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The Mississippian in the Central and Eastern Taurides

(Turkey): constraints on the tectonic setting of the Tauride-

Anatolide Platform



















METU, Department of Geological Engineering, 06531 Ankara, Turkey;


KTÜ, Department of Geological Engineering, Trabzon, Turkey


MTA, Natural History Museum, Ankara, Turkey


Department of Geological Sciences and Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557-0138, USA


MTA, Geological Research Department, Ankara, Turkey


Hacettepe University, Department of Geological Engineering, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey


Kafkas Sitesi 411. Sokak, No. 11, Çayyolu, Ankara, Turkey

(Manuscript received September 25, 2006; accepted in revised form March 15, 2007)

Abstract: Data from the Mississippian tectono-stratigraphic units in the Tauride-Anatolide Platform, Central and Eastern
Taurides, reveal that this region underwent incipient back-arc extension during the Variscan orogeny, but that rifting failed,
leaving a basin floored with highly extended continental crust. The stratigraphy of several tectono-stratigraphic units, the
Geyik Daûô, Aladaû, and Bolkar Daûô Units were studied in detail in the Sultan Daûô and Hadim areas in the Central and
Eastern Taurides. In the Sultan Daû area, the Geyik Daûô Unit contains shelf-type (shallow) marine clastics and carbonates
of the Middle-Upper Mississippian Gökdere Member of the Harlak Formation, overlain by shales and basic volcanic/
volcaniclastic rocks of the Kuz Member of the formation. The Mississippian age rocks in the Aladaû Unit around Hadim are
characterized by quartzarenites and carbonates of coastal to shallow shelf environment. The Bolkar Daûô Unit in the Hadim
area includes inner shelf-type recrystallized limestones, dolomites and oolitic limestones. To the north of Konya, however,
Middle Mississippian formations of the Bolkar Daûô Unit include metamorphosed olistostromal deposits with Silurian—
Upper Devonian olistoliths, which were generated in an extensional basin with back-arc type bimodal volcanism. In the
Cataloturan Nappe of the Bolkar Daûô Unit, in the Eastern Taurides, the Mississippian is represented by a basin/slope-toe-
type succession with an alternation of lithic tuffs, radiolarian cherts and pelagic limestones. It grades into Upper Mississip-
pian shallow-marine carbonates. The data presented suggest the presence of a north-facing system with slope (Cataloturan)
aborted rift basin (Konya-Bolkar Daûô) inner shelf (Hadim-Bolkar Daûô) coastal shelf (Hadim-Aladaû) and shallow-shelf
(Sultan Daûô-Geyik Daûô) along the northern margin of the Tauride-Anatolide Platform during the Mississippian.

Key words: Mississippian, Taurides, southern Turkey, paleontology, stratigraphy, tectonic setting.


The Tauride-Anatolide Platform is a continental
microplate or terrane that was separated from Gondwana
by the opening of the Southern Branch of Neotethys dur-
ing the Late Permian-early Mesozoic (e.g. Göncüoûlu et
al. 1997). It is considered to be a more or less stable plat-
form (e.g. Sengör & Yôlmaz 1981). The Alpine closure of
the Neotethyan oceans and telescoping of their margins
resulted in the reorganization of the Paleozoic—Mesozoic
successions within numerous tectono-stratigraphic units
in southern Turkey (Fig. 1). In the Central Taurides, six
distinct tectono-stratigraphic units are recognized (Özgül
1976, 1984). From north to south, these are the Bozkir,
Bolkar Daûô, Aladaû, Geyik Daûô, Antalya and Alanya
Units (Fig. 1). The Geyik Daûô Unit is considered to be
relatively autochthonous, located in the central part of the
platform, and is characterized by a fairly complete Paleo-
zoic succession in the Saimbeyli-Tufanbeyli, Geyik Daûô,
Homa-Akdag and Sultan Daû areas (Özgül 1976).

The Cambrian to Late Devonian period in the Taurides

is characterized by more or less continuous deposition
on a stable platform and platform margin (e.g. Özgül
1984; Göncüoûlu et al. 2004). Starting with the Missis-
sippian, probably related to the Variscan events in the
north of the Tauride Platform and the closure of a part of
the Paleotethyan Ocean, a tectonically active episode is
initiated, representing by bimodal volcanism and
olistostromal deposits (Özcan et al. 1989; Göncüoûlu
1997; Kozur & Göncüoûlu 2000; Göncüoûlu et al. 2004).
This event was interpreted as a result of back-arc rifting in
the northern margin of the Tauride-Anatolide Platform
(Özcan et al. 1990a,b), based on the characteristics of bi-
modal volcanism and depositional features indicating ex-
tensional tectonics.

A completely different tectonic setting has recently

been proposed by Stampfli (2000), Stampfli et al. (2001)
and most recently by Eren et al. (2004). In this model, dur-
ing the Paleozoic, the Anatolides (including the metamor-
phic rocks of the Bolkar Daûô and Aladaû Units of Özgül

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(1976) in southern Central Anatolia) were located at the
northern passive margin of the Paleotethys (sensu Stampfli
2000) that separated them from the rest of the Tauride-
Anatolide Platform. The northward subduction of this
ocean during the Carboniferous produced a magmatic arc/
fore-arc complex within them. During the Late Triassic
(Carnian), the passive margin sequences and the complex
(Anatolides) were attached to the Menderes-Tauride
Cimmerian block (the main bulk of the Tauride-Anatolide
Platform) during the closure of the Paleotethys.

In the view of these contrasting ideas and for a better

understanding of the Variscan-time events in the Taurides,
the authors studied the Mississippian successions in the
Central Taurides in the Sultan Daû (Göncüoûlu et al.
2000) and Hadim areas (Özgül 1997), which were less-
known compared to those in the Eastern Taurides (e.g.
Özgül & Kozlu 2002; Göncüoûlu et al. 2004). The aim of
this study is to elucidate the Mississippian tectonic events
along the northern edge of the Tauride-Anatolide Platform
through new data collected in the Central and Eastern
Taurides. We present the new Mississippian ages of these
units and correlate the Mississippian successions in dif-
ferent tectonic slices in the Geyik Daûô Unit (Sultan Daû
area), the Bolkar Daûô Unit (Konya and Hadim areas), the
Aladaû Unit (Had m area) and the Cataloturan Nappe
(Yahyali area). During the field-mapping in 1987—2000,
the authors studied several more or less continuous sec-
tions, where the geological relations of the slightly
metamorphosed Carboniferous rocks were relatively well-
preserved.  The conodonts, foraminifers and radiolarians
from the carbonate dominated lower parts of these sections
were determined by the second, fourth, sixth and the last

Stratigraphy of the Geyik Daûô Unit

in the Sultan Daû area

Paleozoic rocks make up the main bulk of the Sultan

Daû Massif and occur within the NW—SE trending tectonic
slices in the studied area that belong to the Bolkar Daûô/
Aladaû and Geyik Daûô tectono-stratigraphic units of
Özgül (1984). In the Sultan Daû area, earlier studies (e.g.
Haude 1968; Demirkol 1977, 1984; Öztürk et al. 1983,
1987) have contributed to the stratigraphy of the Paleo-
zoic by some fossil findings. The presence of multiple
tectono-stratigraphic units (Fig. 2A,B) has been intro-
duced more recently especially near the towns of Ak ehir
(Konya Province of Central Anatolian Region) and Çay
(Afyon Province of Aegean Region) by Eren (1990) and
Özgül et al. (1991a,b). In particular, Özgül et al. (1991a)
have verified the presence of Pennsylvanian carbonates in
different tectonic slices.

The Devonian to Permian successions of the Bolkar

Daûô/Aladaû Unit occur in the uppermost tectonic slice
that is known as the Çay Tectonic Unit (Özgül et al.
1991b). Here, the Upper Devonian-Carboniferous se-
quences (Degirmendere Formation) mainly comprise low-
grade metamorphic quartzarenites with bands and lenses
of conglomerates, recrystallized limestones/dolomites,
metavolcanic rocks and violet-green slates. The upper part
of the Çay Tectonic Unit is represented by an alternation
of recrystallized sandy limestones and was named as the
Elbis Dere Member. A limestone-band in the violet slates
includes late Bashkirian (Early Pennsylvanian) foramini-
fers (e.g. Profusulinella parva,  Pseudostaffella  sp.  deter-
mined by D. Altôner in Özgül et al. 1991b). The
“Girvanella Limestones” above the Elbis Dere Member

Fig. 1. Schematic map of the main tectonic units of southern Turkey (Taurides). 1 – Menderes and Kirsehir massifs, 2 – Bolkar Daûô
Unit,  3 – Bozkir Unit, 4 – Aladaû Unit, 5 – Geyik Daûô Unit, 6 – Antalya Unit, 7 – Alanya Unit. (Modified from Özgül 1976;
Göncüoûlu et al. 1997.)

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mark the base of the Permian and represent a key horizon
in the Aladaû Unit.

The Devonian to Permian successions of the Geyik Daûô

Unit in the Sultan Daû area are incorporated in the Çayözü
Group, which is tectonically interleaved with rocks of the
Çay Tectonic Unit (Özgül et al. 1991a). It is divided into
three formations. In ascending order these are: Engilli,
Harlak and Ilicak Formations (e.g. Özgül et al. 1991b).

Engilli Formation disconformably overlies the Upper
Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Seydi ehir Formation and is
mainly made up of quartzarenites and slate with crinoid-
bearing limestone lenses. The sparsely fossiliferous lime-
stone lenses in the upper part of the formation include
Dimitria seminoi,  Camarotoechia sp., Schuchertella cf.

Cyrtospirifer sp., Peneckiella miner,

Cyrtospirifer ex gr. grabaui,  Alveolites sp., Disphyllum sp.,

Fig. 2. A – Structural map of Sultan Daû area. Geological map of B – Deresinek and Eberdere area (Çay), C – Harlak (Ak ehir) area
(modified from Özgül et al. 1991a).

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corals and brachiopods indicating a Frasnian (Late Devo-
nian) age (Haude 1968; Özgül et al. 1991a,b). This succes-
sion is conformably overlain by the Gökdere and Kuz
Members of the Harlak Formation and is transitional
(Fig. 3) to the Pennsylvanian—Upper Permian Ilicak For-
mation (Özgül et al. 1991a).

Harlak Formation (Ak ehir area). The Harlak Forma-

tion in Sultan Daû area crops out along the NE edge of the
massif within NW—SE trending slices and was studied at
three localities, the type locality near Harlak village in the
Konya Province of the Central Anatolian Region, and the
Deresinek and Eber Dere sections in the southeast of the
town of Çay in the Afyon Province of the Aegean Region.

The type-locality of the Harlak Formation is on the

Ak ehir-Yalvac road in the vicinity of Harlak village
(Fig.  2A—C). It consists of a lower member (Gökdere
Member) of recrystallized limestone with quartzarenite,
sandstone and dark-coloured slate interlayers and an upper
member (Kuz Member) including violet and green slates
(Fig. 3). The Gökdere Member conformably overlies the
Upper Devonian Engilli Formation. The member begins
with an alternation of grey and green micaceous slates at

the base and continues with laminated recrystallized
limestones and slate bands (Fig. 4A). The limestones are
light grey, medium- to thick-bedded, laminated and
include crinoids. Bands and lenses of light grey dolomite
occur within the limestones. While the slates are black—
dark grey, mica-rich in the lower part they become
carbonate-rich towards the middle part. The upper part of
the member is composed of recrystallized limestone with a
typical pink and white lamination and includes thin bands
of pink slate. The conodonts are found in the middle part
of the laminated recrystallized limestones of the member
(Fig. 4A). Upwards, the amount of slates decrease and
quartzarenites and sandstones dominate. The sandstones
are beige, thick- and cross-bedded. The quartzarenites are
grey, fine-grained and thick-bedded.

The Gökdere Member is transitional into the Kuz Mem-

ber, which is comprised of grey-violet coloured slates with
rare bands and lenses of chlorite-rich metatuffs and also
basic lavas. In the upper part, up to 3 m-thick, bands of in-
tra-formational conglomerate lenses are observed (Fig. 3).
The variably rounded and deformed pebbles reach up to
7 cm in diameter and consist mainly of grey, white, pink
and yellowish limestones and quartz. The conglomerates
are generally lens-shaped and represent channel-fillings.
The upper part of the member is made up of an alternation
of green and grey coloured slates and grey sandstones
(Fig. 4A). The Harlak Formation is conformably overlain
by the Pennsylvanian—Upper Permian Ilicak Formation
that is composed of recrystallized limestones, alternating
with slates/calcschists. The Paleozoic succession in this
area is tectonically overlain by the Lower Permian
Deresinek Formation of the Bolkar Daûô/Aladaû Unit.

Deresinek section (Çay). Near the town of Çay in the

Afyon Province, the Gökdere Member of the Harlak For-
mation crops out to the north of the Deresinek village
(Fig. 2A,B). In this location, the upper part of the Gökdere
Member tectonically rests on the Upper Cambrian—Lower
Ordovician Seydi ehir Formation and is tectonically over-
lain by the lower Lower Permian limestones of the Bolkar
Daûô—Aladaû Unit (Fig. 4B). In this 20 m-thick section, the
upper part of the Gökdere Member and the violet slates of
the Kuz Member are absent. Conodonts were recovered
from laminated recrystallized limestones interpreted to be
the upper part of the Gökdere Member, close to the transi-
tion to the Kuz Member. These beds occur 2.5 m below re-
crystallized limestone beds with pink and white lamination,
a lithology that typifies the upper part of the Gökdere
Member in its type locality.

Eberdere section (Çay). In the Eberdere section to the

north of the ruins of Eberdere village (Fig. 2A,B), the
Gökdere Member of the Harlak Formation occurs again as a
tectonic sliver, sandwiched between the shales of the Cam-
brian-Ordovician Seydi ehir Formation of the Geyik Daûô
Unit and the recrystallized limestones of the Lower Permian
Deresinek Formation of the Bolkar Daûô/Aladaû Unit. In
this locality, the Gökdere Member is 65 m thick and com-
posed of grey, recrystallized limestone, calcschists with
green to grey coloured quartzarenite and slate interlayers
(Fig. 4C). Conodonts were found in the lower part of the

Fig. 3. Generalized columnar section of the Sultan Daûô  Unit in
Harlak village (Ak ehir). (Modified from Özgül et al. 1991a.)

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section. The rock units observed are interpreted as corre-
sponding to the laminated limestones of the middle part of
the Gökdere Member in its type locality. The structurally
upper part of the Gökdere Member is made up of an alterna-
tion of grey-pink-white calcschists and laminated lime-
stones with green-grey slates and sandstones.

Conodont data. The sections of the Gökdere Member

described above were sampled in detail for conodonts.
From a total of 56 limestone samples only three yielded

conodonts. Sample Sg219 is from the Eberdere section,
near the Elmasoynagi stream in Eberdere village (GPS lo-








) and was taken from grey coloured

recrystallized limestones alternating with calcschists in
the middle part of the Gökdere Member (Fig. 2B). Sample
Sg238 is from the Deresinek section from the Domuzalani
brook (GPS location:








) to the N of the ruins

of former Deresinek village (Fig. 2B) and was taken from
the recrystallized laminated limestones that correspond to

Fig. 4. Measured section of A – Harlak Formation near Ak ehir, B – The Gökdere Member in old Deresinek village, C – The
Gökdere Member in Eberdere village. 1 – pink-white, grey, brown quartzarenites; 2 – metasandstone lenses; 3 – dolomite lenses;
4 – grey-violet, green shales/slates; 5 – grey-green intra-formational pebblestone; 6 – grey, crinoid-bearing laminated, recrystallized
limestone;  7 – green mica-bearing shales/slates; 8 – green shales/slates; 9 – grey-black laminated, recrystallized limestone with
calcschist interlayers; 10 – pink-white-grey recrystallized limestone; 11 – grey-black—grey crinoid-bearing recrystallized limestone
with calcschist interlayers; 12 – grey-black—grey cherty, recrystallized limestone; 13 – reddish-black—brown dolomite, dolomitic
limestone; 14 – green-grey quartzarenites-bearing slate, 15 – conodont localities.

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the upper part of the member. The third productive
sample, Sg261 (








) was taken from the type

locality of the Harlak Formation on the Ak ehir—Yalvac
road cuttings, 2 km to the south of Harlak village
(Fig. 2C). The sample is from grey to dark grey coloured
and laminated recrystallized limestones, 25 m above the
base of the Gökdere Member of the Harlak Formation.

Fig. 5. Photomicrographs of the conodont faunas from the Gökdere Member of the Harlak Formation in the Sultan Daû region. All are
upper views of Pa elements. 1—2 – Mestognathus praebeckmanni Sandberg, Johnston, Orchard et Von Bitter. Both specimens are from
sample Sg261, scale bar = 140 and 185 µm, respectively. 3—10 – Gnathodus pseudosemiglaber Thompson et Fellows 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7
are from sample Sg261 while 8, 9 and 10 are from sample Sg219. Scale bar = 220, 135, 140, 150, 150, 120, 180 and 175 µm, respec-
tively.  11—13 – Gnathodus semiglaber Bischoff, 11 and 12 are from sample Sg219 while 13 is from sample Sg261. Scale bar = 160, 200
and 170 µm, respectively.

The conodont fauna in the Gökdere Member of the

Harlak Formation consists of the species of Gnathodus and
Mestognathus. The specimens are mostly broken and de-
formed, as a result of tectonic deformation. Sample Sg261
(Figs. 2C, 4A) yielded Gnathodus pseudosemiglaber
Thompson et Fellows (Fig. 5.3—7), Gnathodus semiglaber
Bischoff (Fig. 5.13), and Mestognathus praebeckmanni

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Sandberg, Johnston, Orchard et von Bitter (Fig. 5.1—2). The
most short-ranging taxon in this fauna is Mestognathus
praebeckmanni  Sandberg, Johnston, Orchard et von Bitter,
that occurs in the Upper typicus Zone to the anchoralis-
latus Zone, and may extend into the lower part of the
texanus Zone (von Bitter et al. 1986, text-fig. 5, p. 35).
This occurrence restricts the age of the sample 261 to the
late Tournaisian to the earliest Visean interval. Samples
Sg238 (Figs. 2B, 4B) and Sg219 (Figs. 2B, 4C) produced
Gnathodus pseudosemiglaber Thompson et Fellows
(Fig. 5.8—10) and Gnathodus semiglaber Bischoff
(Fig. 5.11—12).  Gnathodus pseudosemiglaber Thompson
et Fellows ranges from near the base of the Lower typicus
Zone into the bilineatus Zone, and Gnathodus semiglaber
Bischoff from within the isosticha-Upper  crenulata Zone
to the end of the praebilineatus Zone (Sweet 1988;
Blanco-Ferrera et al. 2005, fig. 5). The joint range of these
two taxa defines a late Tournaisian to early Visean age.

Stratigraphy of Bolkar Da


 Unit in Hadim and

Konya areas

In the Central Taurides, in the Had m area of the Konya

Province, Mississippian successions crop out in the
Bolkar Daûô and Aladaû Units but were eroded prior to
deposition of Dogger in the Geyik Daûô Unit. Variably

metamorphosed Mississippian rocks in the Central
Taurides that were attributed to the Bolkar Daûô Unit have
been reported in the Hadim (Özgül 1997; Altiner & Özgül
2001) and northern Konya area (Özcan et al. 1990b).

The Northern Konya area. In the Konya area (Fig. 6A),

Mississippian rock units are found within a highly de-
formed, very low to low-grade metamorphic Paleozoic
succession (Özcan et al. 1990a,b; Eren 1993; Göncüoûlu
& Kozur 1998). The lowermost rock unit in this area is
represented by distal turbiditic siliciclastic rocks, black
ribbon-cherts, and knockers of pelagic limestones and
metadiabases. The pelagic limestones yielded rich Sil-
urian conodont faunas dominated by simple cone con-
odonts (Göncüoûlu et al. 2001). The upper part of this
siliciclastic unit contains some thin-bedded, brown to
black limestone beds with late Ludlow conodonts. The
conformably overlying Bozdag Limestone (BL) is about
800 m thick and starts with late Lochkovian (A. delta
Zone) pink to black nodular limestones (Göncüoûlu et al.
2001) followed by grey-white, barren medium—thin-bed-
ded dolomites (Fig. 6B). The overlying nautiloid lime-
stone includes a late Lochkovian to Pragian conodont
fauna. The nautiloid limestone is overlain by medium—
thick-bedded limestones and dolomites with occasional
solitary corals and bands of “Amphipora Limestones”, a
Upper Devonian marker horizon of the Taurides. The up-
per part of the BL is represented by massive limestones.

Fig. 6.  A – Simplified geological map of the northern Konya area
(adapted from Göncüoûlu et al. 2003). B – Generalized columnar sec-
tion of Paleozoic and Mesozoic units of Konya area.

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The BL is unconformably overlain by an olistostromal

unit (Halôcô Group sensu Özcan et al. 1990a,b) with chan-
nel-fill conglomerates changing in the upper part into sand-
stones and conglomerates. The unit contains olistoliths of
neritic and pelagic limestones together with dikes, lava
flows (Kurt 1996) and trachyte domes alternating with

The olistoliths are mainly derived from the underlying

lower Paleozoic rock-units and include middle-Silurian
and Late Silurian-Early Devonian conodonts (Göncüoûlu
et al. 2000). They also include syn-sedimentary shallow-
water limestones with fossils (Fig. 7.1—4) belonging to
three genera of foraminifers (Bradyina,  Cribrospira and
Eostaffella) and one of algae (Koninckopora). The fora-
miniferal fauna and algae contain common, widespread
and important species and genera recorded in the Missis-
sippian standard and reference regions, such as the Dinant
Basin in Belgium, Russian Platform, southwestern Spain
and Ireland. The most characteristic and prolific form of
the foraminiferal fauna is the genus Bradyina. One species
of the genus was identified from the studied material as
Bradyina  ex gr. rotula (D’Eichwald), which is typical of
the upper part of the Asbian ( = Cf6 ) and first occurs in the
highest Asbian, but is also recorded in Brigantian ( = Cf6 )
rocks (Mamet 1974; Vachard 1977; Cózar & Somerville
2004). The base of the Aleksinsky Horizon ( = Cf6 ) can be
defined by the first appearances of Bradyina  ex gr. rotula
(D’Eichwald) in the Russian Platform and Urals (Kulagina
et al. 2003). It also occurs in the second part of the Cf6
(late Asbian) biozone in Aladaû Mountains (Cataloturan

Nappe) (Okuyucu & Vachard 2006). Cribrospira  ex gr.
panderi  (von Moeller)  is one of the guide foraminiferal
genera for the late Asbian and its first appearance defines
the base of the Cf6  biozone (Gallagher & Somerville
2003; Cózar 2004) in southwestern Spain and southern
Ireland. It disappears at the Asbian-Brigantian boundary
in southern Ireland (Gallagher & Somerville 2003). The
genus Eostaffella ex gr. mosquensis Vissarionova has a
rather long stratigraphic range from the middle Visean to
early Bashkirian, and is fairly abundant in the late Visean
(Vachard 1977; Brenckle & Milkina 2003; Cózar 2004;
Okuyucu & Vachard 2006). Koninckopora  ex gr.  inflata
(de Koninck) is very abundant in late Asbian rocks, but it
dramatically declines in numbers in the uppermost Asbian
to lowermost Brigantian (Cózar 2004; Cózar & Somerville
2004; Okuyucu & Vachard 2006;  for an accurate discus-
sion). Only one specimen, Koninckopora ex gr. inflata (de
Koninck), was recovered from the studied material. This
finding suggests that the age of the deposition can be as-
signed to the latest Asbian—early Brigantian ( = middle part
of the late Visean).

In the upper part of the formation channel-conglomer-

ates and coarse sandstones dominate and the succession is
regressive with shallowing-upwards sequences. After a gap
from the Late Pennsylvanian to Middle Permian, upper-
most Middle-Upper Permian shallow-water sediments and
Werfen-type (lowermost Triassic) continental clastics dis-
conformably overlay older units.

To the northeast of Konya, in a separate tectonic slice

the Ludlow siliciclastic rocks with lydites are para-

conformably overlain by shallow-water
limestones that yielded foraminifers of
Serpukhovian—Bashkirian age (determined
by D. Altôner).

The Mississippian rock-units in the

Konya Province are interpreted as prod-
ucts of an extensional basin on the N
edge of the Gondwanan Tauride-
Anatolide Platform, where deposition of
olistostromes and olistoliths is accompa-
nied by bimodal volcanism (Özcan et al.
1990a,b; Göncüoûlu et al. 2000). It did
not develop into a deep (oceanic?) basin
but remained as an aborted one, as de-
duced by the shallowing upward se-
quences (Göncüoûlu et al. 2000).

Volcanism. The metamorphic volcanic

rocks in the northern Konya area occur ei-
ther as dikes cross-cutting the Devonian
platformal limestones or as olistoliths
within the Mississippian greywackes of
the Halôcô Group. Less frequently, they
occur as domes within the olistostromes
in the Halôcô Group. Petrographical and
preliminary geochemical investigation
of metaigneous rocks of the Halôcô Group
indicate three compositional groups on



diagrams of Winchester &

Floyd (1977) as trachyandesites, rhyolites

Fig. 7. Characteristic foraminifers and algae from the Mississippian Halôcô Group
(Sample KC-16) in the Bolkar Daûô Unit in the Konya area. Scale bar represent 0.5 mm.
All specimens are from sample C-16. 1 – Bradyina ex gr. rotula (D’Eichwald), subaxial
section.  2 – Cribrospira ex gr. panderi  (von Moeller), sagittal section. 3 – Eostaffella
ex gr.  mosquensis Vissarionova, axial section. 4 – Koninckopora  ex gr. inflata (de
Koninck), oblique section.

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and subalkaline basalts (Fig. 8A). All of them are transi-
tional to tholeiitic affinity on Y/Nb diagrams (Fig. 8B) of
Pearce & Cann (1973). The N-MORB normalized trace
and REE elements patterns of all the metaigneous rocks in
the Halôcô Group show sharp negative Nb, Zr and Ti
anomalies relative to Th, La, Ce implying a subduction re-
lated chemistry (Fig. 8C). Considering the N-MORB nor-
malized REE patterns, the first group (metadiabase dikes
near Kadônhanô area) displays relatively flat LREE to
HREE pattern close to N-MORB (Fig. 8D). The second
group is made up of HP-LT metamorphosed basalts in
Karatepe. The basalts are characterized as relative enrich-
ment of LREE with strong depletion of HREE with respect
to N-MORB. The third group represented by metadiabase
dikes in Karamadazi Daûô (Yahyali area) also display
relative enrichment in LILE to the HFSE compared to
N-MORB. The fourth group (metarhyolites in Talas creek
in Yükselen village), with characteristic features of
subalkaline signature, displays a higher degree of enrich-
ment LREE relative to HREE with a sharp Eu anomaly
(Fig. 8D). The last group, represented by HP-LT
trachyandesites in Kadônhanô and Sôzma areas, show
clearly greater enrichment in LREE and sharp-strong
depletion of HREE with a very weak Eu anomaly
(Fig. 8D). On the Th/Yb-Ta/Yb diagrams of Pearce
(1983), the metavolcanic rocks (diabases, rhyolites and
basalts)  show signatures of subduction enrichment. The
trachyandesites in the Kadônhanô and Sôzma areas are dis-
placed to higher Th/Yb ratios with a sub-parallel trend to

mantle array which may reflect partial melting, fractional
crystallization and AFC (crustal contamination) on mantle-
derived magmas with subduction component (Fig. 8E). Ad-
ditionally on the La/Nb-Y diagrams of Floyd et al. (1991)
they plot in the area of back-arc basin basalts rather than
IAT (island arc tholeiites). However, the Karatepe basalts
in this diagram display a fore-arc platform basalt signature
(Fig. 8F).

The preliminary geochemical data suggest that all

metavolcanic rocks in the Halôcô Group are relatively en-
riched in LILE, LREE and depleted in HREE with nega-
tive Nb, Zr and Ti anomalies. These indicate that these
metaigneous rocks have a typical back-arc geochemical
signature and can be interpreted as reflections of back-arc
extension on a continental margin (the Tauride-Anatolide
Platform) that has been subjected to lithospheric thinning
producing the back-arc basin magmatic rocks.

Hadim area. To the south of Hadim, slightly metamor-

phic rocks of Carboniferous age are included in the
Kongul Formation (Özgül 1997). The Kongul Formation
conformably overlies Upper Devonian slates and includes
an alternation of dark coloured shales, mudstones, dark
grey biostromal limestones (Fig. 9A) rich in crinoids and
brachiopods and quartzite interlayers in its lower part
(Zidancik Member). The upper member (Mantar Beleni
Member) is made up, from bottom to top, of limestones
(wackestones and grainstones) and dolomites, respec-
tively.  While the limestone bands of the Zindancik Mem-
ber include Visean foraminifers, the overlying limestones

Fig. 8. A – Classification of the metamagmatic rocks of the Halôcô Group. B – Y/Nb discrimination diagrams of Pearce & Cann (1973).
C,D – N-MORB normalized multivariation and REE diagrams (normalization values from Sun & McDonough 1989); Tectonic discrimina-
tion diagrams of metamagmatic rocks of Halôcô Group. E – Th/Yb-Ta/Yb diagram (Pearce 1983). F – La/Nb-Y diagram (Floyd et al.
1991). Closed circle – metadiabase dikes near the Kadônhanô area, closed triangle – Karatepe basalts, closed diamond –  Karamadazô Daû
metadiabase dikes (near Yahyali), open triangle – trachyandesite in Kadônhanô village, reversed closed triangle –  trachyandesite in Sôzma
village, open square – metarhyolite in Talas creek near Yükselen village.







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contain characteristic foraminiferal assemblages of Visean—
Serpukhovian and Bashkirian—Moscovian. In an isolated
outcrop, Ekmekci & Kozur (2001) described an incomplete
succession of the formation with Moscovian conodonts.

In contrast to the olistostromal Mississippian in the

Konya Province, the coeval rocks in the Hadim area are
characterized by inner-shelf deposits.

Stratigraphy of the Aladaû Unit in the Hadim area

The limestone and quartzite dominated Carboniferous

succession (Fig. 9B) to the south of Hadim consist of the
Yaricak Formation (Özgül 1997). This formation rests con-
formably on Devonian coarse clastics and includes in its
lower part (Cityayla Member) typical black shales, silt-
stones and sandy limestones with Tournaisian macro-fos-
sils. The lower part of the upper member (Mantar Tepe
Member) consists of fossiliferous limestones. The middle
part is mainly composed of quartzites with bioclastic lime-
stone intercalations, whereas the upper part comprises
limestones with sandstone and quartzarenites. In this area
Özgül (1997) and Altôner & Özgül (2001) have reported
a continuous succession that covers the complete
Tournaisian—Moscovian time-span with several character-
istic biozones. The Tournaisian Stage could not be zoned
because of its rare foraminiferal content, but nine biostrati-
graphic zones for Visean, three for Serpukhovian, five for
Bashkirian and five for Moscovian were recognized by the
previous authors (Altôner & Özgül 2001). All the de-
scribed zones have been correlated with their equivalents
in Western Europe, the Eastern European Platform and
Russian Platform. However, one stratigraphic gap between
two zones of Moscovian (MT1 and MT2) and one prob-
able correlation for the last zone of Bashkirian was also re-
alized. The Pennsylvanian is at least partly present but not
yet studied in detail.

The depositional environment of the Yaricak Forma-

tion is coastal to shallow shelf and may include short in-
tervals of erosion and continental deposits during
Tournaisian—Visean and Visean—Bashkirian times (Özgül
1997).  Conglomerates with limestone dominated pebbles
and bauxite patched conglomerate lenses in the succes-
sion correspond to the indicated depositional environ-
ments of the sequence.

The Pennsylvanian is at least partly present but not yet

studied in detail.

Stratigraphy of Cataloturan Nappe in the Yahyali

area (Eastern Taurides)

The Cataloturan Nappe is a distinct tectonic unit in the

northern Aladaû Mountains at the western end of the East-
ern Taurides (Fig. 1) that was recognized in the pioneering
work of Blumenthal (1952). It is an exotic nappe, imbri-
cated with ophiolites and other Paleozoic-Mesozoic
nappes during their Late Cretaceous emplacement on the
Tauride-Anatolide Platform (Tekeli et al. 1984).

Fig. 9. Generalized columnar section of A – The Kongul Formation
of the Bolkar Daûô Unit, B – Yaricak Formation of the Aladaû Unit
in the Hadim area. 1 – conglomerate; 2 – quartzarenite—shale alter-
nation; 3 – quartzarenites; 4 – limestone; 5 – limestone, shale and
sandstone alternation; 6 – shale with sandy limestone interlayers;
7 – limestone with gastropods, crinoids and algae; 8 – oolitic
limestone with quartzarenite interlayers; 9 – quartzarenites with
foraminifers-bearing limestone interlayers; 10  – foraminifers and
algae-bearing limestone; 11 – quartzarenite—limestone alternations;
12 – limestone-clayey limestone-shale alternation with quartzarenite
interlayers;  13 – slate-quartzarenite recrystallized limestone
alternation;  14  – shale—limestone alternation; 15 – crinoid-,
brachiopod-, foraminifers-bearing oolitic limestone with rare shale
interlayers;  16  – foraminifers-, algae-bearing limestone with rare
quartzarenites and shale interlayers. (After Özgül 1997.)

The Cataloturan Nappe is characterized by the Missis-

sippian deep-water (basinal-lower slope) facies in its base
and shallow-water (shelf edge) facies in its upper parts
(Aksay 1980; Isik 1981; Okuyucu & Vachard 2006). In
the Nohutluk Tepe section, Isik (1981) established 12
biozones ranging from Tournaisian to Bashkirian, but the
recent study of Okuyucu & Vachard (2006) have demon-
strated that the latest age of the Nohutluk Tepe section is
late Visean. The unit exhibits deformation and low grade
metamorphism and correlated (Tekeli et al. 1984; Ayhan

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& Lengeranli 1986) with the Bolkar Daûô Unit of Özgül
(1976). We aimed to study the basal part of the nappe,
where cherts and volcanic/volcaniclastic rocks dominate,
using conodonts and radiolarians in our recent work. The
Cataloturan Nappe rests with a thrust contact on the Al-
pine ophiolites (Fig. 10), and the pre-Carboniferous units
are truncated. At the NE bank of the Dereyurdu Kapôsô
creek at 1.5 km southeast of Teknelikösk (at Kozan M34b1
quadrangle sheet, between coordinates 




  N :









  N :




 E) the authors measured a section

(Fig. 11). The basal part of the sequence (approximately
0—25 meters) consists of graphite-rich black shales with
dark-grey sandstones, which are very typical of the
Devonian-Carboniferous transition beds in the Eastern
Taurides (“D-C boundary anoxic event” in Göncüoûlu et
al. 2004). An alternation of thin-bedded dark grey lime-
stones and dark green volcaniclastic sandstones and tuffs
that reach up to 0.8 m in thickness continues upwards. The
volcaniclastic sandstones include a chloritized matrix and
angular fragments of plagioclase, less frequently quartz,
dacite and glass shards. The tuffaceous material is lighter
green in colour and occurs as thin, carbonaceous and
radiolaria-bearing bands and lamellae. Towards the top,
the tuffaceous intercalations are reduced and light green
siliceous bands alternate with dark grey limestones. The
measured section starts in the eastern side of the creek
with the cherty limestones. Between samples 00 CO 1 and
00 CO 36, the sequence is mainly characterized by alterna-
tions of limestones, cherts and mudstones (Fig. 11).

The limestones are black to grey-beige in colour, thin-

to medium-bedded and rich in organic matter and pyrite.
The cherts are black in colour, thin-bedded, mainly nodu-
lar sometimes band-like. Towards the top, the thickness of
the chert bands gradually decreases and they become more
nodular. The interbedded mudstones are mainly thin-bed-
ded and their colour changes from yellow-dark grey to
green due to their volcanic constituents. The upper part of

the section (approximately 100—160 m from sample
00 CO 37 to sample 00 CO 41; Fig. 11) is represented by
the alternations of dark grey to black in colour, thin- to
medium-bedded limestones and dark grey mudstones. The
limestones are partly dolomitic with some black chert
nodules. The measured part of the section is rich in radi-
olarians and conodonts (Fig. 12.1—14). The first benthic
foraminifers were detected at sample 00 CO42 together
with crinoids and they become more abundant upwardly.
From this point to the end of the section, the common li-
thology is limestone with mudstone interbeds and has
been recently published by Okuyucu & Vachard (2006). A
thick late Visean succession with eighty taxa of algae,
foraminifers and calcareous microproblematica has been de-
fined from 00 CO 42 to the end of the section (00 CO 98) and
this interval subdivided into three informal assemblage
biozones by this authors as Howchinia bradyana—
Lituotubella magna—Koktjubina (?) sp.  biozone,  Bradyina
rotula—Euxinita tauridiana biozone, 


typica  and  Biseriella  aff. parva biozone. According to
Okuyucu & Vachard (2006) the assemblages of the studied
section in the Cataloturan Nappe is typically Northwestern
Paleotethyan and based on the occurrence and biogeo-
graphical distribution of the Euxinita, the Anatolides-
Taurides and Pontides blocks were paleogeographically
linked and located near the northwestern border of the

Although abundant radiolarians were detected from thin

sections, very few of them were extracted from limestones
(only from sample 00 CO 6) because of extensive calcifica-
tion. Better radiolarians were recovered from the chert
beds in sample 00 CO10. Although relatively abundant
conodont elements were extracted from sample 00 CO 4 to
00 CO18, very rare elements of conodonts (sample
00 CO35) were obtained from the upper part of the section.

The samples studied mainly include Pa elements of

Gnathodus pseudosemiglaber Thompson et Fellows

Fig. 10. Geological map of the area around Nohutluk Tepe section in Catalo-
turan Nappe. 1 – Carboniferous rock units; 2 – Senonian ophiolitic mélange;
3 – thrust fault; 4 – settlement; 5 – dip and strike of bedding; 6 – drainage
systems; 7 – main roads; 8 – location of the Nohutluk Tepe section. (Modified
from Aksay 1980.)

(Fig. 12.1—4). This species ranges from near
the base of the Lower typicus  Zone into the
bilineatus Zone (Sweet 1988; Blanco-Ferrera
et al. 2005) (Fig. 5), and defines the late
Tournaisian to early Visean interval (Missis-
sippian). In the conodont biofacies model for
the Early Mississippian anchoralis-latus
Zone of Sandberg et Gutschick (1984) the

Gnathodus occurs within the

gnathodid-pseudopolygnathid biofacies of
the foreslope environment. Gnathodus and
Pseudopolygnathus were nectobenthic slope
dwellers, whose living environment dimin-
ishes towards the dysaerobic levels (Sandberg
& Gutschick 1984).

The radiolarians include the Albaillella

paradoxa group Deflandre, 1952 (Fig. 12.5),
Belowea variabilis Won, 1983 (Fig. 12.6—11),
Entactinia sp. (Fig. 12.12—13) and Archo-
cyrtium sp. (Fig. 12.14).

On the basis of the radiolarian fauna, the

assemblage is assigned to a late Tournaisian

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through Visean age. The Albaillella paradoxa group
taxa are known from the early Tournaisian (Tn2) through
the early Visean in both Europe and North America
(Holdsworth & Jones 1980; Braun 1990). In Germany,
where the radiolarian strata are fairly well constrained by
goniatites and conodonts, the range of A. paradoxa cor-
responds to the Pericyclus princeps through P. kochi
Zones (Braun 1990). Belowea variabilis Won is also re-
stricted to the late Tournaisian—early Visean, by making
its first appearance slightly above A. paradoxa in the
Pericyclus plicatilis-corpulentum Zone in Germany, and
in terms of conodont zones, this interval correlates to the

Fig. 11. Basal part of the Nohutluk Tepe section from the
Nohutluk Formation in the Cataloturan Nappe.

typicus through texanus Zones (Braun & Schmidt-Effing

Discussion and conclusions

Disregarding some models inconsistent with local geol-

ogy (e.g. Stampfli et al. 2001; Eren et al. 2004), since
Sengör & Yôlmaz (1981) there has been overall agreement
that the Tauride-Anatolide Platform remained mainly as a
single tectonic unit (Sengör 1984; Göncüoûlu et al. 1997,
2000, 2003; Okay & Tüysüz 1999) until its disintegration
during the Late Permian-early Mesozoic by the opening of
the Neotethyan oceanic branches. It is also commonly ac-
cepted that this platform was deformed by thrusting and
nappe-emplacement during the Alpine closure of the
above-mentioned oceans. These compressional tectonics
caused a thrust-stacking of the Paleozoic-Mesozoic suc-
cessions. As briefly mentioned above, Özgül (1976, 1984)
proposed a restoration of the northern platform margin, by
which the Aladaû and Bolkar Daûô tectono-stratigraphic
units were positioned to the north of the Geyik Daûô Unit.
Both of them are “distinguished and differentiated from
each other by their stratigraphic position, character of
metamorphism, and their present structural position
(Özgül 1976)”. For the Bolkar Daûô Unit for example, the
main criteria are the metamorphism and the Late Permian
unconformity, which are lacking in the Aladaû and
Geyik Daûô Units. Aladaû Unit, on the other hand, shows
a continuous deposition throughout the Devonian—end
Paleozoic period and includes very typical local key hori-
zons and facies in Carboniferous (Siphonophyllia Zone),
and Permian (Girvanella Limestones facies (Calcaires  à
Girvanellas Güvenç, 1965) and Pseudoschwagerina

Even if this overall approach is applicable to the main

tectonic units, several tectonic slices in the Central
Taurides cannot be easily affiliated to one of them, when
the stratigraphic intervals do not include the characteristic
features such as unconformities or typical bio- and
lithofacies. Moreover, successions of Aladaû- and/or Geyik
Daûô type lithostratigraphic units may show metamor-
phism. This is especially the case in the northern Sultan
Daûô, Konya and Hadim areas, as reported in this paper. In
the Sultan Daûô area, both the Çayözü Group of Geyik
Daûô Unit as well as the Çay Tectonic Unit of the Aladaû/
Bolkar Daûô Unit are metamorphic and rarely include
fossils. Moreover, recrystallized carbonates of different
tectono-stratigraphic units are intensively interleaved.
Hence, interpretations based on the physical resemblance
of lithostratigraphic units or their state of metamorphism
without biostratigraphic data may lead to confusion (e.g.
Uguz et al. (1996) in Deresinek area; Ekmekci & Kozur
(2001) in Had m area and Eren et al. (2004) in Konya area).

Considering the depositional features within the late

Tournaisian to early Serpukhovian interval of the Bolkar
Daûô, Aladaû, and Geyik Daûô Units in several sections in
the Central and Eastern Taurides a palinspastic reconstruc-
tion of the Tauride-Anatolide Platform is proposed in

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Fig. 12. Photomicrographs of the conodont and radiolarian faunas from the Cataloturan Nappe in Yahyali area. Figures 1—4 are from
conodont fauna and figures 5—14 are from radiolarian faunas. 1—4 – Pa elements of Gnathodus pseudosemiglaber Thompson et
Fellows. 1 is from sample 00 CO 11, 2—3 are from sample 00 CO 12 and 4 is from sample 00 CO 16, scale bar = 260, 280, 220 and
190 µm, respectively. 5 – Albaillella paradoxa group Deflandre, sample 00 CO 10, scale bar = 260 µm. 6—11 – Belowea variabilis
Won, all specimens are from sample 00 CO 10, scale bar = 110, 105, 85, 95, 90 and 90 µm, respectively. 12—13 – Entactinia sp., both
specimens are from sample 00 CO 10, scale bar = 90 and 120 µm. 14 – Archocyrtium sp. Sample 00 CO 6, scale bar = 70 µm.

Fig. 13. It concerns the northern edge of the Gondwana
margin, facing toward a Paleozoic ocean. The slope to ba-
sin-toe-type Wenlock to late Lochkovian turbidites and
ribbon-cherts with pelagic conodonts in the Konya area
(Göncüoûlu & Kozur 1998) indicate that this ocean was
already open in the early Paleozoic and may correspond to

a southern part of Paleotethys (sensu Sengör 1984) or al-
ternatively the Paleotethys (e.g. sensu Stampfli 2000).

Starting with the early Lochkovian, an extensive car-

bonate platform was developed in this Gondwana margin,
as indicated by the very thick shelf-type limestones and
dolomites all along the Taurides (Göncüoûlu et al. 2004).

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The first indications of an extensional period on this plat-
form are recorded in the Middle Devonian unconformities
and volcanism in the Geyik Daûô Unit, interpreted as prod-
ucts of block-faulting.

The Devonian/Carboniferous (D/C) transition is charac-

terized in Geyik Daûô, Aladaû and Cataloturan-Bolkar
Daûô Units by the very typical black shales, indicative for
the D/C anoxic event (Göncüoûlu et al. 2004). Starting
with the late Tournaisian, the extension in the northern
edge of the platform in the Konya area has resulted in the
formation of the Bolkar Daû Unit as a marginal basin
deposition with olistostromes and olistoliths sourced from
the underlying Silurian-Devonian platform carbonates.  A
distinct bimodal volcanic activity with within-plate-type
alkaline lavas and domes together with calc-alkaline felsic
intrusive rocks (Kurt 1996; Eren & Kurt 1998; Eren et al.
2004) were generated in this basin.

The basin was very probably not extremely deep, as

only shallow-marine Mississippian carbonates but no ba-
sinal facies strata were identified (e.g. cherts or oceanic
shales).  Moreover, no mid-ocean ridge basalts or any other
volcanic rocks related to an oceanic lithosphere of late Pa-
leozoic age are reported. By this, it is suggested that this
basin was not floored with oceanic crust. The fact that the
upper part of this olistostromal unit is regressive, or up-
wards shallowing, is suggestive for a failed (aborted) rift.
Özcan et al. (1990b) and Göncüoûlu et al. (2003) initially
proposed that this rifting on the northern edge of
Gondwana was in a back-arc setting, above the southward
subducting Paleozoic oceanic lithosphere to the south of
the Sakarya arc (Fig. 13). Whether the extensional volcan-
ism is the product of the melting of this subducting slab or
was formed by the mantle uplifting cannot be deduced
from the available geochemical data of Kurt (1996). How-
ever, the new data presented above indicate that they may
have been erupted in a back-arc basin setting above the
northern Gondwana continental margin.

The late Tournaisian—Visean interval in the Cataloturan-

Bolkar Daûô Unit is characterized by the presence of
reworked basic volcanic material and tephra alternating
with radiolarian cherts and pelagic limestones. The car-

Fig. 13. Schematic reconstruction of the Tauride-Anatolide Platform for Mississippian.

bonate petrographic features (Aksay 1980) as well as its
faunal content are indicative for a slope to basin-toe-type
setting. We therefore place it in the most internal part with
regard to the Paleozoic ocean to the north of Konya-
Bolkar Unit. The Hadim-Bolkar Daûô Unit on the other
hand must be located to the south of the Konya-Bolkar
Daûô Unit, as it is mainly represented by inner shelf depos-
its. The Aladaû Unit in the same time-interval mainly in-
cludes shallow-marine to coastal deposits with indications
of erosional events (Özgül 1997). By this, the most appro-
priate position of this unit is a paleo-ridge between the
Bolkar Daûô and Geyik Daûô type successions, as initially
proposed by Özgül (1976). The Geyik Daûô Unit also rep-
resents a shallow platform in the period concerned. How-
ever, it also includes Mississippian basic volcanic rocks,
which were also known from Konya-Bolkar (Özcan et al.
1990b) and from the Cataloturan-Bolkar (Aksay 1980;
Tekeli et al. 1984) areas. The presence of these volcanic
rocks within the Kuz Member just above the conodont-
dated Göktepe Member indicates that the volcanic activ-
ity has affected the inner parts of the platform.

With the sole exception of the Cataloturan Nappe, all

the Bolkar Daûô-related units include the earliest Late Per-
mian angular unconformity, marking the closure of the
Carboniferous basin along the Tauride-Anatolide Platform.
Closure is ascribed to the marginal affect of the Variscan
events in the north (Göncüoûlu 1989).

To conclude, the reconstruction of the Alpine Tauride-

Anatolide tectono-stratigraphic units in the Central and
Eastern Taurides for the Mississippian time reveals the
formation of an aborted rift basin in a back-arc setting,
above a southward subducting Paleozoic oceanic plate
along the northern margin of Gondwana. The rifting did
not result in the formation of an oceanic crust. Instead,
rifting failed and the basin was progressively filled with
a regressive sequence. The regressive sequence was then
deformed, and unconformably overlain by lowermost
Upper Permian strata.

Our field data indicate an absence of a late Paleozoic—

early Mesozoic suture within the Taurides. Models sug-
gesting a “Paleotethyan suture” within the Taurides and

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advocating a northern “Paleotethyan passive margin posi-
tion” (e.g. Stampfli et al. 2001; Eren et al. 2004) for the
metamorphic units (Anatolides) of the Tauride-Anatolide
Platform are not supported.

Acknowledgments: This study includes unpublished data
of the first, fourth and sixth authors. Numerous colleagues
from the Geology Department of the General Directorate
of Mineral Research and Exploration, Ankara – Turkey
have contributed to this study during the field-studies be-
tween 1987 and 2000. Dr. D. Vachard (Lille – France)
and two anonymous referees are acknowledged for their
constructive comments.


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distinctive facies in the Taurus mountains (Aladaû region).
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Altiner D. & Özgül N. 2001: Carboniferous and Permian of the

allochthonous terranes of the Central Tauride Belt, Southern
Turkey.  Guide Book of Paleo-Forams 2001, 1—35.

Ayhan A. & Lengeranli Y. 1986: Tectono-stratigraphic properties

of the Yahyali-Demirkazik area (Aladaû region).  Bull. Geol.
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Blanco-Ferrera S., García-López S. & Sanz-López J. 2005: Carbon-

iferous conodonts of the Rio Cares section (Cantabrica Zone,
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Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg 133, 1—177.

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