zone with Avalonian affinities during the Early
Ordovician and a closer affinity to Baltica and Siberia/Lau-
rentia during the Late Ordovician (Kalvoda 2003; Kalvoda et
al. 2008), that the Devonian ostracod fauna (Dojen et al. 2004;
Nazik & Gross-Uffenorde 2008) and the brachiopod fauna
from the Emsian in the Istanbul Zone (Jansen & Nalcôo˘glu
2008) have both a Peri-Gondwanan and Laurussian affinity
support a Peri-Gondwanan (Avalonia and/or Amazonia) ori-
gin and the existence of a narrow seaway between these two
terranes during the Devonian.
Acknowledgments: This paper is a contribution to the
project “Paleoecology and Paleoclimate of Turkey-DEVEC-
TR”, which is supported by TÜBITAK-Turkey (Project Nr.
104Y218) and BMBF-Germany (Project Nr. TUR04/009).
Both institutions are kindly acknowledged for funding the
project. It is a contribution to the Project IGCP-499 ‘Devo-
nian land-sea interaction – Evolution of ecosystems and cli-
mate’, supported by UNESCO and IUGS. We also
acknowledge the support of Istanbul University Research
Fund, Projects UDP-2777 and UDP-1312. We also thank
Drs M.C. Göncüo˘glu and P. Königshof for their constructive
comments and suggestions, which helped very much to im-
prove the quality of the paper.
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252 YALÇIN and YILMAZ –
Conodonts: Lonchodina greilingi Walliser, Trichonodella inconstans Walliser, T. excavata Walliser, Neoprioniodus excavatus
(Branson & Mehl), Spathognathodus inclinatus (Rhodes), Ligonodina sp., Plectospathodus extensus Rhodes, Çoruh et al.
1997 and references therein
Ostracods: Beyrichiacea, Pachydomellidae, Eridoconcha sp., Çoruh et al. 1997 and references therein
Bryozoa: Rhombotrypa sp., Çoruh et al. 1997 and references therein
Graptolits: Monograptidae, Çoruh et al. 1997 and references therein
Corals: Aulopora tubaeformis Goldfuss, Diplophylum? sp., Fistulopora sp., Thamnopora cervicornis (de Blainville), Çoruh et
al. 1997 and references therein
Brachiopods: Strophochonetes sp., Microsphaeridiorhynchus sp., Howellela sp., Fardeina sp., Athyris cf. concentrica, Atrypa
reticularis (Linnaeus), Aulacella sp., Camarospira sp., Cleiothyridina sp., Cyrtina biblicata Hall, Dalmanella eifeliensis
deVerneuil, Hypothyridina sp., Katunia sp., Leptostrophia sp., Levenea sp., Nucleospira concinna n.sp., Uncinulus
elongatus Ünsalaner, Wilsoniella sp., Çoruh et al. 1997 and references therein
Mollusc (Gastropods): Nowackia sp., Çoruh et al. 1997 and references therein
Crinoids: Cyathocrinites sp., Çoruh et al. 1997 and references therein
Bryozoa: Rhombotrypa, Tolun (1949)
Corals: Thamnopora cervicornis de Biainville, Aulopora tubaeformis Goldfuss, Fistulipora sp., Monticuluporidae Ulrich,
?Diplophyllum, Tolun (1949), Lebküchner (1976)
Brachiopods: Dalmanella eifeliensis deVerneuil, Aulacella sp., Leptostrophia sp., Hypothyridina sp., Camarotoechia sp.,
Uncinulus elongatus Ünsalaner, Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus), Spirifer (Cyrtospirifer) verneuili Murch, Spirifer silvaniensis
Ünsalaner, Nudeospira concinna Hall, Camarospira sp., Tylothyris sp., Cleiothyridina sp., Athyris concentrica von Buch,
Cyrtina biplicata Ünsalaner, Rhynchospirina sp., Tolun (1949), Lebküchner (1976)
Crinoids: Cyathocrinites Miller, Lebküchner (1976)
Amanos and Hakkari Area
Ostracods: Jonesina craterigera (Brady), Chamishaella aff. tumidus (Kummerow), Geffenina aff. aspinifera Green, Tanyol et
Fish: Ctenacanthus cf. crenulatus McCoy, Strepsodus sp., Chirodipterus sp., Groenlandaspis sp., Acanthodidae, Janvier et al.
Foraminifers: Umbella ovate, U. cf. nana, U. cf. shahrudensis, Hypeammina sp., Perinçek et al. (1991)
Palinomorphs: Hymenozonotrilites lepidophytus, Vallatisporites pusillites Kedo, “HL-VP Zone”, Perinçek et al. (1991)
Brachiopods: Ptychomaletoechia sp., Spirifer aff. tornacensis Koninck, Rugosochonetes sp., Asyrinxia sp., Perinçek et al.
Fishs: Bothriolepsis canadensis, Holonema Newberry, Groenlandaspis seni Janvier & Ritchie, Gyropthius sp., Janvier &
Central and Eastern Taurides
Ayı Tepesi Formation:
Brachiopods: Strefedonta sp., Metin (1983)
Safak Tepe Formation:
Conodonts: Icriodus cf. brevis Stauffer, Polygnathus cf. webbi Stauffer, P. cf. parawebbi Chatterton, Göncüoğlu et al. (2004b)
Corals: Amphipora ramosa (Phillips), Thamnophyllum trigemme Quenstedt, Coenites sp., Calceola sandalina Lamarck, Özgül
et al. (1973)
Brachiopods: Cyrtospirifer aperturatus (Schlot), Spinatrypa cf. dorsata Biernat, Spinatrypa aff. asperoides Biernat,
Crytospirifer aff. schelenicus Nalivkin, Stringocephalus sp., Sayar et al. (2005, 2009)
Conodonts: Icriodus brevis Stauffer, Ancyrodella pristina Khalimbadzha & Chernysheva, Polygnathus stylus Stauffer,
Göncüoğlu et al. (2004b); Icriodus adanaensis n.sp., Icriodus fekeensis n.sp., Polygnathus antecompressus n.sp.,
Çapkınoğlu & Gedik (2002)
Palinomorphs: Auriculimembranispora (A. radiata and A. undulate), Akyol (1980)
Corals: Alveolites edwardsi Lecompte, Alveolites fecundus Lecompte, Alveolites intermixtus minor (Iven), Alveolites sp.,
Thamnopora reticulata (de Blainville), Thamnopora sp., Hubman (1991)
Brachiopods: Hypothyridina cuboides (Sowerby), Cyrtospirifer verneuili Murchison, C. verneuili echinosus (Lyashenko), C.
verneuili var. lonsdalii (Murch), C. verneuili var. grabaui Paeck, C. aff. quadratus Nalivkin, Desquamatia sp.,
Cyphoterorhynchus arpaensis (Abramian), Rhipidomella penelope Imbrie, Laminatia sp., Cyrtospirifer sp., Athyris cf.
concentrica (von Buch), Whidbornella caperata (Sowerby), Mesoplica praelonga (Sowerby), Schelwienella cf. percha
(Steinbrook), Sayar et al. (2005, 2009)
Trace fossils: Cruziana isp., Rusophycus isp. (trilobit trace), Planolites isp., Palaeophycus isp., Yılmaz & Demircan (2005)
Conodonts: Carniodus?, Carinthiacus (Walliser), Pterospathodus amorphognathoides Walliser, Hadrognathus
staurognathoides Walliser, Ozarkodina gaertneri Walliser, Carniodus carinthiacus Walliser, Neoprioniodus costatus
Walliser, siluricus and eosteinhornensis Zones, Polygnathoides siluricus Branson & Mehl, Spathognathodus
steinhornensis eosteinhornensis, Spathognathodus primus (Branson & Mehl), Spathognathodus inclinatus (Rhodes),
Ozarkodina denckmanni Ziegler, Trichonodella sp., Haas (1968)
DEVONIAN IN TURKEY –
Brachiopods: Howellella crispa (Hisinger), Conchidium pseudoknighti (Tschernyschew), Dayia navicula (Sowerby),
Platyorthis cimex (Kozlowski), Howellella cf. nucula (Barrande), Delthyris magnus (Kozlowski), Haas (1968)
Trilobits: Proetus barrangus n.sp., Calymene arotia n.sp., Encrinurus brevispinosus n.sp., Haas (1968)
İstinye Formation (Gebze Member):
Conodonts: Icriodus woschmidti Ziegler, Ozarkodina denckmanni Ziegler, Spathognathodus steinhornensis remscheindensis
Ziegler, Spathognathodus wurmi Bischoff & Sannemann, Spathognathodus steinhornensis eosteinhornensis Walliser,
Trichonodella insconstant Walliser, Haas (1968)
Brachiopods: Shaleria sp., Howellella nucula (Barrande), Rhynchonella sp., Syringopora sp., Bollia sp., Atrypa reticularis
(Linnaeus), Haas (1968)
İstinye Formation (Kaynarca Member):
Conodonts: Ancyrodelloides trigonica Bishoff & Sannemann, Icriodus woschmidti Ziegler, Icriodus latericrescens Branson &
Mehl, Spathognathodus wurmi Bishoff & Sannemann, Haas (1968)
Corals: Pleurodictium constantinopolitanum Roemer, Bey (1867), Önalan (1982)
Molluscs (Gastropods): Loxonema sp., Cyclonema striatum (Hissinger), Raphistoma sp., Haas (1968)
Trilobits: Cheirurus (crotalocephalus) copiosus n.sp., Spiniscutellum larviferum n.sp., Cornuproetus regulus n.sp., Haas (1968)
Conodonts: Polygnathus dehiscens Philip & Jackson, Polygnathus gronbergi Klapper & Johnson, Polygnathus serotinus
Telford, Belodella sp., Polygnathus linguiformis linguiformis Hinde, Icriodus corniger Wittekindt, Gedik et al. (2005);
serotinus, patulus and partitus Zones, Boncheva et al. (2005), Saydam & Çapkınoğlu (2005)
Ostracods: Zygobeyrichia roemeri, Gibba schmidti, Zygobeyrichia subcylindrica, Nazik & Groos-Uffenorde (2008)
Corals: Pleurodictyum problematicum (Goldfuss), P. constatinopolitanum Roemer, P. bithynicum Weisserm, Kaya (1973)
Brachiopods: Leptaenopyxis sp., Strophodonta? clausa (Verneuil), Leptostrophia explanata (Sowerby), Leptostrophia cf.
couviensis (Asselbergs), Mesodouvillina sp., Carls (1963)
Molluscs (Cephalopods): Anarcestes lateseptatus (Beyrich), Pinacites jugleri (Roemer), Mimagoniatites kayai Kullmann,
Molluscs (Pelecypods): Praectenodonta elegans (Khalfin), Nuculoidea grandaeva (Goldf), Nuculoidea cf. curvate (Maurer),
Nuculites truncates (Steininger), Nuculites cf. triqueter (Conrad), Nuculites ellipticus (Maurer), Phestia securiformis
(Goldf), Palaeoneilo? cf. beushauseni (Kegel), Pterinea concentrica (Roemer), Leiopteria gervillei (Oechlert), Leiptria
cf. globosa (Spriestersbach), Actinopteria costata (Goldf), Paracyclas marginata (Maurer), Paracyclas cf. belgica
(Maillieux), Paracyclas cf. rugosa (Goldf), Paracyclas cf. carinata (Kegel), Cypricardinia crenistria (Sandberger),
Cimitaria acutirostris (Sandberger), Orthonota sp., Grammysia sp., Cimitaria acutirostris (Sandberger), Babin (1973)
Trilobits: Pseudocryphaeus cf. proteus (Haas), Metacanthina asiatica (Verneuil), Metacanthina hammerschmidti (Richter),
Acastoides (Talus) n.sp., Trimerus fornix (Haas), Paramalonutus gervillei (Verneuil), Kayserops astiferus (Haas),
Phacops pantichionensis (Haas), Centauropyge pronemenaea, Haas (1968); Phacaops cf. turco praecedens (Haas),
Büyükada Formation (Bostancı Member):
Conodonts: Polygnathus linguiformis Hinde, Polygnathus pseudofoliata Wittekind, Polygnathus webbi Stauffer, Polygnathus
xyla Stauffer, Palmatolepis deliculata Branson, Palmatolepis deliculata clarki Ziegler, Palmatolepis
guadrantinodosalobata Sannemann, Palmatolepis triangularis Sannemann, Diplodella sp., Hindoedella sp., Bryandotus
sp., Haas (1968); Polygnathus costatus costatus (Klapper), Polygnathus costatus patulus (Klapper), Gedik et al. (2005)
Corals: Sringaxon bosporianicus (Weissermel), Kullmann (1973)
Brachiopods: Reticulariopsis sp., Haas (1968)
Molluscs (Cephalopods): Gyroceratites gracilis Bronn, Haas (1968); Latanarcestes noeggerati (Buch), Mimagoniatites cf.
kayai Kullmann, Anarcestes lateseptatus (Beyrich), Kullmann (1973)
Trilobits: Acastoides paeckelmanni (Richter & Richter), Phacops turco turco (Richter & Richter), Phacops turco praecedens
n.sp., Latanarcestes sp., Acastoides consobrinus asinarius, Pinacites jugleri (Roemer), Haas (1968)
Büyükada Formation (Ayineburnu Member):
Conodonts: Palmatolepis minuta Branson & Mehl, Ozarkodina cf. arcuata Branson & Mehl, Ozarkodina arcuata Branson &
Mehl, Palmatolepis glabra Branson & Mehl, Palmatolepis distorta Branson & Mehl, Abdüsselamoğlu (1963); Upper
expansa Zone, Çapkınoğlu (2000); Palmatolepis quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann, P. glabra prima Ziegler &
Huddle, P. glabra pectinata Ziegler, P. minuta minuta Branson & Mehl, P. subperlobata Branson & Mehl, P. rugosa
ampla Müller, Polygnathus glaber glaber Ulrich & Bassler, Icriodus altematus altematus Branson & Mehl, Mehlina
strigosa Branson & Mehl, Bispathodus costatus (Branson), Bispathodus ultimus (Bischoff), Branmehla bohlenana
(Helms), Gedik et al. (2005); Bispathodus stabilis (Branson & Mehl), Siphonodella lobata (Branson & Mehl), sandbergi
Zone, Göncüoğlu et al. (2004a)
Entomoprimitia sartenaeri Zone, Nazik & Groos-Uffenorde (2008)
Trilobits: Trimerocephalus mastophthalmus Richter, Gandl (1973)
Brachiopods: Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus), Howellella sp., Amphystrophia sp., Leptostrophia sp., Aulacella sp., Eospirifer sp.,
Delthyris sp., Rhynchonella sp., Dalmanella sp., Rhipidomella sp., Stropheodonta sp., Gedik & Önalan (2001)
Brachiopods: Uncinulus sp., Megastrophia sp., Kipman (1974);
Hysterolites sp., Rhynchonelloidea sp., Gedik & Önalan
Alge: Girvanella cf. wetheredi Chapman, Radiosphaera sp., Parathurammina dagmarera Suleymanov, Aydın et al. (1987)
Foraminifers: Endothyra sp., Calcisphaera sp., Aydın et al. (1987)
Corals: Lithostrotion irregulare (Phillips), Hyperammina sp., Aydın et al. (1987)
Brachiopods: Spirifer sp., Syringopora sp., Kaya (1973); Athyris concentrica (von Buch), Productella subaculate, Aydın et al.
Molluscs (Cephalopods): Anetoceras solitarium (Barrande), Mimagoniatites cf. zorgensis Kullmann, Kaya (1973)
Some of the fossil names, the validity and age-ranges of some fossils are no longer valid at present. However, they
have been used in their original form in order to maintain the originality of the respective cited publications.