background image


A three component (organic carbon, pyritic sulphur,

carbonate content) model as a tool for lithostratigraphic

correlation of Carboniferous sediments in the Alpine-

Carpathian-North Pannonian realm













Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Austria, A-8700 Leoben, Austria;


Library of the University of Graz, A-8100 Graz, Austria


Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University of Bratislava, SK-842 15 Bratislava,

Slovak Republic;


Geological Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary

(Manuscript received November 11, 2005; accepted in revised form March 16, 2006)

Abstract: The paleogeography of the Alpine-Carpathian-North Pannonian (ALCAPA) realm is still a matter of debate.
In order to establish a tool for lithostratigraphic correlation, the total organic carbon content (TOC), the sulphur (S)
content, and the carbonate content were measured in Carboniferous sediments of this realm. The presented database
consists of 260 samples from Carboniferous sedimentary sequences in the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian realm. The
TOC/S ratio in pelagic and continental environments is in accordance with the ratios observed in several studies. A high
S-content in the Szabadbattyán Formation suggests an euxinic environment in an intra-shelf position. This is a distinctive
feature to all other formations of the same depositional environment. Apart from the pelagic environment, sedimentary
processes in the distinct basins result in composite TOC/carbonate relationships, which are indicative for a combination
of an organically controlled with a carbonatic controlled deposition. The data of this study demonstrate that the analysed
geochemical data can be interpreted in terms of the sedimentary environment. Therefore, the database can be used for a
further research in the reconstruction of the Carboniferous paleogeography in this area.

Key words: Carboniferous, Variscan tectonofacies, black shales, TOC/S-carbonate ratio.


The analysis of the organic fraction of clastic sediments
gives rise to a better understanding of their sedimentary
environment and subsequent thermal overprint. Sediments
rich in organic matter are found in very specific deposi-
tional environments. Their actual quantity and quality is
the final result of the ancient biological productivity, the
preservation conditions (e.g. oxygen level during deposi-
tion), the sediment accumulation rate and the thermal his-
tory of the sedimentary basin.

To reconstruct the environmental conditions, the rela-

tionship between organically bound carbon (total organic
carbon, TOC) and pyritically bound sulphur can be used
to differentiate between normal marine sediments, fresh-
water sediments and marine euxinic sediments. This mod-
el was established by Berner (1970) for recent sediments
and is now widely applied for all Phanerozoic sediments
(e.g. Berner 1984).

The relationship between TOC and S in sediments is

usually controlled by early-diagenetic processes: sedi-
mentary pyrite is formed by the reaction of hydrogen sul-
phur (H


S), which originates from the bacterial reduction

of dissolved sulphate, with reactive able iron. To enable
the reduction, organic matter is necessary as the reducing

agent and energy source (Berner 1984). Prerequisite for
the proceeding process is the existence of anoxic condi-
tions, which are common below the sediment-water inter-
face, but rare in the free water column.

In recent normal marine environments pyrite formation

depends only on the availability of organic matter. The
supply of sulphate and detrital iron minerals are usually
sufficient. Normal marine sediments display therefore a
positive correlation of TOC versus S with a TOC/S-ratio
of about 2.8 (Berner 1970; Goldhaber & Kaplan 1974;
Berner & Raiswell 1983). Such a positive correlation can
usually not be established for freshwater sediments. Fresh-
water contains about 1 % of the seawater sulphate. The
limiting factor for pyrite formation is therefore the supply
of dissolved sulphate. Consequently, freshwater sediments
often contain high amounts of organic carbon and low
amounts of pyrite (Berner & Raiswell 1984). Euxinic de-
posits are characterized by the existence of hydrogen sul-
phur in the bottom water. Pyrite can form above or at the
sediment-water interface. Accordingly, the correlation of
TOC versus S displays a positive intercept on the S-axis
(Leventhal 1983). The limiting factor for the pyrite forma-
tion is the supply of detrital iron minerals.

Russegger et al. (1997) demonstrated that the C/S-ratios

observed in Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern and Southern

background image



Alps (Gurktal Nappe Complex, Carboniferous of Nötsch,
Carnic Alps and Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex) are in
general agreement with the global data of Berner &
Raiswell (1983). Locally, intra-basinal factors shift the val-
ues of the Eastern and Southern Alps from the global curve.
Therefore, it is expected that TOC and S values can be used
in the correlation of Paleozoic tectonostratigraphic units.

Due to the severe Alpine tectonics the paleogeography of

the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian (ALCAPA) realm (Fig. 1)
is still under intensive discussion (Vozárová & Vozár 1996,
1997; Ebner et al. 1997, 1998; Neubauer et al. 1997; Kovács
et al. 2000). Therefore the aim of this contribution is the eval-
uation of TOC, S and carbonate content values measured in
sediments of this realm in order to establish an additonal and
novel tool for lithostratigraphic and paleogeographic correla-
tion. We analyse here Carboniferous sediments which pro-
vide the opportunity to study syn- and post-tectonic
sedimentary basins related to the Late Carboniferous
(Variscan) collision of two continents (Neubauer & Vozárová
1990; Ebner 1991a,b,c, 1992; Ebner et al. 1991, 1998).

Geological setting

The evolution of Carboniferous sediments in the AL-

CAPA-domain (Eastern and Southern Alps, Western Car-
pathians, Transdanubian Range, Bükk Mt, Szendrő and
Uppony Mts) was controlled by the Variscan continent-
continent collisional event (Ebner et al. 1991; Ebner
1992). This domain was dissected subsequently during the
Alpine (Cretaceous to Paleogene) collisional events,
which were succeeded by orogen parallel strike-slip tec-
tonics (Neubauer et al. 1997; Kovács et al. 1997;
Vozárová & Vozár 1997). Tentatively, the Carboniferous

tectonofacies zoning can be described as follows (Ebner et
al. 1998) (Fig. 2):

Following Late Devonian—Early Carboniferous deforma-

tion, metamorphism and intrusion of granites, a synorogenic
foredeep basin (Nötsch-Veitsch-Ochtiná Zone) evolved in
the external segments of the rising Variscan orogen. Carbon-
iferous marine carbonatic sediments exposed NE of Lake
Balaton (Szabadbattyán Formation) may belong to this zone.
Segments of the Carboniferous of Nötsch may belong to the
transition from the shelf to the flysch basin (Krainer 1993).

Towards the south to southeast, a pelagic basin evolved.

Remnants of this basin are exposed within the Graz Paleo-
zoic Nappe Complex and the Szendrő—Uppony Range. In
contrast, parts of the Gemer Paleozoic, the Noric Nappe of
the Austroalpine Greywacke Zone, and the Paleozoic se-
quences of the Austroalpine Gurktal Nappe Complex are

Fig. 1. Geological sketch map with the position of the investigated units (borehole Bru-1 – Brusnik Anticline).

Fig. 2. Carboniferous paleogeography (1 – metamorphic do-
mains, 2 – Variscan granitoids, 3 – synorogenic foredeep basins
of the Nötsch—Veitsch—Ochtina Zone, 4 – pelagic carbonatic ba-
sins, 5 – flysch basins) of the investigated area (Ebner et al. 1998).

background image



characterized by siliciclastic and volcaniclastic sediments.
This carbonatic to siliciclastic shelf evolved into a flysch
basin (exposed within the Carnic Alps, Szendrő and Bükk
Mountains, and Brusník Anticline).

A Late Carboniferous (Variscan) angular unconformity

separates this sequence from post-orogenic continental to
cyclic shallow marine molasse sequences. In the pelagic
shelf domain the climax of the Variscan event is indicated
by karstified carbonatic horsts and the formation of con-
odont mixed faunas. In basinal siliciclastic flysch basins,
this event is mirrored by disrupted carbonate platforms, sub-
marine gravitational transported sediments, and basic vol-
canics (Ebner 1991a,b,c; 1992).

In the Gemeric units, the superposition of terrestrial

clastic sediments above marine sediments (Dobšiná
Group) indicates a tectonic event during Late Carbonifer-
ous times which succeeded an older tectonic event
(Vozárová 1992, 1996). Similarly, a Variscan deformation
cannot be proven within the Uppony—Szendrő Mountains.
However, marine molasse sediments resemble the shallow-
marine molasse sediments of the Southalpine Carnic Alps
and suggest, therefore, a similar tectonofacies setting.

In the following section we characterize the investigated

formations (Fig. 3) by the geological parameters which may
influence the geochemical composition of the samples.

Western Carpathians

Tectono-facially, the investigated samples can be as-

signed to syn- and post-orogenic depositional environ-

ments. With respect to their position within the Variscan
orogen, the investigated units are parts of three tectonic
zones (Vozárová & Vozár 1997; Vozárová 1998):

The Central Western Carpathian Crystalline Zone be-

longs to the internal zone of the Variscan orogen. The
Variscan units of this zone include the Tatra Terrane with-
in the Alpine Tatric Unit and Northern Veporic Unit, the
Kohút Terrane within the Southern Veporic Unit (with the
sampled Slatviná Formation), the Byšta Terrane within the
Zemplinic Unit (with the sampled Tŕňa Formation), and
the suspected Ipoltica Terrane within the Hronic Unit
(with the sampled Nižná Boca Formation). The Northern
Gemeric Zone comprises relics of the Rakovec and Klátov
Terranes with the synorogenic Hrádok and Črme  Forma-
tions of the Ochtiná Group and the postorogenic Rudňa-
ny, Zlatník and Hámor Formations of the Dobšiná Group.
The Inner Western Carpathian Crystalline Zone belongs to
the external zone of the Variscan orogen. Within the (sam-
pled) Turnaic Nappe Unit the Turiec Formation over-
thrusts the Early Jurassic of the Meliatic Unit. This unit
shows paleogeographic relations to the Szendrő Range
and Carnic Alps (Vozárová 1992; Vozárová & Vozár

Nižná Boca Formation (Westphalian—Stephanian)

The 400 to 500 m thick, diagenetic (Vrána & Vozár

1969; Plašienka et al. 1989; Šucha 1989) Nižná Boca For-
mation (Sitár & Vozár 1973; Planderová 1979) is a fluvial—
lacustrine sequence of a clastic delta, influenced by a

Fig. 3. Stratigraphy and depositional environment (point symbol – continental, cross symbol – paralic environment, vertical hatch – slope
environment, light shading – neritic environment, dark shading – pelagic environment) of the investigated samples.

background image



dacitic volcanism. The sequence was deposited within an
extensional retroarc basin (Vozárová 1996; 1998).

Tŕňa Formation (Early Stephanian)

The 800 to 1000 m thick Tŕňa Formation (Bouček &

Přibyl 1959; Němejc 1947, 1953; Němejc & Obrhel 1958;
Planderová et al. 1981) is subdivided into two several hun-
dreds of meters thick cycles. The lower megacycle contains
seven limnic-fluvial cyclothems with several cm up to 60 cm
thick coal seams. The second megacycle is characterized by
alluvial stream-channel sediments with some rhyolitic to dac-
itic volcaniclastic beds. The sequence was deposited with a
retroarc basin (Vozárová 1996; 1998). The grade of metamor-
phism corresponds to the boundary between very low-grade
to low-grade metamorphic conditions (Milička et al. 1991).

Slatviná Formation (Stephanian C)

The up to 800 m thick, low-grade metamorphic

(Vozárová 1990) Slatviná Formation (Planderová &
Vozárová 1978) comprises deltaic—lacustrine sediments of
two regressive coarsening upward cycles of a retroarc basin
(Vozárová & Vozár 1992; Vozárová 1996; 1998).

Hrádok and Črme  Formations (Upper Tournaisian—

Visean) of the Ochtiná Group

The 1000 to 1200 m thick, low-grade metamorphic Hrá-

dok and Črme  Formations (Planderová 1982; Bajaník &
Planderová 1985; Sassi & Vozárová 1987; Vozárová
1996) comprise turbiditic sediments, intercalated with
tholeiitic N-MORB volcanics. Rarely, lydites, siliceous
metapelites, and laminated limestones were found in thin
layers. The Hrádok Formation contains more frequently
coarse-grained paraconglomerate turbidites and fragments
of ultramafic rocks, whereas the Črme  Formation is distin-
guished by rare rhyolitic volcaniclastic turbidites. The
depositional environment is interpreted as a synorogenic
deep-water slope basin, filled mainly by siliciclastic tur-
bidites, some ultrabasic olistoliths, and sediments trans-
ported by gravity currents (Vozárová 1996, 1998).

Lubeník Formation (uppermost Visean—Serpukhovian)

of the Ochtiná Group

The less than 400 m thick Lubeník Formation (Bouček

& Přibyl 1960; Kozur et al. 1976) consists of black slates,
dolomitic slates, well-bedded dolomites and massive
coarse-grained magnesite of a shallow-water, neritic and
littoral environment. The grade of metamorphism corre-
sponds to the boundary between very low-grade to low-
grade metamorphic conditions (Vozárová 1996).

Rudňany Formation (Westphalian A—B) of the Dobšiná


The less than 200 m thick, low-grade metamorphic (Ba-

janík et al. 1981; Vozárová & Šucha unpubl. data) Rudňa-

ny Formation  (Němejc 1947) is composed of coarse con-
glomerates with components of the underlying pre-Upper
Carboniferous complexes (Klátov and Rakovec Terranes,
Lower Carboniferous flysch sequence of Črme  Formation;
Vozárová 1996; Vozárová & Vozár 1996), black slates
and sandstones. The Rudňany Formation is interpreted as
a delta-fan complex, which propagated into the shallow
water littoral to neritic zone of a peripheral foreland basin
(Vozárová 1996; Vozárová & Vozár 1996).

Zlatník Formation (Westphalian B—C)  of the Dobšiná


The basal part of the 150 to 400 m thick Zlatník Forma-

tion (Rakusz 1932; Němejc 1947, 1953; Bouček & Přibyl
1960; Kozur & Mock 1977; Bajaník et al. 1981) is com-
posed of organodetric limestone within fine-grained clas-
tic metasediments. The upper part comprises fine-grained
clastic metasediments and fine-grained basaltic volcani-
clastics with scarce effusions of tholeiitic basalts. The
grade of metamorphism corresponds to the boundary be-
tween very low-grade to low-grade metamorphic condi-
tions. The depositional environment is interpreted as a
littoral to neritic segment of a post-orogenic peripheral
foreland basin (Vozárová 1996).

Hámor Formation (Westphalian D) of the Dobšiná Group

The 50 to 200 m thick, low-grade metamorphic (Bajaník et

al. 1981; Plašienka et al. 1989) Hámor Formation is a regres-
sive, paralic sequence of a deltaic sedimentary system within
a post-orogenic peripheral foreland basin (Vozárová 1996). It
is composed of coal-bearing, slates, sandstones, and con-
glomerates, which show a cyclic coarsening-upward trend.

Turiec Formation (Bashkirian)  of the Brusník Anticline

The 600 m thick, low-grade metamorphic (Mazzoli &

Vozárová 1989) Turiec Formation was deposited in a syn-oro-
genic deep-water slope basin which evolved after the collapse
of a pre-flysch carbonate platform. It comprises a turbiditic se-
quence of black phyllites, metasiltstones and metasandstones
with some Bashkirian (Ebner et al. 1990) slides and sediments
transported by gravity currents (Vozárová 1992).

North Pannonian Domain

The units included in this study (Transdanubian Range,

Bükk, Uppony and Szendrő Mts) form parts of the Pelso-
nia Composite Terrane, which represents the southern part
of the “North Pannonian—Inner-Central West Carpathian”
orogenic collage (Kovács et al. 1997, 2000).

Uppony Mountain

Tapolcsány Formation (Silurian?—Lower Carboniferous?)

The 300 to 400 m thick, very low-grade metamorphic

(Árkai 1983; Árkai et al. 1995) Tapolcsány Formation

background image



comprises slates and black, radiolarian lydites, free of any
carbonate content. The sequence was deposited within a
pre-orogenic euxinic deep-water basin (Kovács 1992;
Fülöp 1994; Ebner et al. 1998).

Lázbérc Formation (Late Visean—Bashkirian)

The 200—300 m thick, very low-grade metamorphic (Árkai

1983; Árkai et al. 1995) Lázbérc Formation is composed of
limestone with calc-schist, slate, and sandstone intercala-
tions. The depositional environment is interpreted as a pre- to
syn-orogenic deep carbonate ramp which evolved synchro-
nously with the flysch sediments of the Szendrő Phyllite For-
mation (Ebner et al. 1991, 1998; Kovács 1992; Fülöp 1994).

Szendrő Mountains

Szendrő Phyllite Formation (Late Visean—Bashkirian/

Lower Moscovian?)

The 500 to 600 m thick, low-grade metamorphic (Árkai

1983; Árkai et al. 1995) Szendrő Phyllite Formation is
composed of metasandstones, phyllites, and limestone
olistoliths, comparable to the Szilvásvárad Formation of
the Bükk Mountains (Árkai 1983). The “Median Slate
Unit” is a tectonically separated unit of this sequence. The
Szendrő Phyllite Formation was deposited within a syn-
orogenic flysch basin, contemporaneous with the collapse
of an Early Carboniferous carbonate platform (Ebner et al.
1991, 1998; Kovács 1992; Fülöp 1994).

Bükk Mountains

Mályinka Formation (Late Moscovian—Gzhelian)

The 400 m thick, diagenetic to very low-grade metamor-

phic (Árkai 1983; Árkai et al. 1995) Mályinka Formation is
a fossiliferous carbonate-clastic sequence of a post-orogen-
ic, marine molasse basin, which evolved continuously
above the Szilvásvárad Formation (Ebner et al. 1991; Fülöp
1994; Haas et al. 2001; Filipovic et al. 2003; Pelikan et al.
2005). In the Szentlélek Zone, where the North Bükk Anti-
cline becomes extremely narrow being overthrust by the
Kisfennsik Nappe, the overprint reaches the low-grade zone.

Transdanubian Range

Szabadbattyán Formation

Upper Visean, dark grey to black slate, light to dark

grey sandstone, black, fossiliferous limestone in about
100 m known thickness. Depositional environment: nerit-
ic, siliclastic-carbonatic ramp (Lelkes-Felvári 1978; Fülöp
1994; Ebner et al. 1991).

Eastern and Southern Alps

The investigated units of the Austro- and Southalpine

units belong to the Noric Composite Terrane of Frisch &

Neubauer (1989) and Neubauer et al. (1997) and to the
Veitsch Nappe of the Greywacke Zone. The sampled for-
mations involve pre- (Hahngraben Formation, Zollner For-
mation), syn- (Hochwipfel Formation) and post-orogenic
sequences (Sunk Formation, Erlachgraben and Nötsch For-
mation, Stangnock Formation, Auernig Group). The group
of the post-orogenic sequences may be related to early
Variscan events (close to the Devonian/Carboniferous
boundary: Sunk Formation in the Veitsch Nappe of the
Greywacke Zone, and Erlachgraben/Nötsch Formation in
the Carboniferous of Nötsch) or to the late Carboniferous
orogeny (Stangnock Formation within the Gurktal Nappe
Complex; Auernig Group within the Southern Alps).

Hahngraben Formation (Westphalian A) from the Ran-

nach Nappe of the Austroalpine Graz Paleozoic Nappe

The Hahngraben Formation comprises 50 m thick dark co-

loured slates with rare siltstones, sandstone, some olistolithic
layers (with components of Visean flaser limestone), and grad-
ed bedded allodapic limestones of an undefinded marine clas-
tic sedimentary basin (Ebner et al. 1991, 2000). In this unit, the
sedimentary succession ends during the Westphalian A. Be-
cause of missing overstep sequences there is no evidence for a
Variscan unconformity within the Graz Paleozoic Nappe Com-
plex. The influx of detrital mica and gravitational transported
sedimentary material in the Hahngraben Formation indicates a
tectonic (Variscan) reorganization of the hinterland. The Ran-
nach Nappe shows very low- to low-grade metamorphic condi-
tions (Rantitsch et al. 2005).

Stangnock Formation (Stephanian) of the Austroalpine

Gurktal Nappe Complex

The very low-grade metamorphic (Rantitsch & Russegger

2000) Stangnock Formation is a more than 400 m thick se-
quence of polymict conglomerates, immature coarse-
grained sandstones and dark slates of a proximal fluvial
system (Krainer 1993). This formation is interpreted as an
intramontane molasse formed after Variscan deformation of
the Paleozoic basement (Ebner et al. 1991).

Sunk Formation (Westphalian A—C) from the Veitsch

Nappe of the Austroalpine Greywacke Zone

The low-grade metamorphic (Rantitsch et al. 2004) Sunk

Formation comprises 50 to 150 m thick coarsening upward
siliciclastic sediments with seams and lenses of graphite.
The stratigraphic sequence of the Veitsch Nappe mirrors the
evolution of a shallow shelf (which grades locally to a hy-
persalinar lagoon with some bioherms) to a regressive shore
line with river dominated delta deposits (Sunk Formation;
Ratschbacher 1984, 1987; Krainer 1993; Ebner & Prochas-
ka 2001). Consequently, the Sunk Formation is part of a
marine molasse sequence which evolved after the first tec-
tonothermal peak of the Variscan orogenic stage (Flügel
1977; Schönlaub 1979; Neubauer & Vozárová 1990; Ebner
1992; Neubauer & Handler 2000).

background image



Table 1: Analytic results of this study (S – sulphur, TOC – total organic carbon, C – carbonate content) from the Carpathians and
Hungary. The results of 169 samples from the Eastern and Southern Alps are documented in Russegger et al. (1997).

background image



Erlachgraben and Nötsch Formation (Late Visean—Early

Westfalian) from the Austroalpine Carboniferous of Nötsch

The 400 to 600 m thick very low-grade metamorphic

(Rantitsch 1995) Erlachgraben and Nötsch Formation com-
prises greyish to blackish slates, sandstones, and quartz rich
conglomerates (Schönlaub 1985; Krainer 1993). The forma-
tions are separated by a breccia (Badstub Formation) with
rounded metamorphic clasts and few limestone clasts (with
conodonts of Late Visean—Early Serpukovian age) in a
dense green matrix of tholeiitic basalts (Krainer & Mogessi
1991). The depositional environment is interpreted as a ma-
rine molasse type foredeep in front of the rising Variscan
chain (Flügel 1977; Krainer 1993).

Auernig Group (Late Moscovian—Gzhelian) from the

Southalpine Carnic Alps

The 600 to 800 m thick, very low-grade metamorphic

(Rantitsch 1997) Auernig Group comprises quartz-rich
conglomerates, cross-bedded sandstones, bioturbated, of-
ten fossiliferous siltstones, slates, and limestones. It
forms a sequence of clastic-carbonatic transgressive and
regressive cycles with individual thicknesses of 10 to
40 m. The sea-level lowstands are characterized by clas-
tic sediments of deltaic beach and shoreface environ-
ments, whereas limestones were formed during the
sea-level highstands (Schönlaub & Heinisch 1993;
Krainer 1993; Schönlaub & Histon 2000). In the Carnic
Alps, the climax of the Variscan collision occurred dur-
ing Late Namurian to Late Westphalian (Early Bashkiri-
an—Middle/Late Moscovian) times. The post-orogenic
character of a marine to terrestrial molassse environment
is impressively documented by angular unconformities

between the Auernig Group and the pre-Variscan sedi-
mentary sequence.

Hochwipfel Formation (Middle Visean—Namurian) from

the Southalpine Carnic Alps

The more than 1000 m thick very low- to low-grade

metamorphic (Rantitsch 1997) Hochwipfel Formation
comprises an arenitic to pelitic turbiditic sequence with
intercalations of several meter thick chaotic debris flows,
olistoliths and limestone breccias. The depositional en-
vironment is given by a flysch basin at an active plate
margin (Ebner et al. 1991; Schönlaub & Heinisch 1993;
Schönlaub & Histon 2000). The flysch basin evolved af-
ter a tectonic reorganization of the depositional realm.
This event is indicated by the collapse of carbonate plat-
forms, by the formation of a subaerial paleokarst relief,
and by the formation of intraplate alkali basalts.

Zollner Formation (Pragian—Tournaisian) from the

Southalpine Carnic Alps

More than 100 m thick, very low-grade metamorphic

(Rantitsch 1997), almost carbonate free black to greenish
slates, siltstones, siliceous slates and bedded cherts have
been deposited within a deep-water basinal environment
(Schönlaub & Heinisch 1993; Schönlaub & Histon 2000).

Samples and analytical methods

The 260 samples of the present database are clastic sedi-

ments, which are black shales in the broadest sense. Most
of the samples analysed are outcrop samples. The 91 sam-

Table 1:  Continued.

background image



ples of this study (Table 1) complete the dataset of Rus-
segger et al. (1997).

It is a fact that the original concentration of organic

carbon and pyrite sulphur can be lowered due to oxida-
tive loss during subaerial weathering (e.g. Littke et al.
1991). We have attempted to avoid this problem by con-
sidering only samples without evidence of oxidation.
The total sulphur content is assumed to be pyritically
bound sulphur as the organic sulphur content of the sedi-
ment would be insignificantly small (cf. Raiswell &
Berner 1986). The carbon (organically and inorganically
bound carbon) and total sulphur content (weight %) of
the samples was estimated using a threefold measurement
on a LECO CS-300 instrument calibrated with analytical
standards. The uncertainty of the carbon analysis
amounts to a maximum of 14 % for concentrations
< 0.05 % and to a maximum of 6 % for higher values. For
the sulphur values the respective maximum uncertainties
are 26 % for concentrations  < 0.06 % and 11 % for higher
concentrations. From the measured organically (TOC)
and inorganically bound carbon the bulk carbonate con-
tent (CaCO


) was calculated from the stochiometry of





= 8.33 (C


— TOC).

Comparison of the analytical data is done by applying a

one-way analysis of variance. This technique separates the
total variance of the dataset into various components.
Equality of mean and variance of these components are test-
ed simultaneously by applying an F-Test. Variance analysis
demonstrates a significant (at a significance level of 0.95)
difference between the S-, TOC and carbonate-content of
the elements in dependence of the sampled formation and
in dependence of the depositional environment. Perform-
ing a Duncan Test the elements are separated into differ-
ent groups of homogeneous elemental concentration
(Figs. 4—7). Within these groups it is not possible to reject
the hypothesis of equal mean and variance of TOC, S and
carbonate content.


Because the TOC-, S- and carbonate content of sediments

is related to the prevailing depositional environment, all
data are pooled in respect to the reconstructed environment.
We distinguish a pelagic environment, a slope-related envi-
ronment, a paralic environment, a continental environment

Fig. 4.  Total organic carbon (TOC), sulphur (S) and carbonate content in Carboniferous pelagic and slope environments of the ALCA-
PA region. Statistically separated groups are indicated by a shading of the boxplots.

background image



Fig. 5.  Total organic carbon (TOC), sulphur (S) and carbonate content in Carboniferous platform and paralic environments of the AL-
CAPA region. Statistical separated groups are indicated by a shading of the boxplots.

Fig. 6.  Total organic carbon (TOC), sulphur (S) and carbonate content in Carboniferous continental environments of the ALCAPA re-
gion. Statistically separated groups are indicated by a shading of the boxplots.

background image



and an environment related to a carbonate platform. The ba-
sic statistics are presented in Table 1. In Figs. 4—6 the data
distribution in a distinct depositional environment is pre-
sented by boxplots. Fig. 7 shows the data distribution of the
measured parameters if the tectonic setting and the strati-
graphic age are neglected.


Comparing the parameters in respect to the sampled for-

mations, the Tapolcsány Formation and the Szabadbattyán
Formation show significantly higher S-contents than all
other formations. The high TOC-content in the Sunk For-
mation separates this sample group from all other forma-
tions. The Tŕňa, Tapolcsány and Stangnock Formations
have intermediate S contents. This group has similarities to
the group of high S-values as well as to the group of low S-
values. Three groups can be separated if the carbonate con-
tent is evaluated. Samples from the Hahngraben Formation
form the group with the highest carbonate content, whereas
the Lázbérc Formation together with the Szabadbattyán
Formation and the Auernig Group form a group, which
shows similarities to the Hahngraben Formation as well as
to a group consisting of the remaining formations.

If the parameters are compared in respect to their deposi-

tional environment, the S-content discriminates the pelag-
ic environment, the TOC-content the paralic and the
platform environment and the carbonate content the plat-
form environment (Fig. 7).

TOC/S plots are used in Fig. 8 to investigate the relation-

ship between reactive organic matter and sedimentary pyrite
(Berner 1984). In these plots a line with a gradient of 2.8 de-
termines the correlation between TOC and S in a marine en-
vironment (Berner & Raiswell 1984; Leventhal 1983). If
outliers are neglected, a predominantly marine environment
is reflected by the TOC/S relationship observed in the pelag-
ic and paralic formations. A spread of the data points along
the TOC axis indicates a freshwater environment. This is ob-
served in samples coming from a slope, platform and conti-
nental environment. An euxinic environment can be inferred
if the correlation line between TOC and S has a positive inter-

Fig. 7. Total organic carbon (TOC), sulphur (S) and carbonate content in the investigated samples. Statistical separated groups are indi-
cated by a shading of the boxplots.

cept on the S axis (Leventhal 1983). Such a relationship can
be seen in samples of the Szabadbattyán Formation and in
some isolated samples of the other formations.

Therefore, the relationship between TOC and S in sam-

ples coming from pelagic, paralic and continental envi-
ronments is in accordance with the paleogeographical
interpretations. Samples from a slope and platform envi-
ronment are characterized by S-contents which are too low
for their respective environment. However, if the corre-
sponding TOC/S ratio is compared to the worldwide
dataset of Berner & Raiswell (1983) this discrepancy di-
minishes. This is due to the fact that during Carboniferous
times a global shift from marine to continental environ-
ments resulted in strongly elevated TOC/S ratios. Howev-
er, this global trend does not explain the observed ratio in
the local marine environment. An explanation for the low
S-content may be given by a limited pyrite formation due
to an increased supply on terrestrially derived pre-oxi-
dized organic debris (see also Russegger et al. 1997).

Variable TOC- and carbonate contents can be explained

by the dominant sedimentary process (Ricken 1983). If the
composition of sediments is divided into carbonatic, silici-
clastic and organic fractions, a simple crossplot of the TOC
against the carbonate content can be interpreted in terms of
the dominating depositional process. A carbonatic con-
trolled deposition (TOC and carbonate-content are negative
correlated) can be explained by a variability in the biopro-
ductivity, a deposition controlled by a siliciclastic deposi-
tion (TOC and carbonate-content are positive correlated) is
indicative for variations in the input of clastic debris, and
an organically controlled deposition (TOC and carbonate-
content are unrelated) can be explained by variations in the
bioproductivity, in the preservation conditions of the or-
ganic matter or by a varying nutrient supply.

An organically controlled deposition is seen in the pe-

lagic environment (Fig. 9). All other environments show a
composite relationship. In the slope environment, a com-
bination of an organically controlled with a carbonatic
controlled deposition is obvious for the Szendrő Phyllite
Formation and the samples from the Carboniferous of
Nötsch. All other formations of this setting are explained
by an organically controlled deposition. The same model

background image



Fig. 8. TOC/S relationship in the investigated samples.

Fig. 9. TOC versus carbonate content in the investigated samples.

background image



can be applied for the Hahngraben, Szabadbattyán and
Lázbérc Formations in the platform environment and the
Auernig Formation in the paralic environment. In contrast,
in the continental environment the combination of a clas-
tic controlled with an organically controlled deposition in
the Tŕňa Formation is opposed to all other formations of
this setting.


Carboniferous clastic sediments from different tectonic

units of the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian realm were
characterized by the total organic carbon content (TOC),
the sulphur (S) content and the carbonate content. The ob-
tained data were interpreted in respect to their reconstruct-
ed depositional environment.

The TOC/S ratio in pelagic and continental environ-

ments is in accordance with the ratios observed in several
studies. High TOC/S ratios in slope and platform related
environments are explained by a limited pyrite formation
due to an increased supply of terrestrially derived pre-oxi-
dized organic debris. A high S-content in the Szabadbat-
tyán Formation suggests a euxinic environment in an
intra-platform basin. This is a distinctive feature of all oth-
er formations of the same depositional environment.

The dominating depositional processes can be charac-

terized by plotting the TOC against the carbonate-content.
Apart from the pelagic environment, sedimentary process-
es in the distinct basins result in composite TOC/carbon-
ate relationships, which are indicative for a combination
of an organically controlled with a carbonatic controlled
deposition. The Tŕňa Formation does not fit into this mod-
el. To explain the observed dilution trend in this forma-
tion a significant influence of the detrital input has to be

The combined use of TOC, S- and carbonate-content

can give valuable information for a reconstruction of the
former depositional environment. These data can also be
used as a lithostratigraphic correlation tool.

The presented data base consists of 260 samples from all

Carboniferous sedimentary sequences in the Alpine-Car-
pathian-Pannonian realm. In some formations the small
number of samples prevents a statistically significant cor-
relation. Nevertheless, the data of this study demonstrates
that the analysed geochemical data can be interpreted in
terms of the sedimentary environment. Therefore, the data-
base can be used for further research in the reconstruction
of the Carboniferous paleogeography in this area.


This study was financially supported

by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) due to Grant P10277,
IGCP Nr. 357, the Scientific Grant Agency of Ministry of
Education of Slovak Republic and Slovak Academy of
Science Grant No. 1/1036/04, and the National Research
Fund in Hungary Grant No. T 047121. Jozef Vozár (Bra-
tislava) is thanked for field guidance and logistic support
during field excusions in Slovakia and Gyöngyi Lelkes-
Felvári for providing samples of the Szabadbattyán Fm.


Árkai P. 1983: Very low- and low-grade Alpine regional metamor-

phism of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations of the Bükkium,
NE-Hungary.  Acta Geol. Hung. 26, 1—2, 83—101.

Árkai P., Balogh Kad. & Dunkl I. 1995: Timing of low-tempera-

ture metamorphism and cooling of the Paleozoic and Mesozo-
ic formations of the Bükkium, innermost Western Carpathians,
Hungary.  Geol. Rdsch. 84, 334—344.

Bajaník Š. & Planderová E. 1985: Stratigraphic position of lower

part of the Ochtiná Formation (between Magnezitovce and
Magura). Geol. Práce, Spr. 82, 67—76.

Bajaník Š., Vozárová A. & Reichwalder P. 1981: Lithostratigraphic

classification of the Rakovec Group and Late Paleozoic se-
quence of the Spišsko-gemerské rudohorie Mts. Geol. Práce,
Spr. 75, 19—53 (in Slovak).

Berner R.A. 1970: Sedimentary pyrite formation. Amer. J. Sci. 268,


Berner R.A. 1984: Sedimentary pyrite formation: An update.

Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48, 605—615.

Berner R.A. & Raiswell R. 1983: Burial of organic carbon and py-

rite sulphur in sediments over Phanerozoic time: a new theory.
Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 47, 855—862.

Berner R.A. & Raiswell R. 1984: C/S method for distinguishing fresh-

water from marine sedimentary rocks. Geology 12, 365—368.

Bouček B. & Přibyl A. 1959: Geological conditions of Zemplínske

vrchy Hill. Geol. Práce, Zoš. 52, 185—222 (in Czech).

Bouček B. & Přibyl A. 1960: Revision der Trilobiten aus dem

slowakischen Oberkarbon. Geol. Práce, Spr. 20, 5—50 (in Czech).

Ebner F. 1991a: Circummediterranean Carboniferous preflysch

sedimentation.  Giorn. Geol. Bologna 53, 197—208.

Ebner F. 1991b: Circummediterranean Carboniferous flysch sedi-

mentation. Mem. Géol. Lausanne 10, 55—69.

Ebner F. 1991c: Carboniferous preflysch sediments in the Alpine-

Mediterranean Belts. Miner. Slovaca 23, 385—394.

Ebner F. 1992: Correlation of marine Carboniferous sedimentary

units of Slovakia, Hungary and Austria. Spec. Vol. IGCP
Project No. 276, Dionýz Štúr Inst., Bratislava, 37—47.

Ebner F., Hubmann B. & Weber L. 2000: Die Rannach- und

Schöckel-Decke des Grazer Paläozoikums. Mitt. Gessel. Geol.
Bergbaustud.  Wien 44, 1—44.

Ebner F., Kovács S. & Schönlaub H.P. 1991: Das klassische Karbon

in Österreich und Ungarn – ein Vergleich der sedimentären
fossilführenden Vorkommen. Jubiläumsschrift 20 Jahre Geol.
Zusammenarbeit Österreich-Ungarn, 1, Wien,



Ebner F., Kovács S. & Schönlaub H.P. 1998: Stratigraphic and fa-

cial correlation of the Szendrő-Uppony Paleozoic (NE Hun-
gary) with the Carnic Alps-South Karawanken Mts. and the
Graz Paleozoic (Southern Alps and Central Eastern Alps);
some paleogeographic implications. Acta Geol. Hung. 41, 4,
355—388, 1998.

Ebner F., Neubauer F. & Rantitsch G. 1997: Terrane maps of the

Alpine Himalayan Belt, IGCP No. 276, sheet 1 Southern and
Southeastern Europe, sheet 2 Minor Asia—Caucasus, sheet 3
Himalaya.  Ann. Geol. Pays Hellén. 37 (1996/97), 219—243.

Ebner F. & Prochaska W. 2003: Die Magnesitlagerstätte Sunk/Ho-

hentauern und ihr geologischer Rahmen. Joannea Geol.
Paläont. 3, 63—103.

Ebner F., Vozárová A., Straka P. & Vozár J. 1990: Carboniferous

conodonts from Brusník Anticline (South Slovakia). In: Mi-
naříková D. & Lobitzer H. (Eds.): Thirty years of geological
cooperation between Austria and Czechoslovakia. Ústř. Úst.
Geol.,  Praha, 249—251.

Filipovic I., Jovanovic D., Sudar M., Pelikán P., Kovács S., Less

Gy. & Hips K. 2003: Comparison of the Variscan—Early Al-

background image



pine evolution of the Jadar Block (NW Serbia) and “Bükkium”
(NE Hungary) terranes: some paleogeographic implications.
Slovak Geol. Mag. 9, 1, 3—21.

Fülöp J. 1994: Geology of Hungary. Paleozoic II. Academic Press,

Budapest, 1—445.

Flügel H.W. 1977: Paläogeographie und Tektonik des alpinen

Variszikums.  Neu. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 1977, 659—674.

Frisch W. & Neubauer F. 1989: Pre-Alpine terranes and tectonic

zoning in the eastern Alps. Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Pap. 230,

Goldhaber M.B. & Kaplan I.R. 1974: The sulphur cycle. In: Gold-

berg E.D. (Ed.): The sea. J. Wiley, New York, 569—655.

Haas J., Hámor G., Jámbor Á., Kovács S., Nagymarosy A. &

Szederkényi T. 2001: Geology of Hungary.  Eötvös University
Press, Budapest, 1—317.

Kovács S. 1992: Stratigraphy of the Szendrő-Uppony Paleozoic

(Northeastern Hungary). In: Vozár J. (Ed.): Special volume to
the problems of the Paleozoic geodynamic domains. IGCP
Project No. 276, GÚDŠ, Bratislava, 93—108.

Kovács S., Szederkényi T., Arkai B., Buda G., Lelkes-Felvári G. &

Nagymarosy A. 1997: Explanation to the terrane map of Hun-
gary.  Ann. Geol. Pays Hellén. 37, 1996/97, 271—330.

Kovács S., Szederkényi T., Haas J., Buda G., Császár G. & Nagy-

marosy A. 1997: Tectonostratigraphic terranes in the pre-Neo-
gene basement of the Hungarian part of the Pannonian area.
Acta Geol. Hung. 43, 3, 225—328.

Kozur H., Mock R. & Mostler H. 1976: Stratigraphische Neuenstu-

fung der Karbonatgesteine der unteren Schichtenfolgen von
Ochtiná (Slovakei) in das oberste Vise-Serpukhovian (Namur A).
Geol. Paläont. Mitt., Innsbruck 6, 1, 1—29.

Kozur H. & Mock R. 1977: Erster Nachweis von Conodonten im

Palaeozoikum (Karbon) der Westkarpaten. Čas. Mineral. Geol.
22, 3, 299—305.

Krainer K. 1993: Late- and post-Variscan sediments of the Eastern

and Southern Alps. In: Van Raumer J.F. & Neubauer F. (Eds.):
Pre-Mesozoic Geology in the Alps. Springer Int., 537—564.

Krainer K. & Mogessi A. 1991: Composition and significance of

resedimented amphibolite brecias and conglomerates (Badstub
Formation) in the Carboniferous of Nötsch (Eastern Alps, Aus-
tria). Jb. Geol. B.—A., Wien


134, 65—81.

Lelkes-Felvári Gy. 1978: Petrographische Untersuchung einiger

prepermischer Bildungen der Balaton-Linie. Geol. Hung. Ser.
Geol. 18, 193—295.

Leventhal J.S. 1983: An interpretation of carbon and sulphur rela-

tionship in Black Sea sediments as indicators of environments
of deposition. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 47, 133—137.

Littke R., Klussmann U., Kroos B. & Leythaeuser D. 1991: Quantifica-

tion of loss of calcite, pyrite, and organic matter due to weather-
ing of Toarcian black shales and effects on kerogen and bitumen
characteristics. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3369—3378.

Mazzoli C. & Vozárová A. 1989: Further data concerning the pres-

sure character of the Hercynian metamorphism in the West
Carpathians (Czechoslovakia). Rend. Soc. Ital. Miner. Petrol.
43, 635—642.

Milička J., Franců J., Horváth I. & Toman B. 1991: Optical, struc-

tural and thermal characterization of meta-anthracite from
Zemplinicum, West Carpathians. Geol. Zbor. Geol. Carpath.
42, 1, 53—58.

Němejc F. 1947: Contribution to knowledge of floral remnants and

stratigraphical division of Permian-Carboniferous of Slovakia.
Rozpr. II, tř. Čs. Akad. Věd 56, 15, 1—34 (in Czech).

Němejc F. 1953: Introduction to stratigraphy of coal basin of ČSR

based of macroflora. ČSAV, Praha, 1—173 (in Czech).

Němejc F. & Obrhel J. 1958: Evaluation of some plant impressions

from Permian-Carboniferous of Slovakia. Spr. Geol. Výzk. v r.
1957, ÚÚG, Praha, 165—166 (in Czech).

Neubauer F., Ebner F., Frisch W. & Sassi F.P. 1997: Terranes and

tectonostratigraphic units in the Alps. Ann. Geol. Pays Hellén.
37, 1996/97, 219—244.

Neubauer F. & Handler R. 2000: Variscan orogeny in the Eastern

Alps and Bohemian Massif: How do these units correlate. Mitt.
Österr. Geol. Gesell. 92, 33—59.

Neubauer F. & Vozárová A. 1990: The Nötesch-Veitsch-Northge-

meric Zone of Alps and Carpathians: correlation, paleogeogra-
phy and significance for Variscan orogeny. In: Minařiková D.
& Lobitzer H. (Eds.): Thirty years of geological cooperation
between Austria Czechoslovakia: Festive volume. Ústř. Úst.
Geol., Praha, 161—171.

Pelikan P., Less Gy., Kovács S., Pelikan P., Pentelenyi L. & Sasdi

L. 2005: Explanatory book to the geological map of the Bükk
Mts., 1 : 50,000. Hung. Geol. Inst., Budapest, 1—284.

Planderová E. 1979: Biostratigraphical evaluation of the Choč

Nappe carboniferous based on palynology. Geol Práce, Spr.
72, 31—60, (in Slovak).

Planderová E. 1982: First finding of Visean microflora in Gemerides

(Slovakia). Západ. Karpaty, Sér. Paleont. 8, 111—126 (in Slovak).

Planderová E. & Vozárová A. 1978: Upper Carboniferous in the

Southern Veporicum. Geol. Práce, Spr. 70, 129—141 (in Slovak).

Planderová E., Sitár V., Grecula P. & Együd K. 1981: Biostrati-

graphical evaluation of graphite shales of Zemplín island. Min-
er. Slovaca 13, 97—128 (in Slovak).

Plašienka D., Janák M., Hacura H. & Vrbatovič P. 1989: First illite

crystallinity data from Alpine metamorphic rocks of Vepori-
cum.  Miner. Slovaca 21, 43—51.

Rakusz Gy. 1932: Die oberkarbonischen Fosilien von Dobšiná und

Nagyvisnyo.  Geol. Hung. Ser. Palaeont. 8, 1—219.

Rantitsch G. 1995: Niedriggradige Metamorphose im Karbon von

Nötsch (Österreich). Jb. Geol. B.—A. Wien  138, 433—440.

Rantitsch G. 1997: Thermal history of the Carnic Alps (Southern

Alps, Austria) and its paleogeographic implications. Tectono-
physics 272, 213—232.

Rantitsch G. & Russegger B. 2000: Thrust-related very low grade

metamorphism within the Gurktal Nappe Complex (Eastern
Alps). Jb. Geol. B.—A. Wien 142, 219—225.

Rantitsch G., Grogger W., Teichert Ch., Ebner F., Hofer Ch., Maur-

er E.-M., Schaffer B. & Toth M. 2004: Conversion of carbon-
aceous material to graphite within the Greywacke Zone of the
Eastern Alps. Int. J. Earth Sci. 93, 959—973.

Rantitsch G., Sachsenhofer R.F., Hasenhüttl Ch., Russegger B. &

Rainer Th. 2005: Thermal evolution of an extensional detach-
ment as constrained by organic metamorphic data and thermal
modeling: Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex (Eastern Alps).
Tectonophysics 411, 57—72.

Ratschbacher L. 1984: Beitrag zur Neugliederung der Veitscher

Decke (Grauwackenzone) in ihrem Westabschnitt (Obersteier-
mark, Österreich). Jb. Geol. B.—A. Wien 127, 423—453.

Ratschbacher L. 1987: Stratigraphy, tectonics, and paleogeography

of the Veitsch nappe (Greywacke Zone, Eastern Alps, Austria):
A rearrangement. Miner. Slovaca – Monograph, Bratislava,

Ricken W. 1993: Sedimentation as a three-component system. Lect.

Notes Earth Sci. 51, 1—211.

Russegger B., Rantitsch G. & Ebner F. 1997: Carbon-sulphur ratios

in Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern and Southern Alps (Aus-
tria). Zbl. Geol. Paläont. Teil I, 1996, 573—583.

Sassi F. & Vozárová 1987: The pressure character of the Hercynian

metamorphism in the Gemericum (West Carpathians, Czecho-
slovakia). Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol. 42, 73—81.

Schönlaub H.P. 1985: Das Karbon von Nötsch und sein Rahmen.

Jb. Geol. B.—A.  Wien 127, 673—692.

Schönlaub H.P. & Heinisch H. 1993: The classic fossiliferous

Palaeozoic units of the Eastern and Southern Alps. In: Van

background image



Raumer J.F. & Neubauer F. (Eds.): Pre-Mesozoic geology in
the Alps. Springer Int., 395—422.

Schönlaub H.P. & Histon K. 2000: The Paleozoic evolution of the

Southern Alps. Mitt. Österr. Geol. Gesell. 92, 15—34.

Sitár V. & Vozár J. 1973: Die ersten Makrofloren Funde im Karbon

der Choč Einheit in der Niederen Tatra (Westkarpaten). Geol.
Zbor. Geol. Carpath. 24, 2, 441—448.

Šucha V. 1989: Burial metamorphism of clay minerals in Permian

pelites of the Choč Nappe, Western Carpathians. In: Metalloge-
ny and anoxic sediments. Meeting of Czechoslovak working
group IGCP 254, Charles University, Prague, 43—44.

Vozárová A. 1990: Development of metamorphism in the Gemeric/

Veporic contact zone (Western Carpathians). Geol. Zbor. Geol.
Carpath. 41, 5, 475—502.

Vozárová A. 1992: New lithostratigraphic units in the Brusník Anti-

cline. Geol. Práce, Spr. 96, 25—32 (in Slovak).

Vozárová A. 1996: Tectono-sedimentary evolution of Late Paleo-

zoic Basins based on interpretation of lithostratigraphic data
(Western Carpathians; Slovakia). Slovak Geol. Mag. 3—4,

Vozárová A. 1998: Late Carboniferous to Early Permian time inter-

val in the Western Carpathians: Northern Tethys Margin. Geo-
diversitas 20, 4, 621—641.

Vozárová A. & Vozár J. 1992: Tornaicum and Meliaticum in borehole

BRU-1, Southern Slovakia. Acta Geol. Hung. 35, 2, 97—116.

Vozárová A. & Vozár J. 1996: Terranes of Western Carpathian-

North Panonian Domain. Slovak Geol. Mag. 1, 61—83.

Vozárová A. & Vozár J. 1997: Terranes of the Western Carpathian-

North Panonian Domain. In: Papanikolau D. (Ed.): Terrane
map and terrane descriptions, IGCP No. 276. Ann. Geol. Pays
Hellén.  37, 245—270.

Vrána S. & Vozár J. 1969: Pumpellyite-prehnite facies mineral as-

semblages from Nízke Tatry. Geol. Práce, Spr. 49, 91—100
(in Slovak).