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Nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Oligocene deposits in the

Grybów tectonic window (Grybów Unit, Western

Carpathians, Poland)






Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Kraków, Poland;

(Manuscript received July 22, 2005; accepted in revised form June 22, 2006)

Abstract: The Grybów tectonic window belongs to the Grybów Unit of the Fore-Magura Group of units. This tectonic
window is located in the marginal part of the Magura Nappe, and is composed of Oligocene – Grybów Marl
Formation and Cergowa Beds. On the basis of calcareous nannoplankton investigation the Grybów Marl Formation
has been assigned to Zone NP24, while the Cergowa Beds belong to Zones NP24—NP25. The Oligocene sequence of
the Grybów tectonic window (Grybów Unit) display strong similarities to sediments of similar age in the inner part of
the Dukla Unit in the Polish, East Slovak and Ukrainian sectors of the Outer Carpathians. On the basis of these
similarities it is supposed that the Grybów Unit continues towards the south-east as an innermost part of the Dukla Unit
(Ślączka 1971), and further on into the Ukrainian Carpathians as the Dusino (Berezna) Subunit within the inner part
of the Dukla Unit.

Key words: Oligocene, Western Carpathians, Dukla and Grybów Units, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy,
tectonic windows.


In the middle part of the Polish sector of the Magura
Nappe eleven tectonic windows were recognized. These
windows belong to the Fore-Magura Group (FMG) of
units, which occupied the intermediate position between
the Silesian and Magura Nappes (Fig. 1). The Obidowa-

Słopnice and Grybów Units, which are regarded as the
western and southern prolongation of the Dukla Unit, oc-
cur in the tectonic windows. These units are composed
predominantly of the Upper Eocene—Oligocene deposits.
There is a common understanding (see Książkiewicz
1962; Bieda et al. 1963; Geroch et al. 1967; Koráb &
Durkovič 1978; Olszewska 1981), that the FMG of units

Fig. 1. Tectonic map of the northern Carpathians (compiled by Oszczypko-Clowes 2001). 1 – crystalline core of the Tatra Mts, 2 – High
Tatra and sub-Tatra units, 3 – Podhale flysch, 4 – Pieniny Klippen Belt, 5 – Magura Nappe, 5a – Malcov Formation, 6 – Grybów Unit,
7 – Dukla Unit, 8 – Fore-Magura Unit, 9 – Silesian Unit, 10 – Sub-Silesian Unit, 11 – Skole Unit, 12 – Lower Miocene, 13 – Miocene
deposits upon the Carpathians, 14 – Stebnik (Sambir) Unit, 15 – Zgłobice Unit, 16 – Miocene of the Carpathian Foredeep, 17 – andesite,
18 – studied area. Su – Siary, Ru – Rača, Bu – Bystrica, and Ku – Krynica Subunits.

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contain transitional lithofacies, which linked the Silesian
and Magura Basins. In the last decade only a few stud-
ies have been carried out within the Grybów tectonic
window and although their age is generally accepted as
Oligocene there is still a need for more detailed biostrati-
graphic data.

The aim of this research was to establish the age of the

youngest sediments of the Grybów Unit, represented by
Grybów Marl and Cergowa Beds, and to settle their cor-
relation with similar sediments from the adjacent areas.
To solve this problem nannoplankton assemblages from
Grybów Marl and Cergowa Beds were investigated in the
Grybów tectonic window near Grybów town (Figs. 1, 2).
A right tributary of the Strzylawka Stream was chosen for
sampling, where the sediments in question are best ex-

Geological setting

The Grybów Unit, also known as the Ropa-Pisarzowa

Unit (Kozikowski 1956; Książkiewicz 1977), was estab-
lished by Świdziński (map in scale 1 : 200,000). In the Pol-
ish sector of the Outer Carpathians this unit occurs below
the Magura Nappe and is exposed in several tectonic win-
dows within the marginal part of the nappe (Figs. 1, 2). To-
gether with the Magura Nappe, the Grybów Unit is
overthrust onto the Dukla Unit or Silesian Unit (Figs. 2, 3).
The Grybów tectonic window is located ca. 2 km south of
the front of the Magura Nappe and stretches between the
town of Grybów in the SE and the Librantowa village in
the NW. The tectonic window is 200—300 meters wide and
up to 2 km long. The Upper Eocene?-Oligocene deposits
of the Grybów Unit are surrounded by the Inoceramian
Beds of the Magura Nappe (Paul 1991; Ślączka &
Kamiński 1998).

Previous biostratigraphical studies

The age of the youngest sediments of the Grybów Unit

is generally regarded as Oligocene. Hitherto existing
biostratigraphical, nannofosil and foraminiferal research
into this unit is scarce. The foraminiferal studies were con-
ducted by Kozikowski (1956), Blaicher (in Sikora 1960,
1970), Olszewska (1981). According to Olszewska (1981),
the Sub-Grybów (Klęczany and Ropa windows) and
Grybów Beds (Klęczany and Mszana Dolna windows) are
of Oligocene age.

Biostratigraphical studies based on nannofossils were

initiated by Smagowicz (see Burtan et al. 1992;
Cieszkowski 1992) in the Klęczany tectonic window. She
recognized nannofossil associations from the Sub-Grybów
Beds, which were characteristic for the latest Eocene—
Early Oligocene (Burtan et al. 1992; Cieszkowski 1992).
At the same time the Cergowa Beds (Sandstones) from
Marcinkowice belong to the upper part of Lower Oli-
gocene. Recently, a detailed calcareous nannoplankton
study of the Grybów Unit was carried out in the Mszana

Dolna and Szczawa tectonic windows (Oszczypko-Clowes
& Oszczypko 2004). In the Mszana Dolna tectonic win-
dow the youngest deposits were assigned to NP24 (Krosno
Beds, Dukla Unit) and NP23—NP25 (Cergowa Beds,
Grybów Unit) Zones. Similar nannoplankton ages were
also established in the Grybów Unit of the Szczawa tec-
tonic window. Zones NP22—24 were determined in the
Grybów Beds, whereas the Cergowa Beds belong to Zone
NP24 (see Oszczypko-Clowes & Oszczypko 2004).

In the adjacent Dukla Unit calcareous nannoplankton

studies were, so far, also sporadic and carried out by
Smagowicz (Olszewska & Smagowicz 1977). Foraminiferal
studies were lately conducted by Olszewska (1973, 1980).
They proposed the biostratigraphical scheme of the Upper
Cretaceous—Paleogene deposits from the Dukla Unit; which
was based on foraminiferal and calcareous nannoplankton


The oldest sediments known from the Grybów Unit

(Fig. 2) belong to the Jaworzynka Beds (Senonian—Pale-
ocene, see Oszczypko-Clowes & Oszczypko 2004). The
Lower to Upper Eocene green, grey and black shales,
with intercalations of fine- to medium-grained glauco-
nitic sandstones occur more frequently, and are known as
the Hieroglyphic Beds (Sikora 1960, 1970) or the
Klęczany Beds (Kozikowski 1956). Towards the top they
pass into greenish marl, a few meters thick, representing
the Upper Eocene with abundant Globigerina. This cor-
responds to the horizon of the Sub-Menilite Globigerina
Marls (SMGM) known from the all units of the Outer
Carpathians (Olszewska 1983; Leszczyński 1996, 1997;
Oszczypko 1996; Oszczypko-Clowes 1998). The Early
Oligocene is represented by a series of about 150 meters
of grey, dark green and black marls, and marly shales
with thin- and medium-bedded, micaceous, laminated
sandstones and several thick-bedded, glauconitic sand-
stones (Sub-Grybów Beds) distinguished by Kozikowski
(1956). The Sub-Grybów Beds pass upwards into the
Grybów Marls first distinguished as Grybów shales by
Uhlig (1888) and latter called by Kozikowski (1956) as
Grybów Beds. Sikora (1960) named them again Grybów
Shales. We propose to use the name Grybów Marl Forma-
tion. It is more appropriate due to their characteristic
lithological development, vast distribution and their dis-
tinct lower and upper boundary. For typical section we
propose the Strzylawka Stream with its southern tributary.
The Grybów Marl Formation  is represented by a series up
to a few hundreds meters thick, consisting of black, hard,
platy splitting marls with sporadic intercalations of thin-
and medium-bedded dark grey, soft marls  and thin- and
medium-bedded dark sandstones (Figs. 3, 4). Within the
upper part of the beds thick lenses of ferruginous dolo-
mites (siderites) occur. Locally, black argillaceous shales
are developed and thick-bedded, organodetritic sand-
stones occur singly. Within the highest part of the
Grybów Marl Formation there are intercalations of black

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cherts and also brownish siliceous marls with cherty
lenses (Figs. 3, 4). The lower boundary of the Grybów
Marl Formation is placed at the top of grey-green marls
from the Sub-Grybów Beds where the complex of black
marls appears.

The Grybów Marl Formation is overlain by a sequence

of more than 200 meters of grey calcareous shales with
grey, micaceous and calcareous thin- and medium- or oc-
casionally thick-bedded sandstones (Figs. 3, 4). The upper
boundary of the Grybów Marl Formation is sharp and lo-
cated where grey shales appear. The overlying sequence of
grey marls and sandstones display thinning and finning
upward sequence. These sediments were regarded as the
Krosno Beds (Kozikowski 1956), but they probably repre-
sent the more shaly lithofacies of the Cergowa Beds,

Fig. 2. Geological map of the Grybów tectonic window (after Ślączka 1973).

Fig. 3. Geological cross-section along the right  confluent of the Strzylawka Stream in Grybów.

which are known from the Dukla Unit (Ślączka 1971;
Koráb & Ďurkovič 1978).

Nannofossil biostratigraphy

Methods and sample preparation

During the field work 12 samples were collected from

the small southern confluent of the Strzylawka Stream
where a continuous sequence is exposed (Figs. 2, 3).

All samples were prepared using the standard smear

slide technique for light microscope (LM) observations.
The investigation was carried out under LM-Nikon—
Eclipse E 600 POL, at a magnification of 1000  using

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Fig. 4.  Exposures  of  the  Oligocene  sediments  of  the  Grybów  Unit.  A  –  Thick-bedded,  massive,  black  marls  with  intercalations  of  grey
marly mudstones, Grybów Marl Formation. Lower part of the right tributary of the Strzylawka Stream. Length of the hammer – 50 centi-
meters. B – Thick-bedded, massive black marls with intercalation of a thick layer of ferruginous dolomites. Strzylawka Stream. Length of
the  hammer  –  50  centimeters.  C  –  Thin-  and  medium-bedded  cherts  intercalated  with  very  thin-bedded  dark  brown  shales  within  the
higher  part  of  the  Grybów  Marl  Formation.  Right  tributary  of  Strzylawka  Stream.  Second  author  for  the  scale  (173 cm  high).  D  –  Layer
of siliceous marl, 30 cm thick, with intercalation of chert with irregular lower boundary. The highest part of the Grybów Marl Formation.
Right  tributary  of  the  Strzylawka  Stream.  E  –  Thin-  and  medium-bedded  grey,  laminated  calcareous  sandstones  and  grey  marly  shales.
The lowest part of the Cergowa Beds. Higher part of the right tributary of the Strzylawka Stream. Second author for scale. F – Secondary
folded Cergowa Beds in the higher part of the right tributary of the Strzylawka Stream.

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parallel  and  crossed  nicols.  Several  of  the  specimens  pho-
tographed  in  LM  are  illustrated  in  Fig. 5.


The  majority  of  the  examined  samples  yield  moder-

ately-preserved  nannofossil  assemblages.  The  relative
abundance  of  samples  is  usually  medium  to  low  (Table 1).

Grybów  Beds  (the  samples  7-14/02/N).  The  autochtho-

nous  assemblage  is  characterized  by  the  presence  of
Coccolithus  eopelagicus  (Bramlette  et  Riedel),  C.  pelagicus
(Wallich),  Cyclicargolithus  abisectus,  C.  floridanus  (Roth

et  Hay),  Dictyococcites  bisectus  (Hay,  Mohler  et  Wade),
Neococcolithes  dubius  (Deflandre),  Reticulofenestra  dictyoda
(Deflandre),  R.  lockerii  Műller,  R.  minuta,  R.  ornata  Műller,
Sphenolithus  dissimilis  Bukry  et  Percival,  S.  moriformis
(Brönnimann  et  Stradner).  The  most  abundant  are  C.
,  C.  floridanus,  D.  bisectus  and  C.  pelagicus.  The
youngest  species  determining  the  age  are  C.  abisectus  and
S.  dissimilis.

Cergowa  Beds  (15-18/02/N).  The  nannofosil  associa-

tion  is  characterized  by  the  co-occurrence  of  Coccolithus
,  C.  pelagicus,  Cyclicargolithus  abisectus,  C.
,  Dictyococcites  bisectus,  Sphenolithus  moriformis,

Fig. 5.  LM  microphotographs  of  calcareous  nannofossils  from  the  Oligocene  deposits  of  the  Grybów  tectonic  widows.  1  –  Braaru-
dosphaera bigelowii,
 sample 8/02/N. 2 – Cyclicargolithus abisectus, sample 7/02/N. 3 – Cyclicargolithus abisectus, sample 15/02/N.
4 – Cyclicargolithus floridanus, sample 8/02/N. 5 – Cyclicargolithus floridanus, sample 16/02/N. 6 – Dictyococcites bisectus, sample
8/02/N.  7  –  Dictyococcites  bisectus,  sample  18/02/N.  8  –  Helicosphaera  compacta,  sample  7/02/N.  9  –  Helicosphaera  euphratis,
sample  7/02/N.  10  –  Reticulofenestra  lockerii,  sample  7/02/N.  11  –  Reticulofenestra  lockerii,  sample  18/02/N.  12  –  Sphenolithus
 sample 16/02/N (//CN). 13 – Sphenolithus conicus, sample 16/02/N (45º/CN). 14 – Sphenolithus moriformis, sample 7/02/N.
15 – Transversopontis pulcher, sample 14/02/N. 16 – Zygrhablithus bijugatus, sample 18/02/N.

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Zygrhablithus bijugatus (Deflandre). The most important spe-
cies are C. abisectus and S. dissimilis. Samples 16—18/02/N
also contained S. conicus Bukry.

Biostratigraphical  interpretation

For the purpose of biostratigraphic analysis the standard

zonation of Martini (1971) was used. The Oligocene nan-
noplankton zonation is mainly based on the last (LO) or
first occurrence (FO) of sphenoliths. These typically warm
water species are rare or absent in the higher latitudes.
This is why, in those areas, the secondary zonal markers
should be used (Bizon & Műller 1979; Biolzi et al. 1981;
Perch-Nielsen 1985; Martini & Műller 1986; Berggren et
al. 1995; Melinte 1995; Fornaciari et al. 1996).

In the studied area the nannofossil association de-

scribed, from the Grybów Beds allow us to determine Zone
NP24. The FO of Cyclicargolithus abisectus is usually
found close to the FO of Sphenolithus ciperoensis (zonal
marker for the lower boundary of Zone NP24) and thus can
be used to approximate the NP23/24 boundary (Martini &
Műller 1986). In addition, Sphenolithus dissimilis Bukry
et Percival  was also observed.  The FO of these species is
characteristic for Zone NP24 (see Perch-Nielsen 1985).

The nannofossil zones determined within the Cergowa

Beds are not older than NP24 and NP25. The assignment
of Zone NP25 is based on the first occurrence of
Sphenolithus  conicus and followed by a continuous range
of  Cyclicargolithus abisectus, Dictyococcites bisectus and
Zygrhablithus bijugatus. The LO  of  Dictyococcites bisectus,
is the biostratigraphical event marking the upper limit of
NP25 (Berggren et al. 1995; Fornaciari et al. 1996). In order
to separate NP24 Zone from NP25, especially for areas with
limited connection to the open ocean (e.g. Paratethys), the
FO of Pontosphaera enormis has proven to be a useful event
(Martini 1981). If there is a lack of Pontosphaera enormis the
FO of Sphenolithus conicus can approximate the boundary
between NP24 and NP25 (Baldi-Beke 1981) Zones. The FO
of Sphenolithus conicus has been traditionally used as the
base of Zone NN1. However, Bizon & Műller (1979), Biolzi
et al. (1981) and Melinte (1995) have observed the FO of
these species as low as in the upper part of Zone NP25.

Corellation and discussion

On the basis of lithological characteristics and the

nannofossil age determination it is possible to correlate

Table 1: Calcareous nannofossil distribution in Grybów section. X – species determined and not reworked, R – reworked species.

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the Oligocene deposits of the Grybów Unit from the
Grybów tectonic window with that of the Grybów Unit in
the other tectonic windows as well as with Dukla Unit, in
Poland, Eastern Slovakia and Ukraine (Fig. 6).

The Oligocene sequence and calcareous nannoplankton

ages of the Grybów tectonic window correlate well with the
Grybów Marl Formation and Cergowa Beds of the Grybów
Unit of the Mszana Dolna and Szczawa tectonic windows
(Oszczypko-Clowes & Oszczypko 2004). There is also a
good correlation with the same deposits of the Grybów
Unit, Klęczany-Pisarzowa (Burtan et al. 1992), Ropa (Sikora
1960, 1970) and Świątkowa Wielka (Koszarski & Koszarski
1985) tectonic windows. The Grybów Marl Formation also
displays some similarities to the Menilite Formation depos-
its and the overlying Cergova Beds to the finely rhythmic
Krosno Formation exposed in the Smilno tectonic window
(Stráník & Hanzlíková 1968).

The Oligocene sequence of the Grybów tectonic win-

dow (Grybów Unit) displays strong similarities to the sedi-
ments of the same age present in the inner part of the
Dukla Unit in the Polish, East Slovak and Ukrainian sec-
tors of the Outer Carpathians.

The Sub-Grybów Beds show some similarities to the Papin

Beds (Koráb & Kotlarczyk 1977; Koráb & Ďurkovič 1978)
known from the innermost part of the Dukla Unit in the
Medzilaborce area (SE Slovakia). The Papin Beds were de-
fined by Leško (1958) as deposits of mixed Magura and
Krosno facies. Leško’s conclusion (1958) is based on the
presence of ‘Zlin lithotype’ (quartziitic sandstones with glau-
conite, and olive-green calcareous shales) characteristic of
the northern part of the Magura Nappe. A detailed investiga-
tion of Koráb & Ďurkovič (1978) documented the regional
distribution of these lithofacies in the Sub-Menilite Beds of
the Dukla Unit. According to these authors the Papin Beds
(50—300 m thick) are composed of “calcareous, micaceous
aleurolites with both horizontal and convolute lamination,
fine-grained sandstones, and sandy and organogenous-detri-
tal limestones”, and occasionally submarine slump deposits.
In the upper parts of the Papin Beds black calcareous shales
are also known. According to Samuel & Salaj (1968) fora-
miniferal assemblages of the Papin Beds and of the
Globigerina Marl horizon (SMGM) are the same. Within the
Papin Beds assemblages with Globigerina danvillensis
Howe et Wallace, G. ouachitanensis Howe et Wallace and G.
officinalis Subbotina were found (Koráb & Ďurkovič 1978).

On the other hand glauconitic sandstone and slump de-

posits within the Sub-Grybów Beds show some similarity
to the Mszanka Sandstones Complex from the Dukla Unit.
The age is also similar, as all these deposits ranged from
the Eocene/Oligocene boundary to the lowermost Oli-
gocene?. In the lower part of the Mszanka Sandstones,
above the SMGM, the nannofossil association indicates
Early Oligocene (Ślączka et al. 1991). Towards the south-
east where the Mszanka Sandstone Complex is replaced
by brownish shales and marls (Sub Cherts marls, Ślączka
1971) their age was also determined as Early Oligocene
(Olszewska & Smagowicz 1977).

The Grybów Marl Formation shows a strong similarity

to the Jawornik (Sub-Cergowa) Marls, especially to those

from the SE part of the Polish section of the Dukla Unit
where Jawornik Marls are less siliceous than in marginal
part. The lithology also corresponds to the Menilite Beds
in the inner part of the Slovak Dukla Unit (Medzilaborce
lithofacies). According to Leško & Samuel (1968) and
Koráb & Ďurkovič (1978) the lower part of the Menilite
Beds in this area consist of black and dark brown marls
with intercalations of black shales and thick layers of fer-
ruginous dolomites. The middle part of these Beds is char-
acterized by the occurrence of cherts and black shales,
whereas the upper part of the Menilite Beds is composed
of black, brown and dark grey calcareous claystones with
sporadic sandstone intercalations.

In the south-eastern part of the Dukla Unit of the Ukrai-

nian Carpathians, the Dusino Beds can be regarded as the
equivalent of the Grybów Marl Formation (Vialov 1954;
Danysh 1973). These beds reach 375 m in thickness. The
lower part of these beds is composed of black, calcareous
shales with intercalations of grey mudstones and occasional
cherts. The middle part of the beds are fine-rhythmic cou-
plets of grey calcareous mudstones, black and grey shales,
and black silicified limestones, while the upper part of the
beds consist of black and dark grey calcareous shales with
intercalations of thin-bedded sandstones and very thin lay-
ers of cherts (see Gavura in Pasternak 1988).

The Dusino lithofacies are also known from the

Marmarosh Flysch Zone (Smirnov 1973; Oszczypko et al.

In Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine the black marly shales

of the Grybów type are regarded as the Oligocene. The age
of Jawornik Marl was established as the Early Oligocene.
This age is based on foraminiferal assemblages with the
characteristic species Globigerina officinalis Subbotina,
G. ampliapertura Bolli, G. angustiumbilicata Bolli,  G.
droogeri Mjatluk, G. oauchitaensis Howe et Wallace and
Bulimina  cf. tenera Reuss (Olszewska in Ślączka 1985).

Within the lower part of the Dusino Beds, Oligocene as-

semblages with Subbotina vialovi Mjatluk, Globigerina
brevispira Subb., G. officinalis Subb. and G. postcretacea
Mjatl. were described (Danysh 1970) and an assemblage
with  Globigerina danvillensis Howe et Wallace, Acarinina
rugosoaculeata Subb., Guembelina gracillima Andrae,
Bolivina antegressa Subb., Uvigerina pygmea d’Orbigny,
Cibicides lopjanicus Mjatl., Globorotalia pseudoscitula
Glaesner,  Asterigerina rogali Mjatl and Globigerinella  aff.
naguwichiensis Mjatl. (Maslakova et al. 1959, see also
Gavura, in Pasternak 1988). In the basal portion of the
Dusino Beds in the Malyj Vyzhen section calcareous nan-
noplankton belonging to Zone NP22 were found, whereas
in the uppermost part of these Beds Zone NP25 was deter-
mined (Gavura, in Pasternak 1988).

In the Terebla section of the Vezhany Succession

(Marmarosh Flysch Zone) Dusino-type marls (Luh Beds)
contain calcareous nannoplankton belonging to Zone
NP24 (Oszczypko et al. 2005).

The sequence above the Grybów Marls, assigned to the

Cergowa Beds, shows a strong similarity to the youngest
sequence in the inner part of the Dukla Unit both in the
Polish and Slovak parts of the Dukla Unit. The latter is

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Fig. 6. Lithostratigraphic correlation of Grybów and Dukla Unit in Poland and Ukraine (Malyj Vyzhen section after Gavura 1988).
1 – thick-bedded sandstones, 2  – thin-bedded sandstones and shales, 3 – grey thick-bedded marls, 4 – spherosiderites, 5 – dark
brown shales, 6 – hornstones.

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also regarded as the Cergowa Beds. They consist of a com-
plex of grey calcareous shales and thin- to medium-bed-
ded, micaceous calcareous sandstones.

In the southeastern part of the Dukla Unit of Slovakia

(Koráb & Ďurkovič 1978), the Menilite Beds are overlain
by thin-bedded turbidites composed of grey, grey-brown
shales and black calcareous shales of the Cergowa Beds.
They alternate with aleurolites and fine-grained laminated
calcareous sandstones. In these beds intercalations of the
Tylawa limestones have been found. The Cergowa Beds,
up to 300 m thick, terminate the bed sequence of the
Dukla Unit in Eastern Slovakia.

In the Ukrainian Carpathians the Dusino Beds are over-

lain by the Malyj Vyzhen Beds (300 m thick). These beds
are composed of thin-, medium- to thick-bedded, poorly
calcareous, muscovitic sandstones. The sandstones are in-
tercalated by thin layers of black, non-calcareous shales.

The age of the Cergowa Beds within more sandy devel-

opment (Cergowa Sandstones) west of Jaśliska, based on
foraminiferal contain assemblages with Turborotalia
liverovskae (Bykova) was regarded as Early? Oligocene,
not younger than Zone P19/20 (Olszewska 1980). Similar
age for the Cergowa Sandstones was accepted in Slovakia
on the basis of Globigerina officinalis Subbotina, G.
postcretacea Mjatluk, G. (Turborotalia). liverovskae
(Bykova),  Chilogumbelina gracillima Andrae, Cibicides
lopjanicus  Mjatluk, (Samuel & Salaj 1968). Further towards
the SE in the inner part of the Dukla Unit in Ukraine, the
Cergova Beds are more sandy, and named Malyj Vyzhen
Beds (Danysh 1973).  In these Beds nannofossil association
with  Sphenolithus  ciperoensis regarded as NP25 Zone was
found (see Gavura, in Pasternak 1988).


1. The Grybów Marls display a very characteristic

lithological development with a distinct lower and upper
boundary and can be regarded as a Formation.

2. On the basis of nannofossil data the Grybów Marl

Formation belongs to the Zone NP24.

3. The youngest deposits of the Grybów tectonic win-

dow are equivalent to the Cergowa Beds and correspond
to the Zones NP24 and NP25.

4. The Oligocene sequence of the Grybów Unit displays

strong similarities to the sediments of similar age devel-
oped in the inner part of the Dukla Unit and represents
generally more inner and western part of the Dukla Basin.

5. Taking into account lithofacies similarities, it is sug-

gested that the Grybów Unit continues towards the south-
east as an innermost part of the Dukla Unit (Ślączka 1971),
and further on into the Ukrainian Carpathians as the
Dusino (Berezna) Subunit within the inner part of the
Dukla Unit. Towards the west the Grybów Unit is exposed
within the Szczawa and Mszana tectonic windows.


 The authors thank Prof. N. Oszczypko

for her fruitful discussion. The authors are also grateful to
David Clowes for his help in correcting the English text.

This research was partly supported by the Polish State Sci-
ence Foundation (KBN) Projects 6P04D 05521 (Marta


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