GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, JUNE 2006, 57, 3, 157—176
Metamorphosed and ductilely deformed conodonts from
Triassic limestones situated beneath ophiolite complexes:
Kopaonik Mountain (Serbia) and Bükk Mountains
(NE Hungary) – a preliminary comparison
and SÁNDOR KOVÁCS
Institute of Regional Geology and Paleontology, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Kamenička 6,
11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro; email@example.com
Geological Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Geology, Eötvös Loránd University,
Pázmány Péter sétány 1/c, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary; firstname.lastname@example.org
(Manuscript received March 7, 2005; accepted in revised form December 8, 2005)
Abstract: Metamorphosed and ductilely deformed conodonts with CAI (Colour Alteration Index) values 5—7 are
described and illustrated from Kopaonik Mt, Vardar Zone, Serbia and from Bükk Mts, NE Hungary. They derive from
Upper Triassic cherty metalimestones, overthrust by ophiolite complexes. The metamorphism and ductile deformation
of the conodont elements evidently took place simultaneously with those of the limestone host rocks, which might have
been related to subduction and obduction; however, younger tectonometamorphic events could also have played a role.
Unfortunately, illite “crystallinity” indices from Kopaonik Mt are too random for thermometric assessment and geochro-
nological data are missing so far. Nevertheless, by comparison with published data about limestone textural alteration and
with previously published metamorphic petrological data from NE Hungary, at least a Szendrő-type (min. 400 °C, but
less then 500 °C, temperature and 300 MPa pressure) can be supposed for the regional metamorphism of conodont-
bearing cherty limestone series of Kopaonik Mt.
Key words: Serbia, Vardar Zone, NE Hungary, ductile deformation, regional metamorphism, limestone textural
alteration, conodont alterations.
Conodont thermometry to reveal the thermal history of sed-
imentary rock sequences has been widely used since the
publication of the basic works by Epstein et al. 1977 and
Rejebian et al. 1987. It is based on colour alteration of con-
odonts ( = Colour Alteration Index – CAI) caused by coali-
fication of the small amount of organic matter they contain
due to increasing temperature: the originally yellowish
white, translucent (CAI = 1) conodonts become darker and
darker, then black (CAI = 5). At a further increase of temper-
ature, due to loss of organic matter, they again become
lighter coloured: grey (CAI = 6), white (CAI = 7), finally
crystal clear, glassy (CAI = 8). Calibration was done by heat-
ing in an electronic furnace under atmospheric conditions,
and using the Arrhenius plot, was projected back to geolog-
ical times up to 500 Ma. Temperature values of this experi-
mental test are shown in Table 1. Up to the value CAI = 5,
that is within the range of the diagenetic zone, correlation
was also made with palynomorph colour alteration.
The investigation of conodont colour alteration seems
to be a useful method to estimate temperatures of burial
and contact metamorphism. Numerous papers have been
published on this topic, for example Buggisch (1986),
Belka (1990), Nöth (1991), Königshof (1992), Gawlick et
al. (1994), Garcia-Lopez et al. (1997), Gawlick & Hopfer
(1999), and many others.
However, under conditions of regional dynamothermal
metamorphism, where besides temperature, lithostatic
and fluid pressures also play decisive roles, the alteration
of conodonts is different and above CAI = 5 is much more
intense: they become progressively recrystallized and
deformed, in accordance with the metamorphism and
ductile deformation of their host rock. Mineral paragene-
sis, illite “crystallinity” and vitrinite reflectance data
above the diagenetic zone indicate considerably lower
temperatures, than could be deduced from simple experi-
mental heating (Kovács & Árkai 1987; Rejebian et al.
1987). Furthermore, it was found, that different CAI indi-
ces, that should indicate different temperatures, can be
found even in the same, usually fractured specimens
(CAI=5 to 7, black, grey and white parts; Kovács & Árkai
Table 1: Temperature ranges related to different CAI of conodonts
(after Epstein et al. 1977; Rejebian et al. 1987 and Königshof 1992).
SUDAR and KOVÁCS
From the experimental (hydrouos pyrolysis at 50 MPa
pressure) data shown on the Arrhenius plot (Rejebian et al.
1987, Fig. 4), postulating a thermal heating of ~ 10 Myr du-
ration, ~ 4 50 to 600
C temperature values can be calculat-
ed to these high CAI (5 to 7) values. These are higher, than
could be determined for regionally metamorphosed terraines
in NE Hungary using illite “crystallinity” (KI – Kübler in-
dex) and b
indices (350 to 400
C, exceptionally 450
at 250 to 300 MPa or more pressure; Árkai 1983; Árkai &
Kovács 1986; Kovács & Árkai 1987; see Table 2 in the
present paper). Furthermore, conodont elements are sup-
posed to disappear above 500
C in conditions of regional
dynamothermal metamorphism (Neubauer & Friedl 1997,
and Neubauer, pers. commun.).
Conodonts from metamorphosed Triassic sequences of the
Kopaonik Mt (Vardar Zone, Serbia) and from the Bükk Mts
(Bükk Composite Terrane, NE Hungary), which are structur-
ally beneath ophiolite complexes are presented and com-
pared in this paper. Evidently, their alteration was not related
simply to sedimentary burial and thermal effects, but to
subduction and collisional processes, although subsequent
nappe movements could still play a role in their alteration.
Comparison is also done with previously published meta-
morphosed conodonts from the Szendrő Hills and Torna s.s.
(or Martonyi) Unit of the Rudabánya Hills, NE Hungary
(Árkai & Kovács 1986; Kovács & Árkai 1987, 1989).
The preliminary results of the above mentioned investi-
gations were already given in the abstract by Sudar &
These are the first metamorphosed conodonts described
and illustrated in details from Serbia. We should add to
this point that conodonts of similar preservation were
shown from approximately similarly metamorphosed Tri-
assic limestones from the Fruška Gora Mt, Northern Serbia
(Đur anović 1971; for recent description of the metamor-
phosed series see Čanović & Kemenci 1999 and Karamata
et al. 2002) and from the Medvednica Mt near Zagreb,
Croatia (Đur anović 1973; for a recent geological descrip-
tion of the Medvednica Metamorphic Series see Pamić &
Tomljenović 1998; Judik et al. 2004).
Rare CAI determinations of Triassic conodont elements
have been performed in the territory of the former Yugo-
slavia, when either their numerical values have been cited
(in Slovenia: Kolar-Jurkovšek 1994; Kolar-Jurkovšek &
Jurkovšek 1995, 1996; Krystyn et al. 1998), or the results
of the method have been used for assessing organic meta-
morphism (in Croatia: Palinkaš et al. 2000).
The geological units compared in the present study are
located now in a distant position within the Neogene—
Quaternary geological framework of the Pannonian area,
the basement of which had been amalgamated and accret-
ed only by the Middle Miocene, due to sizeable micro-
plate and terrane movements (Csontos & Nagymarosy
1998; Kovács et al. 2000), the Kopaonik Mt being on the
South of the Pannonian Basin, whereas the Bükk Mts were
on its northern margin. Separated by the large Tisia Ter-
rane (or Tisza Mega-unit) (Fig. 1) of quite different origin,
the Bükk and neighbouring units show an undoubtedly
Dinaridic Paleozoic and Mesozoic development, suggest-
ing that they were originally parts of the same geological
domain (cf. Csontos 1999; Dimitrijević et al. 2003 and
Filipović et al. 2003 for latest reviews). Consequently, the
tectonometamorphic evolution of the units containing the
metamorphosed conodonts shown herein could be related
to the same geodynamic events. However, it is not yet
widely known in the international geological literature,
therefore we present below the geological facts in some
The metamorphosed Triassic sequences yielding the con-
odonts presented herein are structurally beneath ophiolite
complexes, that are eroded in most part of the Bükk Mts.
Fig. 1 also shows other areas of the former Yugoslavia (Fruš-
ka Gora and Medvednica Mts), from where metamorphosed
Triassic conodonts were published from a similar setting
(Đur anović 1971, 1973; for the geological setting see
Čanović & Kemenci 1999 and Pamić & Tomljenović 1998).
Table 2: Average temperature (determined from illite “crystallinity” and vitrinite reflectance data) and pressure (determined from white
geobarometric data) of regional dynamothermal metamorphism of tectonic units in NE Hungary, as well as CAI indices of conodonts
and textural alteration types of limestones recorded in them (after Árkai & Kovács 1986 and Kovács & Árkai 1987, 1989, slightly modified).
METAMORPHOSED AND DUCTILELY DEFORMED CONODONTS (SERBIA—NE HUNGARY)
Fig. 1. Tectonic/terrane sketch map of the Dinarides + Vardar Zone and of the
Pannonian area (slightly modified after Dimitrijević et al. 2003). 1 – Neo-
tethyan ophiolite complexes (Vardar Zone, Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt, and in the
Zagorje-Mid-Transdanubian and Bükk Composite Terranes); 2 – units related
to the North Tethyan continental margin in the Pelsonia Composite Terrane;
3 – units related to the Adriatic/Apulian continental margin of the Neotethys
in the Dinarides + Vardar Zone and in the Pelsonia Composite Terrane; 4 – ar-
eas with marine Upper Carboniferous + Permian within 3 (“Noric-Bosnian
Zone” in sense of Flügel 1990); 5 – Paleozoic units without marine Upper
Carboniferous and Permian in the Dinarides and Pelsonia Composite Terrane
(“Betic-Serbian Zone” in sense of Flügel 1990); 6 – units related to the
Variscan Median Crystalline + Moldanubian zones (in sense of Neubauer & von
Raumer 1993) and to the North Tethyan (European) continental margin during
the Mesozoic. Green dots in NE Hungary indicate drill hole occurrences of the
Neotethyan Bódva Valley Ophiolite Complex, whereas the green triangle
shows the outcrops of the Upper Jurassic (?) Telekesoldal rhyolites in the Rud-
abánya Mts. The area in the full colour (a) indicates surface occurrences,
whereas those with hachures (b) borehole show proven ones in the pre-Tertia-
ry basement. A – Kopaonik Mt area (Vardar Zone, Serbia; Fig. 2); B – Bükk
+ Aggtelek + Rudabánya Mts (Pelsonia Composite Terrane, NE Hungary;
Fig. 4). Conodont localities: 1 – Županj (Kopaonik Mt); 2 – Smrekovnica
(Kopaonik Mt); 3 – Fruška Gora Mt; 4 – Medvednica Mt; 5 – Bükk PA
Unit; 6 – Torna s.s. or Martonyi Unit; 7 – Szendrő Unit; 8 – Uppony Unit.
Geological framework of the Kopaonik Moun-
There are two main groups of viewpoints in
Serbian or Yugoslavian geological literature
referring to the geological position of the Ko-
paonik Mt area: these terrains are considered
either as parts of the Vardar Zone as a separate
first-order geotectonic unit, or parts of the (In-
ternal) Dinarides. We find it necessary to turn
to the papers by M.D. Dimitrijević and S.
Karamata, published during the last ten years.
These papers contain the most detailed and re-
cent geological data and facts on the composi-
tion, origin and distribution of the Kopaonik
Block, as a specific part of the Vardar Zone
with a long and complex evolution. These au-
thors’ viewpoints on the Vardar Zone, and on
the Kopaonik area as its integral part, can be
summarized as follows:
a) both authors distinguish the Vardar
Zone, as a separate first-order geotectonic
unit which is presently located between the
Drina-Ivanjica Element/Terrane (DIE) and
the Serbian-Macedonian Massif/Composite
Terrane (SMCT) (Fig. 3).
b) Dimitrijević (1995, 1997, 2000, 2001) di-
vide the Vardar Zone into three Sub-zones:
External (EVSZ), Central (CVSZ), and Internal
(IVSZ). The Kopaonik Block (KB), as one of
its integral parts covers the whole southern
part of the EVSZ (Figs. 2 and 3). Its boundaries
are: the Západná Morava trough in the north,
the regional tectonic zone Vrnjačka Banja—
Brzeće—Podujevo—Preševo in the east, Skopje
depression in the south, and as specific ele-
ment, the Studenica Slice, and Kosovska
Mitrovica Flysch of the DIE in the west.
c) Karamata (1995), Karamata et al. (2000),
and Resimić-Šarić et al. (2000), divide the
Vardar Zone into three Sub-zones as well: the
Vardar Zone Western Belt (VZWB), Kopaon-
ik Block and Ridge Unit (KBRU) including
the Kopaonik block (Kb), and Main Vardar
Zone (MVZ) (Fig. 3). Such division differs
from that by M.D. Dimitrijević (loc. cit.) be-
cause the VZWB and the KBRU (with Kb)
correspond to EVSZ, while MVZ includes
both CVSZ and IVSZ. Thus, the Kopaonik
block covers a smaller area, because its west-
ern boundary is in the valley of the river Ibar,
and it narrows in the direction Kosovska
Mitrovica—Sitnica—Lab in the south (Fig. 2).
Its southern boundary is not precisely de-
fined yet, because the deposits of the Kb are
covered in this area. Besides, the Kb extends
northwards to Belgrade and southwards to
Priština, in the form of a narrow zone, form-
ing the Kopaonik Block and Ridge Unit.
SUDAR and KOVÁCS
In the papers by Dimitrijević (1995, 1997, 2000) dealing
with the Vardar Zone and with the Kopaonik Mt area, the
registration of new facts and evolution of different models,
during more than the last 50 years are quoted. In the same
papers, and particularly in Dimitrijević (2001), only a
rough sketch of the known facts of the evolution of the
whole Vardar Zone is given, without consideration of the
geological history of its segments, because there were not
any and still are no sufficient paleomagnetic data. The only
thing mentioned is: “Occurrence of two ophiolitic mélang-
es – Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous – points to a very in-
tricate history of the ocean closing – the main at the end of
the Jurassic, with subsequent opening of a back-arc basin
between the main land and the Kopaonik arc.” (Dimitrijević
2000, p. 12).
Fig. 2. Kopaonik Block of the External
Vardar Subzone (simplified after Dimi-
trijević 1995, 1997, 2001, and modified
according to Karamata 1995; Karamata
et al. 2000). 1 – Miocene and Pliocene
sediments; 2 – Oligocene-Miocene
granodiorites; 3 – Tertiary volcanic
rocks; 4 – Binačka Morava Oligocene;
5 – Cretaceous deposits (a – Upper
Cretaceous deposits of the Kopaonik
Block; b – Kačanik Flysch); 6 – ultra-
mafites; 7 – ophiolitic mélange (a – un-
metamorphosed mélange of the western
margin of the KBRU (KB) and the
VZWB; b – slightly metamorphosed
mélange of the eastern margin of KB);
8 – Triassic metamorphites; 9 – Pale-
ozoic metamorphites; 10 – western
boundary of the Kb within KBRU (in
sense of Karamata 1995 and Karamata
et al. 2000); 11 – first order thrust
faults: boundaries of the External Vard-
ar Zone; 12 – nappe boundaries within
the External Vardar Zone; 13 – normal
faults; 14 – sedimentary contacts. Con-
odont localities: A – locality Županj
(“Central Kopaonik Series”); B – local-
ity Smrekovnica (“Metamorphic Trepča
A more detailed discussion on the geological evolution
of these areas was given by Karamata (1995), Karamata et
al. (2000), and Resimić-Šarić et al. (2000).
Both authors (M.D. Dimitrijević and S. Karamata) start
from the fact that the present Vardar Zone is one of the
three different Mesozoic ophiolitic belts which exist in
the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, and that as such,
it is the relic of the main oceanic realm – the Vardar
Ocean, which formed the NW part of the (Neo)Tethys. S.
Karamata and co-authors are of the opinion that the Vardar
Zone includes the relics of (at least) two oceanic areas:
(a) the remnants of the Main Vardar (Tethys) Ocean (now
the Main Vardar Zone – MVZ) in the east, and (b) for-
mations of the western branch (i.e. scar of a marginal ba-
sin or sea) of the Vardar Ocean (now the Vardar Zone
METAMORPHOSED AND DUCTILELY DEFORMED CONODONTS (SERBIA—NE HUNGARY)
Western Belt – VZWB) in the west. The KBRU (Kb)
which formed during the Upper Triassic and at the begin-
ning of the Jurassic, had previously been an integral part
of a continental margin at the side of a large Vardar
(Tethys) Ocean. Uplifting of the KBRU (Kb) has been go-
ing on till present times. However, its complex evolution
resulted in formation of various rock complexes such as
ophiolitic mélanges, Upper Cretaceous deposits, as well as
large masses of ultramafic, volcanic and granodioritic
rocks. The main characteristics of the above mentioned
oceanic basins are as follows:
a) The Main Vardar Ocean (MVO, present MVZ) – long
continuous existence as the continuation of an Early Pale-
ozoic (or older?) oceanic realm (e.g. of Paleotethys); clos-
ing at the end of the Jurassic; presence of Paleozoic island
arc relics (“Veles Series”); prevalence of material from the
higher parts of the oceanic crust (mafic i.e. basaltic rocks),
cherts and lithic sandstone in the olistostrome; absence of
limestone olistoplakae; and
b) Western basin of the Vardar Ocean (VOWB, present
VZWB) (which originated simultaneously with the closure
of the MVO, and was during Jurassic and Cretaceous, the
most important oceanic realm in the central part of the
Balkan Peninsula) – existence from the Late Triassic to
the latest Cretaceous with very long and complex closing
with formation of island arcs, obduction of ultramafic
masses and development of huge masses of olistostromes.
The olistostromes formed in the trench by the closure of
the basin are characterized by predominance of sandstones
and basalts (MORB and IAB affinity), and presence of
cherts (Upper Triassic and younger), and limestone olis-
toliths of Middle—Late Triassic, Late Jurassic and Late
Fig. 3. Schematic tectonic cross-section of the Vardar Zone in the northern area of Kopaonik Mt (slightly modified after Grubić et al.
1995). 1 – Oligocene granodiorites; 2 – ultramafites; 3 – Upper Cretaceous deposits of the Kopaonik Block (KB) i.e. Kopaonik block
(Kb); 4 – Cretaceous paraflysches/flysches: a – Lower Cretaceous paraflysch of the Central Vardar Subzone (CVSZ) i.e. Main Vardar
Zone (MVZ); b – Upper Cretaceous Toplica flysch of the Internal Vardar Subzone (IVSZ) i.e. MVZ; 5 – ophiolitic mélange of the west-
ern margin of the KB i.e. Kb (Kopaonik Block and Ridge Unit (KBRU)) and the Vardar Zone Western Belt (VZWB) – unmetamorphosed;
6 – ophiolitic mélange of the eastern margin of the KB i.e. Kb (KBRU) and the MVZ – slightly metamorphosed; 7 – Triassic and Paleo-
zoic metamorphites ( + “Studenica slice”-type); 8 – deposits of the Drina—Ivanjica Element/Terrane (DIE); 9 – metamorphites of the Ser-
bo-Macedonian Composite Terrane (SMCT). 2, 5, 6, 7. thrusts, Late Jurassic structures of Western and Central Kopaonik; 2, 3, 4, 6. Late
Cretaceous structures of Eastern Kopaonik. EVSZ (External Vardar Subzone), KB, CVSZ, IVSZ – in the sense of Dimitrijević (1997);
VZWB, KBRU, Kb, MVZ – in the sense of Karamata et al. (2000).
According to the data by Dimitrijević (1995, 1997,
2000, 2001), Karamata (1995), and new observations, the
Kopaonik Mt region is composed of the following units
a) (low-grade) metamorphic rocks of (Late?) Paleozoic
age composed of the clastic sediments metamorphosed to
sericite-chlorite schists, metasandstones, and rare chlorite-
epidote-actinolite schists, metabasalts and calcschists;
b) (very low-grade) metamorphic rocks of Triassic age
represented by schistous and intensely folded clayish-silty
or sandy rocks and deep-water grey, cherty limestones
with nodules and rare beds of cherts; intraserial basaltic
lava flows (now metabasalts) and small intrusive diabase
bodies occur with these sediments only locally;
c) ophiolitic mélange representing a typical olistostromal
mixture of clasts and olistoliths of different sediments and ig-
neous rocks in a sandy to silty-clayey matrix. In this unit two
facies can be distinguished:
) the mélange at the eastern margin of the area, of Ju-
rassic age, slightly metamorphosed, with plenty of
) the mélange at the western margin of the Kopaonik
block (in the Ibar valley), of Jurassic—Cretaceous
age, where the sandstones dominate over all other
sedimentary and magmatic rocks together;
d) Cretaceous sediments, including the Upper Cretaceous
deposits of the Kopaonik Block, and the Kačanik Flysch;
e) very large bodies of ultramafic rocks (mostly
harzburgites) thrusted over all the aforementioned forma-
tions during the Eocene—Lower Oligocene;
f) volcanics, of andesitic, dacitic and quartzlatitic (rhy-
olitic-dacitic) composition, of Oligocene—Miocene (Tertia-
ry) age with associated granodiorites which were intruded
SUDAR and KOVÁCS
during the same time period into the core of the Kopaonik
block and formed a large contact metamorphic aureole;
g) marine Middle Oligocene at the south, the so-called
Binačka Morava Oligocene; and
h) Miocene and Pliocene lacustrine deposits.
In the Kopaonik area Triassic slightly metamorphosed
sediments (with rare volcanics and in this case by Dimitr-
ijević 1995 treated as “volcanogenic-sedimentary” forma-
tion) are widely developed, especially at the Central
Kopaonik and in the region of Trepča, and few “series”
were distinguished, mostly locally named, as at the north
the “Central Kopaonik Series” or “Suvo Rudište Series”,
and at the south the “Metamorphic Trepča Series”, or the
“Stari Trg Series”, etc. All these metamorphic rocks, as
well as those occurring on Željin and Goč (“Goč”, “Žel-
jin” and “Banjski Kopaonik” “Series”), and those devel-
oped west of the Ibar river (“Studenica Series”, “Rogozna”
and “Golija” “Series” and “Radočelo” and “Čemerno”
“Series”), which are also partly Paleozoic in age, are con-
sidered by Grubić (1995) and Grubić & Protić (2000) as
equivalents of the Alpine “schistes lustres” of Piemont-
type formed in deep-water conditions. In the above men-
tioned papers the problems concerning their origin,
development and age are considered in detail, and inter-
ested readers can find more data in them.
S. Karamata (pers. commun.) considers all these rock se-
ries as deposits of the continental slope at the margin of
the Vardar Ocean, that is the subsided margin of the intra-
oceanic Drina-Ivanjica carbonate platform (Dimitrijević &
After the discovery of conodonts in slightly metamor-
phic rocks of the northern (in the “Central Kopaonik Se-
ries”, Mićić et al. 1972), and the southern Kopaonik
(“Metamorphic Trepča Series”, Klisić et al. 1972), the Late
Triassic age of some of their parts/levels was firstly docu-
mented. According to the determined conodont fauna
(only platform conodonts are cited here: Gondolella nav-
icula, Neogondolella abneptis, Neogondolella tethydis),
and the current knowledge on their stratigraphic range, it
was determined that the Carnian Stage was present in both
“series“. On the basis of the original material on which the
above mentioned results considering the age of certain
parts of the metamorphic rocks on Kopaonik Mt were
based, and according to his own material, Sudar (1986)
made a revision to the conodonts and their age. Thus, the
new data confirmed their Carnian age, and the presence of
a Norian Stage in the metamorphites was determined for
the first time. Besides, biostratigraphic divisions of the
sediments into conodont zones were also performed.
The specific “Central Kopaonik Series” (“CKS”) occur all
around the Kopaonik granodiorite massif and is composed
of phyllitoids (dominantly sericite-chlorite schists), chlo-
rite-epidote-actinolite schists, and (particularly in higher
horizons) thin-bedded crystalline limestones. These grey,
cherty limestones occur either as the middle horizon with
interlayers of pelitic-psammitic rocks, or as interlayers
within the uppermost horizon of the “series” made of ter-
rigenous (meta)sediments. The parent rocks were shales,
marls, and carbonates, subordinately sandstones, with
consedimentary magmatic rocks: basalt (spilite), diabase,
dolerite, and tuff.
NW of the village Županj at the right side of the river
Jošanička Reka (about 2 km along the road Jošanička
Banja-Biljanovac, Fig. 2) in the limestone interlayers in
the higher levels of the “series”, the following Carnian
conodonts were found (conodont determination and zona-
tion from Kopaonik Mt was made by M. Sudar, according
to the taxonomic concept and biozonal subdivision by
Budurov & Sudar 1990):
a) Epigondolella echinata, Paragondolella navicula,
and Pg. polygnathiformis – Paragondolella polygnathi-
formis Zone (middle Cordevolian, Julian, lower Tuvalian);
b) Pg. nodosa and Pg. polygnathiformis – Paragon-
dolella nodosa Zone (lower and upper Tuvalian).
The “Metamorphic Trepča Series” (“MTS”) covers an
area of about 30 km
between Trepča and Smrekovnica (vi-
cinity of Kosovska Mitrovica, Fig. 2) and its lower part is
composed of phyllitoids, argillaceous schists, cherts,
gneisses, feldspathic micaschists, amphibolite and amphib-
ole schist, and in the middle part of the unit, the Smrekovni-
ca limestones. This metamorphic rock “series” contains
abundant basaltoid sills and lava flows of spilitic character.
The following Lower and Middle Norian conodonts were
found at a few places in the neighbourhood of Smre-
kovnica in 100—150 m thin-bedded grey cherty Smre-
kovnica limestones, with intercalated platy cherts in lower
levels and with abundant clayey interlayers:
a) Ancyrogondolella triangularis, Metapolygnathus ab-
neptis, Mp. communisti, Pg. navicula, and Pg. steinber-
gensis – Metapolygnathus abneptis Zone (Lacian);
b) Ag. triangularis, Eg. postera, Mp. abneptis, Pg.
hallstattensis, and Pg. steinbergensis – Epigondolella
postera Zone (Alaunian).
Geological framework of the Bükk Mountains and neigh-
Bükk nappe system (Bükk Composite Terrane)
The south-vergent nappe system of the Bükk Mts and
adjacent Darnó Hill area at the NE part of the Mátra Mts
are built up by the following units: the Bükk Parautoch-
thon Unit (Bükk PA Unit) in the lowermost position and
the Szarvaskő and Darnó Ophiolite Complexes emplaced
onto it from the NW according to present coordinates
(Figs. 4 and 5). However, taking into account the large-
scale Tertiary anti-clockwise rotation (up to 90
) of the
Bükk block, the original direction of nappe-stacking
should have been from the NE to SW, the same as in the
Dinarides (see Csontos 1999 and references therein). The
subsurface continuation of the Bükk Composite Unit in
the basement of the northern Pannonian Basin is bound
by the Zagreb-Zemplín (or Mid-Hungarian) Lineament
on the south and the Hernád fault on the east. On the
west, towards the Transdanubian Range Unit the bound-
ary is not clear, as there could also be a facies transition.
Towards the north it will be discussed below at the Up-
pony and Szendrő Units.
METAMORPHOSED AND DUCTILELY DEFORMED CONODONTS (SERBIA—NE HUNGARY)
Fig. 4. Structural units in NE Hungary with vergence directions of the nappes.
1—4 – Bükk Mts and Darnó Hill: 1 – Szarvaskő and Darnó Ophiolite
Complexes; 2 – Jurassic formations of the Bükk PA Unit; 3 – Triassic
formations of the Bükk PA Unit; 4 – Upper Paleozoic formations of the
Bükk PA Unit; 5—6 – Szendrő Unit: 5 – Abod Subunit; 6 – Rakaca
Subunit; 7—9 – Uppony Unit: 7 – Tapolcsány Subunit; 8 – Lázbérc Subunit;
9 – Upper Cretaceous Gosau-type conglomerates; 10—12 – Aggtelek-
Rudabánya Mts: 10 – Aggtelek Unit: s.l.; 11 – Bódva ( + Szőlősardó Unit );
12 – Martonyi (or Torna s.s.) Unit; 13 – Bódva Valley Ophiolite Complex
(in boreholes); 14 – Upper Jurassic (?) rhyolites; 15 – structural vergencies.
The exposed part of the Bükk PA Unit is built up by
four large, S-ward recumbent antiforms and strongly
sheared-off synforms between them. Its known stratigraph-
ic sequence extends from the Middle Carboniferous
Variscan flysch to the Upper Jurassic Eohellenic flysch
(for most the recent reviews see Haas 2001 and Filipović
et al. 2003). Following the Late Paleozoic to Early Trias-
sic marine sedimentation (with a hiatus in the Early Permi-
an and coastal plain sediments at the beginning of the
Alpine cycle in the Middle Permian), a carbonate ramp en-
vironment came into existence during the Anisian. After a
significant (mostly andesitic) volcanic activity in the La-
dinian, the former ramp desintegrated and platform and
basin environments were differentiated during the Late
Triassic. In the course of the Late Jurassic (?)—Ear-
ly Cretaceous Eohellenic tectogenesis (160—120 Ma,
Árkai et al. 1995) the antiforms were formed from
the areas of Late Triassic carbonate platforms,
whereas the sheared-off synforms developed from
the basinal carbonates (grey, cherty limestones;
Felsőtárkány Limestone Formation) (Csontos
1988, 1999). The conodonts involved in the
present study are from the latter. In the most com-
plete section studied (borehole Felsőtárkány 7)
the basinal carbonate sequence extends from the
basal Carnian (“Metapolygnathus” diebeli Zone,
together with Gondolella polygnathiformis) to
the Rhaetian (Neospathodus posthernsteini Zone)
(Kovács in Velledits 2000).
The emplacement of the Szarvaskő Ophiolite
Complex onto the Bükk PA Unit is supposed to
have taken place during the latest Jurassic and
large-scale folding, resulting in the formation of
the antiforms—synforms mentioned above, al-
ready affected both units together, accompanied
by the first (and likely more intense) metamor-
phic event (Csontos op. cit.; Fig. 6 herein).
The east-west striking axis of the antiforms
plunges to the west. Consequently, stratigraphi-
cally older and more metamorphosed sequences
are exposed to the east, whereas younger (Juras-
sic) and less to non-metamorphosed ones appear
to the west. The rocks exposed in the eastern and
central parts of the Bükk Mts are high tempera-
ture anchizonal to epizonal metamorphosed
( ~ 350
C and 300 MPa in average, but reaching
up to 500 MPa in some zones; Árkai 1983). The
degree of metamorphism and style of deformation
suggest, that these processes took place at 5 to
10 km depth (Papanikolaou pers. commun. on the
field in 1993). A second tectonometamorphic
event (85—90 Ma) can be recognized in the NE
part of the Bükk Mts. It is thought to be linked
with NW-SE directed strike-slip faulting and
arching of the unit (Csontos op. cit.), as well as
with the emplacement of the intra-Bükkian, but
non or only weakly metamorphosed Kisfennsík
Fig. 5. Structural sketch of the Bükk Composite Terrane (after Haas
& Kovács 2001, slightly modified). U – Unit; Bükk PA U – Bükk
SUDAR and KOVÁCS
(Little Plateau) partial unit (Forián-Szabó & Csontos 2002).
Similarly non or weakly metamorphosed intra-Bükkian
Triassic occurs below the Szarvaskő Complex to the
west, in the vicinity of Felsőtárkány (Velledits 2000),
which likely represents the highest part of the Bükk PA
Unit, not removed by erosion. The Szarvaskő Complex
was affected by low temperature anchizonal (pumpelly-
ite-prehnite facies) metamorphism (Árkai 1973, 1983;
Sadek et al. 1996).
Upper Eocene shallow-marine deposits at the base of the
Tertiary cover sequence postdate any metamorphic or duc-
tile deformational event in the Bükk Mts.
Uppony and Szendrő Units
These units were previously regarded because of facial
and stratigraphic links as part of the “Bükkium” (see, for
example, Árkai 1983; Kovács & Péró 1983). However,
they have a N-vergent structure, opposite to that of the
Bükk PA Unit, therefore they can no longer be considered
to form parts of the same tectonostratigraphic unit (cf.
Kovács et al. 2000). They are separated from the Bükk PA
Unit by the Nekézseny fault and its supposed E-ward con-
tinuation (Fig. 4).
The Uppony Unit of small surface areal extension is
built almost exclusively of Paleozoic formations and is
enclosed entirely within the Darnó fault zone (Fig. 4). For
its stratigraphy we refer to Kovács (1992) and Ebner et al.
(1998). As opposed to the Bükk PA Unit and related ophi-
olitic units, it has a N-vergent structure. The Paleozoic
rocks were affected by a mid-Cretaceous (118 ± 14 Ma)
tectonometamorphic event (Árkai et al. 1995), with meta-
morphic conditions reaching the boundary zone between
the anchizone and epizone (350
C, ~ 250 MPa; Árkai
1983). Upper Cretaceous Gosau-type sediments, covering
the southern part of the unit, postdate this event.
The Szendrő Unit is built up exclusively by Paleozoic
(Silurian?—Devonian—Carboniferous) formations and also
has a N-vergent structure (Fig. 4). For details on its stratig-
raphy we refer to Kovács (1992) and Ebner et al. (1998).
Facially, it appears to be linked with the Bükk Upper Pale-
ozoic, however, their different vergencies point to a clear
structural distinction (Kovács et al. 2000). The Paleozoic
rocks were affected by a mid-Cretaceous (108 ± 8
tonometamorphic event (Árkai et al. 1995) of greenschist
facies, or epizonal conditions ( ~ 400
C, ~ 300 MPa; Árkai
1983). It indicates the chlorite isograde, however, in some
parts even the biotite isograde (min. 450
C) was recorded
(Árkai op. cit.).
The Aggtelek-Rudabánya Units include the non-meta-
morphosed Aggtelek and Bódva Units and the metamor-
phosed Torna s.s. or Martonyi Unit (Grill et al. 1984; Less
2000; Fig. 4 herein). They are formed by Upper Permian to
Jurassic, but mainly Triassic formations (Kovács et al.
1989). The dismembered ophiolites (serpentinites, gab-
bros, basalts, some radiolarites and siliceous shales) do not
form a distinct structural unit, but occur in the sole-thrust
of the Aggtelek Unit, imbricated as isolated bodies/slices
into Upper Permian evaporites (Réti 1985), as shown by
The Aggtelek and Bódva Units were affected only by
diagenetic alterations, whereas the Torna s.s. or Martonyi
Unit by anchizonal to epizonal metamorphism of medi-
um pressure ( ~ 350
C, ~ 700 MPa; Árkai & Kovács
1986). The age of the tectonometamorphic event is poor-
ly constrained, but appears to be also of Early to middle
Cretaceous age (128 and 115 Ma, respectively; Balogh
Kad. 1991 in Kovács et al. 2000). The ductile deforma-
tional history of the Martonyi Unit along a NNW—SSE
Fig. 6. Structural cross-section of the western part of Bükk Mts, through the Szarvaskő synform (after Gulácsi, in Haas 2001, slightly
METAMORPHOSED AND DUCTILELY DEFORMED CONODONTS (SERBIA—NE HUNGARY)
section, with obviously southward overturned setting,
was presented by Fodor & Koroknai (2000). The Ag-
gtelek and Bódva Units show a southward thrust and
folded structure, but northward backthrusts are also rec-
ognizable (Péró et al. 2002, 2003).
Metamorphosed Upper Triassic (Carnian-Norian) grey,
cherty limestones of the Torna s.s. or Martonyi Unit, re-
ferred to as “metamorphosed Pötschen Limestone Forma-
tion” (Kovács et al. 1989), are of particular importance for
our comparison, because the metamorphosed conodonts of
the same age from the Kopaonik Mt presented herein, and
those from other territories of the former Yugoslavia (see
below) derive from similar lithologies. Such limestones in
the Bükk PA Unit are called “Felsőtárkány Limestone For-
mation” s.l. (Haas 2001).
Colour alteration indices (CAI), recrystallization and duc-
tile deformation of conodonts in the units from Serbia and
NE Hungary are discussed and compared in this chapter.
Kopaonik, metamorphosed Upper Triassic limestones
The Upper Triassic conodonts from the Kopaonik Mt
included in this study come from two localities: Smre-
kovnica (“MTS”), in the southern part and Županj
(“CKS”), in the northern part of the mountains. The illus-
trated ones (Figs. 7—9) are all from the former locality.
The colours of the conodonts from both localities are
partly black to dark grey (CAI = 5 to 5.5), partly grey to
white (CAI = 6 to 7). In some samples the former, in some
others the latter predominate. However, CAI values 5—6—7
(black—grey—white) may occur not only within the same
sample, but even within different parts of the same, recrys-
tallized, usually fractured and deformed specimen (Kovács
& Árkai 1987). An example concerning recrystallization is
shown in Fig. 10.1—4 herein: the middle part of the carina
shows CAI = 7 (Fig. 10.1,2), while the anterior part CAI = 6
(Fig. 10.3,4), without remarkable difference in the degree
All of the conodont specimens involved into the present
study are considerably recrystallized and usually ruptured
by minor cracks, which did not result in their complete
breaking apart. The degree of recrystallization was analy-
sed on the same parts (middle or anterior part) of the carina
of selected specimens at standard SEM magnifications:
1000 and 3000 (see Figs. 10 and 12). Apatite grain size
on these photos could be measured between 0.83 and 9.66
micrometers, in average 4.42 micrometers.
Many of the specimens show ductile deformation, evi-
dently in accordance with the development of the folia-
tion and texture with preferred orientation of their
enclosing metamorphosed limestone/marble host rock. In
some cases they show extreme, crook-like (Fig. 7.8—11;
Fig. 9.1—3), or even accordion-like (Fig. 9.4—6) bending.
Bükk Parautochthon Unit
The first report on the presence of metamorphosed, re-
crystallized and deformed conodonts in the NE part of the
Bükk Mts was given by Kozur & Mock (1977). Detailed
metamorphic petrologic study of low- to very low-grade
metamorphosed rocks of the NE part of the mountains was
presented by Árkai (1983) (for earlier works see references
therein). Although metamorphic alteration of conodonts
was compared to the metamorphic petrological parameters
of other units of NE Hungary by Árkai & Kovács (1986),
and Kovács & Árkai (1987, 1989), such a comparative
work for the Bükk PA Unit has not been presented up to
now. A number of samples were analysed for conodonts
from the central and SE part of the mountains (the latter
being not accessible for geological studies before 1990)
by S. Kovács in collaboration with G. Nagy and P. Pelikán
during the field works of the recently published geological
map of the Bükk area (Less et al. 2002), which have also
been unpublished so far. In the present contribution we pro-
vide a brief summary of metamorphic alterations of con-
odonts of Upper Triassic cherty limestones (Felsőtárkány
Limestone Formation s.l.; for areal distribution see Less et
al. 2002) and compare them with those of the Kopaonik Mt.
These cherty limestones in the NE, central and SE part
of the mountains, where the structurally deeper parts of the
E—W striking, W-ward plunging antiforms are exposed, are
strongly schistose and folded, with even macroscopically
clearly visible S
and locally S
schistosity (cf. Németh &
Mádai 2003), the latter resulting in characteristic S/C
structures (Koroknai pers. commun.). Conodonts here are
strongly recrystallized (Fig. 12.3—6), of greyish-whitish
colour (CAI = 6—7), but often of completely white colour
(CAI = 7) and strongly sheared-deformed (Fig. 11). Evi-
dently, their ductile deformation was first of all related to
the development of the S
schistosity, although the S
could also contribute to their deformation. At the south-
easternmost part of the mountains, however, conodonts are
mostly black to dark grey coloured (CAI = 5—5.5), less re-
crystallized and non-deformed. In this latter area the struc-
turally higher parts of the southernmost antiforms may be
exposed. However, metamorphic petrologic investigations
from this area are still missing and precise thermobaromet-
ric evaluations are not yet available.
Triassic limestones occurring in the SW Bükk Mts be-
low Jurassic rocks (the latter belonging mostly to the
“Szarvaskő-Mónosbél nappes” in the sense of Csontos
1988) show only weak or no foliation at all (cf. Velledits
& Péró 1987; Velledits 2000). Conodonts from the type
section of the Felsőtárkány Limestone Formation (bore-
hole Felsőtárkány 7), extending in age from the basal
Carnian to the Rhaetian (Kovács in Velledits op. cit.),
are black (CAI = 5), not recrystallized and not deformed.
Together with the limestone textures they would indicate
the boundary interval of diagenesis and regional meta-
morphism or the low temperature part of the anchizone.
This is in accordance with metamorphic petrologic pa-
SUDAR and KOVÁCS
rameters published from the Szarvaskő area slightly to
the north (Árkai 1973; Sadek et al. 1996). This Triassic
sequence may represent an intra-Bükkian partial unit on
top of the metamorphosed antiforms, like the Kisfennsík
(Little Plateau) Nappe in the NE part of the mountains
(Forián-Szabó & Csontos 2002), or the structurally high-
est part of one of the antiforms.
Szendrő and Uppony Hills
The metamorphic petrologic parametres of the Szendrő
and Uppony Paleozoic (which endured only Alpine
metamorphism, with no proofs of any Variscan phase; Ár-
kai et al. 1995) are summarized in the chapter “Geologi-
cal setting”; for more details see Árkai (1977, 1983) and
Fig. 7. Metamorphosed, recrystallized and deformed conodonts from Upper Triassic Smrekovnica Lms. (Norian, Alaunian, Epigondolella
postera Zone) of the “Metamorphic Trepča Series”, Smrekovnica, Kopaonik Mt, Vardar Zone, Serbia. 1—11 – Metapolygnathus abneptis
(Huckriede, 1958). 1—3 – CAI 6—7, specimen with a gentle elongated and twisted free blade and slightly curved platform, No. 2/MS 884.
4—7 – CAI 6, specimens with a gentle twisted anterior part of carina, 4, 5. No. 5/MS 882, 6, 7. No. 7/MS 882. 8, 9 – CAI 6—7, extremely
deformed specimen with a U-shaped carina, No. 3/MS 884. 10, 11 – CAI 6—7, specimens with a strongly curved posterior part of the
platform, No. 1/MS 884. Scale bar = 100 m (magnification: 200 ).
METAMORPHOSED AND DUCTILELY DEFORMED CONODONTS (SERBIA—NE HUNGARY)
Fig. 8. Metamorphosed, recrystallized and deformed conodonts from Upper Triassic Smrekovnica Lms. (Norian, Lacian and Alaunian,
Metapolygnathus abneptis and Epigondolella postera Zones) of the “Metamorphic Trepča Series”, Smrekovnica, Kopaonik Mt, Vardar
Zone, Serbia. 1—6 – Metapolygnathus abneptis (Huckriede, 1958). 1—3 – CAI 6—7, extremely elongated specimen, No. 4/MS 872,
Metapolygnathus abneptis Zone. 4—6 – CAI 6—7, specimen with a strongly curved anterior part of carina, No. 6/MS 882, Epigondolella
postera Zone. 7—10 – Paragondolella hallstattensis Mosher, 1968. CAI 6—7, double twisted specimen, No. 10/MS 880, Metapolygnathus
abneptis Zone. Scale bar = 100 m (magnification: 200 ).
Árkai et al. (1981). Correlation with metamorphic alter-
ation of conodonts was briefly given in Kovács & Árkai
(1987), with some specimens illustrated. This latter we
just summarize here, for comparison with previously un-
described alteration of conodonts from the Kopaonik and
Conodonts of the Szendrő Paleozoic (from Middle De-
vonian to Middle Carboniferous, e.g. up to Early Bashkiri-
an) are mostly light grey to white coloured (CAI = 6—7,
usually within the same specimen), strongly recrystal-
lized and often deformed. However, in some samples, es-
pecially those from the Upper Visean to Lower Bashkirian
Verebeshegy Limestone Member, all the specimens were
black (CAI = 5), but similarly strongly recrystallized and
deformed (cf. Kovács & Árkai 1987, Pl. 13.4, Figs. 3—6;
Pl. 13.5, Figs. 6—10).
Conodonts of the limestone formations of the Up-
pony Paleozoic (from the Upper Devonian to Middle
Carboniferous, e.g. from Frasnian to Early Bashkirian)
are black (CAI = 5), less recrystallized and not deformed
(cf. Kovács & Árkai 1987, Pl. 13.4, Figs. 1—2). Con-
odonts from older limestone blocks of olistostromal for-
mations show even higher CAI values (6—7), but they
are not recrystallized and free of any deformation; be-
cause of their specific conditions of preservation they
are not considered here for comparison.
SUDAR and KOVÁCS
Fig. 9. Metamorphosed, recrystallized and deformed conodonts from Upper Triassic Smrekovnica Lms. (Norian, Alaunian, Epigondolella
postera Zone) of the “Metamorphic Trepča Series”, Smrekovnica, Kopaonik Mt, Vardar Zone, Serbia. 1—3 – Ancyrogondolella triangu-
laris Budurov, 1972. CAI 6, extremely deformed specimen from sinistral sheared regime, No. 9/MS 885. 4—6 – Metapolygnathus ab-
neptis (Huckriede, 1958). CAI 6, complexly bent specimen in a accordion-like form, almost unrecognizable, No. 8/MS 885. Scale bars for
figs. 1, 2 = 100 m (magnification: 172 ); for fig. 3 = 100 m (magnification: 156 ); for figs. 4—6 = 100 m (magnification: 200 ).
Conodont alteration in the tectonostratigraphic units of
the Aggtelek-Rudabánya Mts and their correlation with
metamorphic petrologic parameters were described in de-
tail in Árkai & Kovács (1986) and Kovács & Árkai (1987,
1989). Those of the non-metamorphosed Aggtelek and
Bódva Units are of light brownish-grey to dark grey
(CAI = 2 to 4, 5), exceptionally black colour (CAI = 5). They
can show a corroded surface, but lack features of recrystalli-
zation or deformation. According to illite “crystallinity” in-
dices both (except the specific Telekesoldal Subunit) were
not affected by a temperarure higher than 200
Conodonts of the epizonal (Esztramos) and high tempera-
ture anchizonal (surrounding of Hidvégardó—Becskeháza—
Tornaszentjakab; Becskeháza Subunit in sense of Less
2000) partial units of the Torna s.s. (or Martonyi) Unit, ex-
posed in NE part of Rudabánya Mts, are light grey to white
coloured (CAI = 6—7), strongly recrystallized and deformed
(see Kovács 1986, Pls. 4—9 and 13; Kovács & Árkai 1987,
Pl. 13.2, Figs. 5, 6 and Pl. l3.5, Figs. 1—5; Kovács & Árkai
1989, Pl. 3, Figs. 3—6, Pl. 4, Figs. 2, 4, 6, 7). Especially
strongly sheared, flattened specimens are completely whit-
ened; samples with such conodonts likely indicate zones
of intense ductile shearing. These partial units endured a
medium-pressure metamorphism (Árkai & Kovács 1986).
However, from the region between Bódvarákó and Marto-
nyi (Bódvarákó and Martonyi s.s. Subunits; Fodor & Ko-
roknai 2000) samples collected mainly by Gy. Less
yielded conodonts, which are black (CAI = 5), recrystal-
lized, but not deformed.
Ductile deformation of limestones
Detailed studies on the ductile deformation of micritic
limestones were carried out by Burkhard (1990) in the
Swiss Alps. Accordingly, plastic deformation of such
limestones may begin at temperatures as low as 150
However, it was found, that up to the temperature 300
the dominant deformational mechanism is grain boundary
sliding. Crystallographic preferred orientation and fea-
tures of dynamic recrystallization are missing at these
temperatures; these were found to develop above 300
METAMORPHOSED AND DUCTILELY DEFORMED CONODONTS (SERBIA—NE HUNGARY)
Fig. 10. Details of the surface of the metamorphosed conodonts having different CAI values. Upper Triassic Smrekovnica Lms. (Norian,
Lacian and Alaunian, Metapolygnathus abneptis and Epigondolella postera Zones) of the “Metamorphic Trepča Series”, Smrekovnica,
Kopaonik Mt, Vardar Zone, Serbia. 1—6 – Metapolygnathus abneptis (Huckriede, 1958). 1, 2 – CAI 7, the surface from the middle
part of the carina of the strongly recrystallized conodont. 3, 4 – CAI 6, the surface from the anterior part of the carina of the same specimen
as on 1, 2. 1—4. No. 4/MS 872 (Fig. 8.1—3), Metapolygnathus abneptis Zone. 5, 6 – CAI 6, the surface from the anterior part of the carina of
the strongly recrystallized conodont, No. 8/MS 885 (Fig. 9.4—6), Epigondolella postera Zone. Scale bars for figs. 1, 3, 5 (on fig. 5) = 5 m
(magnification: 2000 ); for figs. 2, 4, 6. (on fig. 6) = 2.5 m (magnification: 6000 ).
SUDAR and KOVÁCS
At these higher temperatures, increase in grain size and
plastic flow by twinning, strongly dependent on the grain
size, as well as other intracrystalline slips together with
dynamic recrystallization result in well developed crystal-
lographic textures, such as preferred orientation.
Kovács & Árkai (1987, 1989) empirically subdivided
limestone textures into three types, both for platform and
T y p e A : Intact original microfacies, without any in-
cipient foliation or schistosity.
T y p e B : Incipient preferred orientation with micro-
scopically observable foliation or schistosity (generally
Fig. 11. Metamorphosed and deformed Upper Triassic (Carnian and Norian) conodonts from the Bükk Mts, NE Hungary. 1—3 – Gondolella
polygnathiformis Budurov et Stefanov, 1965. Carnian, road between Szinva Spring to Hollóstető, sample No. SzF-Ht-18. 4 – Metapolyg-
nathus abneptis triangularis (Budurov, 1972). Norian, sample Setétvölgy-3. 5 – Metapolygnathus abneptis abneptis (Huckriede, 1958).
Norian, base of cliff Füzérkő. 6—12 – Gondolella steinbergensis (Mosher, 1968). Norian, sample Pazsag-1, 11, 12, isoclinally deformed,
crook-like specimens. Scale bar = 100 m (magnification: 100 ).
). Allochemical components (bioclasts, such as calcified
radiolarian tests or pelagic bivalve shells – “filaments”)
are still recognizable, although they are flattened into the
plane of schistosity. The matrix is still distinct, usually
only weakly recrystallized in pelagic limestones.
Type C: The original microfacies is completely obliter-
ated by recrystallization, the matrix or cement cannot be
distinguished from formerly existing bioclasts or intraclasts.
A homogeneous microsparitic or sparitic texture ( = meta-
sparite or marble) is formed, with well-expressed preferred
orientation. Only large grains (such as echinoderm frag-
ments) are still distinct, showing intense twinning.
METAMORPHOSED AND DUCTILELY DEFORMED CONODONTS (SERBIA—NE HUNGARY)
Fig. 12. Details of the surface of the metamorphosed conodonts having different CAI values. 1, 2 – Metapolygnathus abneptis (Huck-
riede, 1958). CAI 6—7, the surface from the anterior part of the carina of the strongly recrystallized conodont, No. 1/MS 884 (Fig. 7.10),
Upper Triassic Smrekovnica Lms. (Norian, Alaunian, Epigondolella postera Zone) of the “Metamorphic Trepča Series”, Smrekovnica,
Kopaonik Mt, Vardar Zone, Serbia. 3, 4 – Gondolella polygnathiformis Budurov et Stefanov, 1972. CAI 5.5, the surface from the anteri-
or part of the carina of the strongly recrystallized conodont, Upper Triassic (Carnian), sample No. SzF-HT-18, road between Szinva Spring
to Hollóstető, Bükk Mts, NE Hungary. 5, 6 – Gondolella steinbergensis (Mosher, 1968). CAI 7, the surface from the anterior part of the
carina of the strongly recrystallized conodont (shown on Fig. 11.9), Upper Triassic (Norian), sample Pazsag-1, Bükk Mts, NE Hungary.
Scale bars for fig. 1 = 5 m (magnification: 2000 ); for fig. 2 = 2.5 m (magnification: 6000 ); for figs. 3, 5 (on fig. 5) = 10 m (mag-
nification: 1000 ); for figs. 4, 6 (on fig. 4) = 5 m (magnification: 3000 ).
SUDAR and KOVÁCS
This “type C” texture obviously corresponds to the one,
which forms at temperatures above 300
C in deformed
limestones according to Burkhard (1990).
Evidently, the recrystallization and ductile deformation
of conodonts took place in definite interaction with those
of the limestone host rock, that is above the 300
mal temperature boundary.
For the investigations of the ductile deformation and il-
lite “crystallinity” of limestones from the Kopaonik Mt,
samples were taken only from the Županj (“CKS”), be-
cause the deposits of the Smrekovnica (“MTS”) in the
Fig. 13. Textures of metamorphosed Upper Triassic grey, cherty
limestones/marbles from the Kopaonik Mt, Serbia. Samples were
taken along the road leading from Brzeće to Kopaonik Sky Center,
near the eastern gate of Kopaonik National Park. 1 – Marble with
faint developed S
foliation, sample MS 1851. 2 – Marble with
well developed S
foliation, sample MS 1852. Scale bar = 1 mm
(magnification: 17.5 ).
Fig. 14. Textures of metamorphosed limestones from the Bükk Mts (1 and 2) and Szendrő Mts (3 and 4), NE Hungary. 1 – Grey, cherty
limestone (Lower Norian) from borehole Felsőtárkány 7, 83.0 m; radiolarian biomicrite with slight, incipient S
foliation. (Courtesy of F.
Velledits.) 2 – Grey, cherty limestone with well developed S
foliation; note the radiolarians strongly flattened into the plane of schistosi-
ty. Road cut along the road leading from Eger to Miskolc, between Hollós-tető and Lusta-völgy, sample B-1/1975. 3 – Upper Visean
Verebeshegy Limestone, western slope of Bátori-völgy; marble with well developed S
foliation and with crinoid fragments, sample Szrő-68.
4 – Upper Visean Verebeshegy Limestone, road curve SE of Rakacaszend; marble with well developed S
foliation, sample Szrő-62.
Scale bar = 1 mm (magnification: 17.5 ).
southern Kopaonik Mt are located in the territory of Koso-
vo, where geological investigations have not been possi-
ble during the last ten years.
From the Kopaonik Mt, thin sections were made only
from the “CKS” Upper Triassic grey cherty limestones
which outcrop on the eastern slope of the main ridge (on
the first curve of the road Brzeće—Kopaonik Sky Center
(Suvo Rudište) after the eastern gate of the Kopaonik Na-
tional Park). They show strong, rather xenotopic recrys-
tallization with well-expressed preferred orientation
schistosity) and correspond to a higher de-
gree of type C metasparites/marbles (see Fig. 13).
The Upper Triassic grey cherty limestones of the anchi-
to epizonal metamorphosed Bükk PA Unit show both B
and C type textures, independently from the degree of de-
formation of conodonts: strongly deformed and recrystal-
lized specimens may occur in both textures. Similar
limestone textures and deformed/recrystallized conodonts
characterize the anchi- to epizonal metamorphosed Torna
s.s. (or Martonyi) Unit of the Aggtelek-Rudabánya Mts
(for details see Árkai & Kovács 1986; Kovács 1986 and
Kovács & Árkai 1989) (see Fig. 14).
Altogether 7 samples from crystalline cherty limestones
with metaclastic intercalations were analysed by X-ray
powder diffractometry in the Institute of Geochemical Re-
search of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, by P. Árkai
and K. Judik. They derive partly from the eastern slope,
partly from the western slope of the Kopaonik Mt, from
the “CKS” outcrops along the road Brzeće—Kopaonik Sky
Center—Jošanička Banja. Unfortunately, the illite “crystal-
linity” indices (KI – Kübler index) obtained are too ran-
METAMORPHOSED AND DUCTILELY DEFORMED CONODONTS (SERBIA—NE HUNGARY)
Fig. 15. Possible types of ductile deformation of conodonts in dif-
ferent parts of a fold during the development of axial-plane schis-
): flattened and elongated (left limb), crook-like (right
limb) or accordion-like (hinge zone).
Fig. 16. Structural cartoon of the Kopaonik Mt (Vardar Zone, Serbia) and of the Aggtelek-Rudabánya and Bükk Mts (NE Hungary), illus-
trating the setting of metamorphosed Triassic carbonates containing the conodonts described herein and in Kovács & Árkai (1987, 1989).
These units are situated beneath obducted ophiolite complexes, that were reworked in the Aggtelek-Rudabánya Mts during the emplace-
ment of the non-metamorphosed Aggtelek—Bódva Units (cf. Péró et al. 2002, 2003). Note: the Tertiary 70—90
recorded in the eastern part of the Pelso Megaunit ( = Pelso Composite Terrane) (Márton in Csontos 1999 and Less 2000) implies, that the
emplacement of ophiolitic units was originally from the NE to SW, the same, as in the present Dinarides.
domly scattered for thermometric evaluation, which can
be explained by two reasons (Árkai pers. commun.):
a) the samples were too much weathered;
b) the KI indices were partly resetted due to the Oli-
gocene granodiorite intrusion.
Regarding the regional geological setting of the investi-
gated rocks (see Fig. 3), the second case could even be
more responsible for the random KI indices.
For correlation of conodont alterations with metamor-
phic petrologic data (illite “crystallinity”, vitrinite and b
reflectances, mineral parageneses) from NE Hungary the
reader is referred to the papers by Árkai & Kovács (1986),
and Kovács & Árkai (1987, 1989).
1 – Contemporaneously with the dynamic recrystalli-
zation and development of foliation/schistosity of the
limestone host rocks, the recrystallization and ductile de-
formation of conodonts also took place (cf. Fig. 15).
2 – In a dynamic system, in which besides increasing
temperature, fluid pressure and oriented/tectonic pres-
sure (stress) also played a significant role, the colour al-
teration of conodonts took place differently from what
could be deduced from laboratory experiments (hydrous
pyrolysis at 50 MPa pressure, Rejebian et al. 1987). Due
to increasing fluid and tectonic pressure, the lightening
SUDAR and KOVÁCS
(CAI = 6—7 in our case) of the previously blackened
(CAI = 5) conodonts could be accelerated. Tectonic shear-
ing could also accelerate this process. Consequently, dif-
ferent colours (black, grey and white) could develop even
within the same specimen (cf. also Kovács & Árkai 1987).
This makes temperature estimates solely based on the co-
lour of conodonts, even if always the same part of the ele-
ments is considered, highly problematic.
3 – The metamorphism and ductile deformation of the
conodonts presented here evidently took place contempo-
raneously with those of the limestone host rocks. The gen-
eral structural setting (being situated below overthrust
ophiolitic nappes; see Fig. 16) suggests that this tec-
tonometamorphic event could be related to subduction
and obduction processes (160 to 120 Ma in the Bükk Mts;
Árkai et al. 1995). However, subsequent nappe movements
could also play a role in the metamorphism and ductile
deformation of the limestones and of the conodonts con-
tained in them.
4 – Compared with other methods (illite “crystallini-
ty”, mineral paragenesis), at CAI values 5 the lowest
temperature values given by Rejebian et al. (1987) on the
basis of experimental testing seem to be the most realistic
approximation to the ones obtained by those methods for
conditions of regional dynamothermal metamorphism.
5 – Compared with thermobarometric data of very low
to low grade metamorphosed units of NE Hungary con-
taining recrystallized and deformed conodonts with CAI
values 5—6—7 (Torna Unit s.s., Szendrő Unit, Bükk PA
Unit), at least a Szendrő-type metamorphism (which was of
C temperature and of ~ 300 MPa pressure; cf. Árkai
1983) can be assumed for the metamorphosed Upper Trias-
sic limestones of the Smrekovnica (“MTS”). If the apatite
grain size illustrated here (Fig. 10.1—6; Fig. 12.1,2) is also
compared with those illustrated by Kovács & Árkai (1987)
from epizonal metamorphosed units from NE Hungary (Es-
ztramos, Torna Unit s.s.: Pl. 13.3, Figs. 5, 6, and Szendrő
Unit: Pl. 13.4, Figs. 3, 4 therein), a Szendrő-type metamor-
phism can also be assumed for the “MTS”, e.g the lower
part of the greenschist facies, at minimal pressure of the
boundary of low and medium pressure domains. The same
can also be postulated by comparing the texture and cal-
cite grain size of the recrystallized limestones/marbles;
cf. Fig. 13.1,2 and 14.3,4 herein. We should add to this
point, that P. Horváth, also at the Institute of Geochemi-
cal Research of HAS, Budapest, investigated two metaba-
site samples from the Županj (“CKS”), collected by the
second author, which yielded considerably higher data:
C and 500 MPa, as well as 620—630
500 MPa, respectively (P. Horváth, pers. commun. and un-
6 – It is worth noting, that in the high temperature anchi-
metamorphosed Uppony Unit (at ~ 350
C and ~ 250 MPa;
Árkai et al. 1981; Árkai 1983) conodonts are black
(CAI = 5), but less recrystallized (Kovács & Árkai op. cit.,
Pl. 13.4, Figs. 1, 2) and not deformed. It implies, that at
temperature ~ 4 0 0
C and ~ 300 MPa (e.g. at the Szendrő-
type metamorphism) there should be a remarkable increase
in metamorphism and deformation of conodonts, that is
about at the boundary of the anchizone and epizone, and
at the boundary of low and medium pressure domains, re-
spectively. It also underlines, that the metamorphism of
“MTS” was at least of Szendrő-type.
7 – As the colour of conodonts under the conditions of
regional dynamothermal metamorphism is also influenced
by the factors mentioned above, the apatite grain size could
probably be a more trustworthy indicator of the temperature
of metamorphism. However, detailed studies are needed on
the statistic evaluation of the average grain size and its cor-
relation with other metamorphic petrologic methods (illite
“crystallinity”, chlorite “crystallinity”, etc.).
In Serbia, the research has been
supported by the Ministry of Science and Environmental
Protection of the Republic of Serbia, Projects
No. 101767 and No. 146009 (MS). Financial support in
Hungary was provided by the National Research Fund
(OTKA), Grants No. T 029654 and T 037595 (SK). Ste-
van Karamata’s and Milorad Dimitrijevic’s (Belgrade)
contributions on the geology of the Kopaonik Mt is
gratefully acknowledged. Our thanks are also due to
Péter Árkai, Péter Horváth and Katalin Judik (Institute of
Geochemical Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
Budapest) for carrying out metamorphic petrologic (es-
pecially illite “crystallinity”) investigations on samples
from the Kopaonik Mt, as well as to László Csontos,
Balázs Koroknai (Budapest) and Stefan Schmid (Basel)
for their help with literature and advice on ductile defor-
mation and limestone recrystallization. We thank also to
the reviewers: Péter Árkai (Budapest), Fritz Ebner (Le-
oben) and Ján Mello (Bratislava) for their suggestions
and critical notes.
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