GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, DECEMBER 2008, 59, 6, 537—544
New Paratethyan biozones of planktonic foraminifera
described from the Middle Miocene of the
Transylvanian Basin (Romania)
SORIN FILIPESCU and LÓRÁND SILYE
Babe -Bolyai University, Department of Geology, Str. Kogălniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania;
(Manuscript received March 4, 2008; accepted in revised form June 12, 2008)
Abstract: Recent investigations of the Upper Badenian and Sarmatian of the Transylvanian Basin revealed particular, small
sized planktonic foraminiferal assemblages. SEM investigation permitted more precise taxonomic interpretations of the plank-
tonic species. The Late Badenian assemblage – with trochospiral, microperforate, and pustulose Tenuitellinae – occurring
in relation to a transgressive event close to the end of the Badenian, makes possible an increased biostratigraphic resolution.
The Sarmatian assemblage with Streptochilus (biserial Chiloguembelinidae) provide evidence for the paleogeographic con-
nections to the Indo-Pacific area, and support new paleoenvironmental and biostratigraphic interpretations.
Key words: Badenian, Sarmatian, Paratethys, Transylvanian Basin, biostratigraphy, small planktonic foraminifera.
The Middle to Late Miocene tectonic and sedimentary evo-
lution of the Transylvanian Basin was markedly different if
compared to other intra-Carpathian basins. The active Car-
pathian subduction generated a high rate of subsidence and
deep-sea settings starting from the Late Badenian, as shown
by the sedimentary record (locally over 2000 m of sedi-
ments) and the microfossil content (Krézsek & Filipescu
2005; Krézsek & Bally 2006). A stratified water column,
with brackish surface circulation and poorly oxygenated bot-
tom waters, affected the distribution of the marine biota.
The Late Badenian to Sarmatian foraminiferal assemblages
of the Transylvanian Basin were the subject of several studies
during the last decades (e.g. Popescu 1979, 1995; Krézsek &
Filipescu 2005). However, the evolution and paleogeographic
significance of the small sized planktonic foraminifera occur-
ring around the Badenian-Sarmatian boundary and within the
Sarmatian are still poorly studied. Their relationship with the
sedimentary environment has been the subject of recent stud-
ies revealing new possible applications to sequence stratigra-
phy and biostratigraphy (Krézsek & Filipescu 2005; Filipescu
et al. 2006).
Material and methods
We focused on the planktonic assemblages recovered from
the deep-sea intervals of the Middle Miocene in the Transyl-
vanian Basin, which were ignored or incorrectly regarded as
reworked. The small microperforated planktonic foramin-
ifera recovered from several outcrops and wells were studied
and interpreted in order to clarify their biostratigraphic po-
tential and the relationship with the sedimentary environ-
The representative sections are located in the south-eastern
part of the Transylvanian Basin at Rupea, Raco u de Sus,
Făgăra , Vărd, Grânari, Toarcla, and Nicole ti (Fig. 1).
The micropaleontological samples were processed and re-
covered from the > 63 µm fraction by standard micropaleon-
Due to the small size of the planktonic foraminifera, spe-
cies were determined through light microscopy and con-
firmed by SEM photographs (JSM-JEOL 5510 LV scanning
New potential for planktonic assemblages
The particular biozonation schemes for the Paratethys
(Grill 1941; Cicha et al. 1998) can hardly be used for all the
particular settings in the Paratethyan basins. Different paleo-
geographic and paleoenvironmental settings promoted bios-
tratigraphic schemes for the individual Paratethyan basins or
sometimes at a national scale (e.g. Papp et al. 1974; Papp et
al. 1978; Kováč et al. 2007).
The biostratigraphic zonations of the Middle Miocene in
Romania (Fig. 2) experience the same problems (see biozo-
nations in Popescu 1975, 1995; Nicorici et al. 1994). The
biozones were usually separated in shallow-marine environ-
ments, where the assemblages were abundant and well pre-
served, but often based on benthic taxa; therefore these could
not always be entirely used for the deep-sea sediments in the
Transylvanian Basin and the Carpathian area.
The regional planktonic foraminiferal biozonation for the
Upper Badenian includes the single Velapertina Biozone
(Łuczkowska 1971). Recent attempts to increase the bios-
tratigraphic resolution of this thick sedimentary interval only
appealed to benthic taxa (Filipescu 2004). Fortunately we
managed to discover the biostratigraphic potential of a new
FILIPESCU and SILYE
and distinctive planktonic assemblage. These small sized,
microperforate characteristic specimens display an acme in
the uppermost Badenian and rare occurrences in the Sarma-
tian (mainly in the lowermost Sarmatian).
Most of the literature on the Sarmatian presented the very
limited connections to the open seas and brackish environments
(see Papp et al. 1974). Some recent studies (e.g. Filipescu et al.
2000; Piller & Harzhauser 2005) have suggested that the myth
of the brackish Sarmatian Sea is not very solid anymore. Even
more, our observations in the Transylvanian Basin could clearly
demonstrate that the Sarmatian still preserved typical marine
conditions and the connections to the open-seas were still large.
The presence of Sarmatian planktonic assemblages, consisting
of small microperforate trochospiral and biserial forms, give a
new correlation potential for the Sarmatian, and reveals new
possibilities for paleogeographic interpretations.
Fig. 1. Location of the investigated sections on the simplified geological map of the southern Transylvanian Basin: 1 – Carpathian units
(a – Mesozoic formations; b – Neogene volcanic and volcano-sedimentary formations); 2 – Paleogene; 3 – Lower Miocene; 4 – Bade-
nian; 5 – Sarmatian; 6 – Pannonian (based on the Geological Map of Romania 1 : 1,000,000). The Badenian tenuitellid sections are shown
with stars and the Sarmatian Streptochilus localities with squares.
Fig. 2. Foraminiferal biozonation in the Paratethys (based on Harzhauser & Piller 2004; Piller et al. 2007) and Romania (based on Popescu
1995; Filipescu 2004) and the position of the newly proposed biozones (ages based on the time scale chart of the International Commission
on Stratigraphy: www.stratigraphy.org).
PARATETHYAN BIOZONES OF FORAMINIFERA FROM MIDDLE MIOCENE OF TRANSYLVANIAN BASIN
The Late Badenian assemblage with small microperforate
The transgression at the end of the Badenian (MLM5 se-
quence – Krézsek & Filipescu 2005) can be clearly identi-
fied in several sections in the south-eastern part of the
Transylvanian Basin. A clearly marked package of hemipe-
lagic sediments occurring above the lowstand coarse-grained
sediments (e.g. Rupea and Făgăra ) preserves the proof of a
planktonic invasion. Our SEM investigations revealed that
most of the specimens are microperforate Globigerinitidae
belonging to the genera Tenuitella (Subfamily Tenuitellinae
Banner, 1982) and Tenuitellinata (Subfamily Globigeriniti-
nae Bermúdez, 1961) (Fig. 3).
Tenuitella (Fleisher 1974) include a closely related group
of small Cenozoic forms usually assigned to either Globoro-
talia or Turborotalia. The common diagnostic features of all
species placed in Tenuitella are the microperforate surface of
the wall; small pustules or crystallites are common on the
wall surface and may obscure the microperforations. Species
have a small test, with chambers arranged in a low trochospi-
ral coil, an umbilical to extraumbilical or peripheral low
arched aperture bordered by a narrow rim or lip, and a round-
ed, non carinated periphery.
Tenuitellinata (Li 1987) has a very similar surface to Te-
nuitella, but the aperture is intraumbilical.
The distinctive occurrence of this assemblage over the dif-
ferent sections in south-eastern Transylvania, in a relation
with a very clear transgressive event, thus having a good cor-
relation potential, makes possible the separation of a new
Tenuitellinata Acme Biozone
D e f i n i t i o n : The body of strata belonging to the distinct
transgressive interval from the top of the Badenian, with a
very high abundance of small microperforate planktonic for-
aminifera assigned to genera Tenuitellinata [T. juvenilis
(Bolli), T. pseudoedita (Subbotina), T. selleyi Li, Radford &
Banner, T. uvula (Ehrenberg)], Tenuitella [T. jamesi Li, Rad-
ford & Banner, T. minutissima (Bolli), T. clemenciae (Ber-
múdez)]. Other small species of Globigerina are also
present, but the size and taxonomic composition of the as-
semblage is different from the older Miocene assemblages.
A g e : Latest Badenian, above Velapertina Zone and below
the Anomalinoides dividens Zone (Fig. 2), in the distinctive,
widely (probably regionally) distributed, transgressive inter-
val of the MLM5 sequence (Krézsek & Filipescu 2005).
R e p r e s e n t a t i v e
s e c t i o n s :
E25°12’04”), Făgăra (N45°51’11”; E24°57’00”).
The deep-sea circulation in the Paratethyan basins was
controlled by the new climatic and tectonic conditions close
to the end of the Badenian. This made possible only the life
of new assemblages, different from the previously flourish-
ing Orbulina and Velapertina. As small, thin walled microp-
erforate, pustulose taxa, Tenuitella and Tenuitellinata have
been considered as shallow to intermediate planktonic spe-
cies (Majewski 2003). Their life in Paratethys was possible
only in the upper oxic waters, where the deeper earlier spe-
cies, larger and with a more complex surface texture, could
Although the characteristic species have longer strati-
graphic ranges, their importance resides in the abundant as-
semblages, showing a very good correlation potential due to
their wide geographic distribution in relation to the Indo-Pa-
cific transgression. It has to be noticed that small microper-
forate planktonic species, sometimes assigned to different
genera, were mentioned or figured from other Paratethyan
basins (e.g. Szczechura 1982, 2000; Rögl 1985; Cicha et al.
1998; Olszewska 1999; Bicchi et al. 2003).
Rare specimens of Tenuitella and Tenuitellinata (mainly
T. juvenilis and T. uvula) have also been identified in the
Sarmatian deep-sea sediments from many sections around
the Transylvanian Basin, and also in the wells drilled by
Romgaz in the Carpathian Foredeep and at the margin of the
Moldavian Platform. By tradition the small planktonics were
considered to be reworked (e.g. Popescu 1995). If we consid-
er that they usually occur in relation to the transgressive in-
tervals, clearly proven in our case by the sedimentological
characters in outcrops, wells and seismic sections, their pres-
ence in situ can be considered normal. Even if the hostile
conditions in the surface Sarmatian waters (low salinity and
offshore-directed flow), reduced the number of small plank-
tonics, their certain presence suggests open marine connec-
tions to the Indo-Pacific area, at least until mid Sarmatian.
The Late Sarmatian assemblage with biserial planktonics
Major changes in the diversity and composition of micro-
fauna occurred in the Sarmatian due to the paleogeographic
restrictions and climate alteration. Newly emerged continen-
tal areas produced a higher fresh-water input and initiated
dominant unidirectional surface currents. The surface basin-
wards-flowing currents probably stopped most of the possi-
ble planktonic invasions. Another effect was the separation
of the oxic surface layer from the anoxic bottom waters, and
therefore the inhibition of the benthic life (most of the deep-
sea sediments consist of allochthonous juveniles and re-
worked taxa only).
The low abundance and diversity of the Sarmatian fora-
minifera makes biostratigraphy a very difficult task in the
deep-sea sediments of the Transylvanian Basin. Due to the
generally accepted absence of planktonic foraminifera, bio-
zonations according to benthics (e.g. Popescu 1995) have
been applied with poor results.
Recent investigations of the Upper Sarmatian deposits in
the south-eastern Transylvanian Basin revealed several assem-
blages with very small biserial foraminifera, mainly belonging
to Bolivina or reworked planktonic taxa (Chiloguembelina,
Heterohelix). More careful SEM observations permitted the
identification of rare specimens of the biserial planktonic ge-
nus Streptochilus (Family Chiloguembelinidae Reiss, 1963)
(Fig. 4), a taxon of Indo-Pacific origin.
According to Brönnimann & Resig (1971), the genus
Streptochilus has a loop-shaped aperture bordered by a high,
collar-like projection, except for an inturned portion at the
FILIPESCU and SILYE
Fig. 3. Small microperforated planktonic foraminifera from the Late Badenian and Sarmatian of the Transylvanian Basin: 1—3 – Tenuitellina-
ta pseudoedita (Subbotina); 4, 7 – Tenuitellinata selleyi Li, Radford & Banner; 5, 6 – Tenuitella clemenciae (Bermúdez); 8, 9 – Tenuitelli-
nata juvenilis (Bolli); 10, 11 – Tenuitellinata uvula (Ehrenberg); 12 – Tenuitellinata sp. (1, 2, 11 – Sarmatian specimens from Toarcla; 3, 4,
6 – Late Badenian, Făgăra ; 5, 9, 10, 12 – Late Badenian, Rupea; 7 – Late Badenian, Raco u de Jos; 8 – Sarmatian, Mărtini .)
PARATETHYAN BIOZONES OF FORAMINIFERA FROM MIDDLE MIOCENE OF TRANSYLVANIAN BASIN
Fig. 4. Small biserial planktonic foraminifera from the Sarmatian of the Transylvanian Basin: 1—4 – Streptochilus globulosum (Cushman);
5 – Streptochilus aff. globulosum (Cushman); 6, 7 – Streptochilus latum Brönnimann & Resig; 8 – Streptochilus aff. latum Brönnimann
& Resig; 9 – Streptochilus sp. (1, 6 – from Vărd; 2, 7 – Nicole ti; 3 – Toarcla; 4,8 – oro tin; 5 – oar ; 9 – Grânari.)
FILIPESCU and SILYE
inner margin. The internal plate that connects succeeding ap-
ertural borders does not project freely into the aperture as a
tooth plate (as in the case of Bolivinitidae).
The occurrence of Streptochilus in the Upper Sarmatian
supports the separation of a new biozone:
Streptochilus Assemblage Biozone
D e f i n i t i o n : The strata containing Streptochilus [S. globu-
losum (Cushman), S. latum Brönnimann & Resig, S. subglo-
bigerum (Schwager)], the “small Bolivina assemblage” (see
the assemblages figured by Didkovski & Satanowskaja
1970; Venglinski 1975), and very rare microperforated tro-
chospiral small planktonic foraminifera.
A g e : Late Sarmatian (Fig. 2), equivalent to the Po-
rosononion aragviensis Zone of benthic foraminifera (trans-
gressive interval of the MLM7 sequence – Krézsek &
R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e c t i o n s : Grânari (N46°01’46”;
E24°58’21”), Nicole ti (N46°14’37”; E25°15’19”), Toar-
cla (N45°53’12”; E24°44’36”), Vărd (45°56’22”;
The assemblage with Streptochilus gives new elements for
paleogeographic interpretations and reveals a new biostrati-
graphic potential for the Sarmatian.
First of all, the presence of cosmopolitan planktonic taxa
demonstrates open marine connections to the east until the
In the modern oceans, Streptochilus occupies the oxygen
minimum zone and its highest frequencies occur in combina-
tion with the reduced water circulation and development of
the oxygen minimum zone during high sea level (Resig &
Kroopnick 1983; Resig 1993). During the Miocene, Strep-
tochilus could have been a part of the planktonic invasions
stimulated by periodic upwelling at the eastern border of the
Paratethys due to a seasonal pattern of the surface circulation.
Several species of Streptochilus were recognized in the
Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene, concentrated in the
tropical Indo-Pacific, with only a few reported occurrences
in the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic
oceans (Brönnimann & Resig 1971; Boltovskoy 1978; Resig
& Kroopnick 1983; Thomas 1987; Boersma & Premoli Silva
1989; Resig 1989, 1993; Flower 1999; Smart & Thomas
2007). In the Paratethys, Bicchi et al. (2003) mentioned S.
globigerum from the Badenian in Poland.
On the basis of the known stratigraphic ranges (de Klasz et
al. 1989; Resig 1993), the studied deposits with Streptochi-
lus could be correlated to the interval around the boundary
between the Middle and Upper Miocene.
Discussion of stratigraphic boundaries
It is important to observe that one of the peaks of microperfo-
rate planktonics (Tenuitellinata angustiumbilicata, T. pseudo-
edita, T. juvenilis) has been mentioned in the Late Serravallian
N13 Zone (McGowran & Li 1997). The equivalent of this event
could be correlated to the tenuitellid acme presented here.
The identified species of Streptochilus have first occur-
rences (FO) placed in a higher stratigraphic position than we
expected. S. subglobigerum first occurs in the early Torto-
nian, FO of S. latum is rarely mentioned before Tortonian,
and S. globulosum occurs sporadically from the Tortonian
(de Klasz et al. 1989). On the basis of the first occurrences of
Streptochilus species and the fact that no planktonic events
have been used so far to define the Sarmatian-Pannonian
boundary, a revision of the definition and probably shifting
the boundary into the Tortonian would be options to consider.
Two new planktonic assemblages have been described
from the Miocene of the Transylvanian Basin. The occur-
rence of these planktonic events within transgressive con-
texts gives them a very good correlation potential.
The tenuitellid assemblage refines the biozonation of the
marine Middle Miocene by introducing the second plankton-
ic biozone in the Late Badenian and creating a new anchor
point for the global stratigraphic calibration.
The presence of the biserial Streptochilus gives a new im-
age both on the occurrence of planktonics in Paratethys and
on the paleogeographic evolution of the region. Therefore,
new biostratigraphic opportunities have been opened at the
boundary between the Middle and Late Miocene.
The particular Sarmatian brackish assemblages, widely de-
scribed from all over the Paratethyan areas, lived mainly in
the shallow-marine marginal environments, influenced by
the continental freshwater input. Deep water assemblages
usually lack benthics (due to very poor oxygenation derived
from the water-column stratification), but rare planktonics
are present. The number of planktonics was reduced and re-
stricted to the transgressive intervals, due to the basinward-
dominant flow of the surface brackish waters.
The large Indo-Pacific connections persisted in the Para-
tethys until the Late Sarmatian (Tortonian).
Acknowledgments: This is a contribution to the Projects
ISES Netherlands “Sequence stratigraphy constraints on ver-
tical movements of the Transylvanian Basin border moun-
tains” and CNCSIS Romania “Sarmatian foraminiferal
assemblages from Southern Transylvania, and their signifi-
cance for the reconstruction of sedimentary facies”. L. Silye
expresses his gratitude to the Cushman Foundation for its fi-
nancial support. The authors wish to thank Dr. Katalin Báldi
(ELTE University, Budapest) and Dr. Katarína Holcová
(Charles University, Prague) for their reviews and useful
Banner F.T. 1982: A classification and introduction to the Globiger-
inacea. In: Banner F.T. & Lord A.R. (Eds.): Aspects of Micro-
paleontology. Allen & Unwin, London, 142—239.
Bermúdez P.J. 1961: Contribución al estudio de la Globigerinidea
de la región Caribe-Antillana, Ministerio de Minas e Hidrocar-
buros. Publ. Especial No. 3, Tomo 3, Mem. 111 Cong. Geol.
PARATETHYAN BIOZONES OF FORAMINIFERA FROM MIDDLE MIOCENE OF TRANSYLVANIAN BASIN
Bicchi E., Ferrero E. & Gonera M. 2003: Palaeoclimatic interpreta-
tion based on Middle Miocene planktonic Foraminifera: the
Silesia Basin (Paratethys) and Monferrato (Tethys) records.
Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 196, 3—4, 265—303.
Boersma A. & Premoli Silva I. 1989: Atlantic Paleogene biserial
heterohelicid foraminifera and oxygen minima. Paleoceanog-
raphy 4, 271—286.
Boltovskoy E. 1978: Late Cenozoic benthonic foraminifera of the
Ninetyeast Ridge (Indian Ocean). Mar. Geol. 26, 139—175.
Brönnimann P. & Resig J. 1971: A Neogene Globigerinacean bio-
chronologic Timescale of the Southwestern Pacific. In: Win-
terer E.L. et al.: Initial reports of the deep sea drilling project.
VII. Part 2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
Cicha I., Rögl F., Rupp C. & Čtyroká J. 1998: Oligocene—Miocene
foraminifera of the Central Paratethys. Abh. Senckenberg.
Naturforsch. Gessell. 549, 1—325.
de Klasz I., Kroon D. & Van Hinte J.E. 1989: Notes on the foramin-
iferal genera Laterostomella De Klasz and Rérat and Strep-
tochilus Brönnimann and Resig. J. Micropalaeontology 8, 2,
Didkovski V.Y. & Satanowskaja Z.N. 1970: Foraminifera from the
Miocene of Ukraine. Paleontologicheskyi Spravoshnik 4, 1—165
Filipescu S. 2004: Bogdanowiczia pocutica Pishvanova in the Mid-
dle Miocene of Transylvania – Paleoenvironmental and strati-
graphic implications. Acta Palaeont. Romaniae 4, 113—117.
Filipescu S., Popa M. & Wanek F. 2000: The significance of some
Sarmatian faunas from the southwestern part of the Pădurea
Craiului Mountains (Romania). Acta Palaeont. Romaniae 2,
Filipescu S., Silye L. & Krézsek Cs. 2006: Sarmatian micropaleon-
tological assemblages and sedimentary paleoenvironments in
the Southern Transylvanian Basin. Acta Palaeont. Romaniae 5,
Fleisher R.L. 1974: Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and bios-
tratigraphy. Arabian sea, deep sea drilling project. Leg 23A.
In: Whitmarsh R.B., Weser O.E., Ross D.A. et al. (Eds.): Ini-
tial reports of the deep sea drilling project. XXIII. U.S. Gov-
ernment Printing Office, Washington, 1001—1072.
Flower B.P. 1999: Planktonic foraminifers from the subpolar North
Atlantic and Nordic Seas: sites 980—987 and 907. In: Raymo
M.E., Jansen E., Blum P. & Herbert T.D. (Eds.): Proceedings
of the ocean drilling program, scientific results. College Sta-
tion, TX, 162, 233—246.
Grill R. 1941: Stratigaphische Untersuchungen mit Hilfe von Mik-
rofaunen im Wiener Becken und den benachbarten Molasse-
Anteilen. Oel und Kohle 37, 595—602.
Harzhauser M. & Piller W.E. 2004: Integrated stratigraphy of the
Sarmatian (Upper Middle Miocene) in the western Central
Paratethys. Stratigraphy 1, 1, 65—86.
Kováč M., Andreyeva-Grigorovich A., Bajraktarević Z., Brzobo-
hatý R., Filipescu S., Fodor L., Harzhauser M., Nagymarosy
A., Oszczypko N., Pavelić D., Rögl F., Saftić B., Sliva . &
Studencka B. 2007: Badenian evolution of the Central Para-
tethys Sea: paleogeography, climate and eustatic sea-level
changes. Geol. Carpathica 58, 6, 579—606.
Krézsek C. & Bally A.W. 2006: The Transylvanian Basin (Roma-
nia) and its relation to the Carpathian fold and thrust belt: In-
sights in gravitational salt tectonics. Mar. Petrol. Geol. 23, 4,
Krézsek Cs. & Filipescu S. 2005: Middle to late Miocene sequence
stratigraphy of the Transylvanian Basin (Romania). Tectono-
physics 410, 1—4, 437—463.
Li Q. 1987: Origin, phylogenetic development and systematic tax-
onomy of the Tenuitella plexus (Globigerinitidae, Globigerin-
inina). J. Foram. Res. 14, 4, 298—320.
Łuczkowska E. 1971: A new zone with Praeorbulina indigena
(Foraminiferida, Globigerinidae) in the Upper Badenian (Tor-
tonian s.s.) of Central Paratethys. Rocz. Pol. Tow. Geol. XL,
Majewski W. 2003: Water-depth distribution of Miocene plankton-
ic foraminifera from ODP site 744, Southern Indian Ocean. J.
Foram. Res. 33, 2, 144—154.
McGowran B. & Li Q. 1997: Miocene climatic oscillation recorded
in the Lakes Entrance oil shaft, southern Australia; reappraisal
of the planktonic foraminiferal record. Micropaleontology 43,
Nicorici E., Bedelean I., Mészáros N. & Petrescu I. 1994: The Mi-
ocene from the Transylvanian Basin, Romania. Carpathica,
Olszewska B. 1999: Biostratigraphy of Neogene in the Carpathian
Foredeep in the light of new micropaleontological data. Prace
PIG 168, 9—28 (in Polish).
Papp A., Marinescu F. & Seneš J. 1974: Chronostratigraphie und
Neostratotypen: Miozän der Zentralen Paratethys. Bd. IV: M
Sarmatien (sensu Suess 1866). VEDA SAV, Bratislava, 1—707.
Papp A., Cicha I., Seneš J. & Steininger F. 1978: Chronostratigra-
phie und Neostratotypen: Miozän der Zentralen Paratethys. Bd.
, Badenien (Moravien, Wielicien, Kosovien). VEDA
SAV, Bratislava, 1—594.
Piller W.E. & Harzhauser M. 2005: The myth of the brackish Sar-
matian Sea. Terra Nova 17, 450—455.
Piller W.E., Harzhauser M. & Mandic O. 2007: Miocene Central
Paratethys stratigraphy – current status and future directions.
Stratigraphy 4, 2, 69—170.
Popescu G. 1975: Etudes des foraminiferes du Miocene inferieur et
moyen du nord-ouest de la Transylvanie. Mem. Inst. Geol.
Geophys. Bucharest XXIII, 5—120.
Popescu G. 1979: Kossovian foraminifera in Romania. Mem. Inst.
Geol. Geophys. Bucharest XXIX, 42, 5—64.
Popescu G. 1995: Contribution to the knowledge of the Sarmatian
Foraminifera of Romania. Romanian J. Paleontology 76, 85—98.
Popescu G. 1999: Lower and middle Miocene agglutinated foramin-
ifera from the Carpathian area. Acta Palaeont. Romaniae 2,
Reiss Z. 1963: Reclassification of perforate foraminifera. Bull.
Geol. Surv. Israel 35, 1—111.
Resig J. 1989: Stratigraphic distribution of late Neogene species of
planktonic foraminifer Streptochilus in the Indo-Pacific. Mi-
cropaleontology 35, 1, 49—62.
Resig J.M. 1993: Cenozoic stratigraphy and paleoceanography of
biserial planktonic foraminifers, Ontong Java Plateau. In:
Berger W.H., Kroenke L.W. & Mayer L.A. et al. (Eds.): Pro-
ceedings of the ocean drilling program, scientific results. Col-
lege Station, TX, 130, 231—244.
Resig J. & Kroopnick P. 1983: Isotopic and distributional evidence of
planktonic habit for the foraminiferal genus Streptochilus Brön-
nimann and Resig, 1971. Mar. Micropaleontology 8, 235—248.
Rögl F. 1985: Late Oligocene and Miocene planktic foraminifera of
the Central Paratethys. In: Bolli H.M., Saunders J.B. & Perch-
Nielsen K. (Eds.): Plankton stratigraphy. Cambridge Universi-
ty Press, 1, 315—328.
Smart C.W. & Thomas E. 2007: Emendation of the genus Strep-
tochilus Brönnimann and Resig, 1971 (Foraminifera), and new
species from the lower Miocene of the Atlantic and Indian
Oceans. Micropaleontology 53, 1—2, 73—103.
Szczechura J. 1982: Middle Miocene foraminiferal biochronology
and ecolgy of SE Poland. Acta Palaeont. Pol. 27, 1—4, 3—44.
Szczechura J. 2000: Palaeoenvironments of the Middle Miocene
evaporite-bearing deposits from the Dzailoszyce Trough, Car-
FILIPESCU and SILYE
pathian Foredeep, Poland, based on microfaunal studies. Geol.
Quart. 44, 2, 119—135.
Thomas E. 1987: Late Oligocene to recent benthic foraminifers
from deep sea drilling project sites 608 and 610, northeastern
North Atlantic. In: Ruddiman W.F., Kidd R.B., Thomas E. et
al. (Eds.): Initial reports of the deep sea drilling project. U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, 94, 997—1031.
Venglinski I.V. 1975: Foraminifera and biostratigraphy of Miocene
sediments of Transcarpathian depression. Akad. Nauk Ukr.
SSR, 1—263 (in Russian).