GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, JUNE 2006, 57, 3, 145—156
Gravity anomaly map of the CELEBRATION 2000 region
, KÁROLY KLOSKA
, JAN ŠVANCARA
and CELEBRATION 2000 Potential Field Working Group:
, MAREK GRAD
, TOMÁŠ GRAND
, ALEKSANDER GUTERCH
, CZESŁAW KRÓLIKOWSKI
, OLGA POLECHOŃSKA
, DIETHARD RUESS
, VIKTÓRIA SZALAIOVÁ
and JOZEF VOZÁR
Department of Applied and Environmental Geophysics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina G,
842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic;
Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute of Hungary, Kolumbusz utca 17—23, H-1145 Budapest, Hungary
Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Wien, Austria UZA II
Institute of Physics of the Earth, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Masaryk University, Tvrdého 12, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Polish Geological Institute, Rakowiecka 4, 00-975 Warszawa, Poland
Institute of Geophysics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 7, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland
KORAL Ltd., Sládkovičova 5, 052 01 Spišská Nová Ves, Slovak Republic
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ks. Janusza 64, 01-452 Warsaw, Poland
G-trend Ltd., Kolískova 1, 841 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying, Schiffamtsgasse 1—3, A-1025 Wien, Austria
Geocomplex, Inc., Geologická 21, 822 07 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Geophysical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 28 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Geological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 840 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
(Manuscript received June 13, 2005; accepted in revised form October 6, 2005)
Abstract: The interpretation of the gravity field in the 2D and 3D space requires an accurate Bouguer gravity anomaly
map. This requirement is of particular importance, when different techniques, instrumentation and data processing
methods have been used in different parts of the area of interest. This paper presents the Bouguer gravity anomaly map
of the CELEBRATION 2000 countries (Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovak Republic) and reports on
the calculation of Bouguer gravity data. The gravity map will serve as basis for 2D and 3D modeling of the gravity field
in the CELEBRATION 2000 region (45
latitude and 12
longitude). To avoid truncation problems in the
following quantitative interpretation, the map area consists of both the CELEBRATION 2000 countries and adjacent areas.
Due to different average station density of gravity measurements in the countries (Austria – 1 station/9 km
Republic – 1 station/2.6 km
, Hungary – 4 stations/km
, Poland – 2.74 stations/km
and Slovak Republic – 5 sta-
) the gravity data were interpolated to grids by using different spacing and projection in each country. In the
entire CELEBRATION area the average station density is approximately 2.4 stations/km
and the gravity data set
contains more than 1,620,000 measurement points. Additionally, the most important regional gravity anomaly
patterns of the map are presented with commentary.
Key words: East European Platform, Alps, Western Carpathians, Bohemian Massif, Pannonian Basin, Polish Basin,
Vienna Basin, Bouguer gravity anomaly map.
Due to the very complex structure and tectonic evolution of
the continental lithosphere in Central Europe, this region
has been subject to numerous geological and geophysical
field experiments already in the past. Recently, the most im-
portant investigation is the CELEBRATION 2000 refrac-
tion seismic experiment (Central European Lithospheric
Experiment Based on RefrAcTION 2000). This interna-
tional project involves 28 institutions from Europe and
North America (Guterch 2003a,b). The huge dataset result-
ing from this experiment is based on a network of seismic
profiles with a total length of 8900 km (Fig. 1) and will pro-
vide a 3D velocity image of the Central European crust. The
network covers the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ),
the southwest part of the East European Craton, the
Carpathian Mountains, the Pannonian Basin and the Bohe-
mian Massif (Fig. 2). It has recently been followed by the
projects ALPS 2002, SUDETES 2003 and the BOHEMIA
The main goal of the CELEBRATION 2000 seismic ex-
periment is to broaden the knowledge of deep-seated
structures and of the geodynamics of the complex conti-
nental lithosphere and to study the relationships between
the main tectonic units of Central Europe. For achieving
the project goals it is necessary to integrate the seismic re-
fraction data and their interpretation with the data of other
geophysical fields too. In consequence the potential field
working group has been formed. This group consists of
representatives from all five countries: Austria, Czech Re-
BIELIK and CELEBRATION 2000 Working Group
Fig. 1. Location of the profiles of the CELEBRATION 2000 experiment (modified after Guterch et al. 2003b). The red, pink, blue,
black, orange and grey coloured circles show shot points. Yellow lines are high density recording profiles, the other lines are low densi-
ty recording profiles.
GRAVITY ANOMALY MAP OF THE CELEBRATION 2000 REGION
public, Hungary, Poland and Slovak Republic. The main
goal of this working group is the joint interpretation of
potential field data (gravity, magnetic field and geother-
mal field) using CELEBRATION 2000 project seismic
refraction results as a base. The area of the CELEBRA-
TION 2000 project is outlined by 45
N latitude and
The interpretation of the gravity field in the 2D and 3D
space requires a unified Bouguer gravity anomaly map
of high quality and accuracy. This is particularly impor-
tant because different techniques, instrumentation and
data processing methods have been used in different
parts of the area of interest. Therefore, at the beginning
the main task of the potential field working group of
CELEBRATION 2000 was the compilation of a common
Bouguer gravity anomaly map. This paper deals with this
problem, which relates to the calculation of Bouguer grav-
ity anomaly in the CELEBRATON 2000 countries. Addi-
tionally, we present the regional gravity anomaly patterns
of this map that will serve as a basis for 2D and 3D model-
ing of the gravity field in the CELEBRATION 2000 region.
Calculation of Bouguer gravity anomaly
The history of gravity measurements is quite different in
each country contributing to CELEBRATION 2000. Field
measurement, processing and calculation of the Bouguer
gravity anomaly have own particularities in each country
and changed in the course of time. The resolution and ac-
curacy of gravity data in each country depends on the
type of gravimeters, processing methods and roughness of
topography. Therefore, the data processing scheme for cal-
culating the Bouguer gravity anomaly will be described
for each country separately.
The gravity data from Austria have been acquired dur-
ing the past 40 years. At the early beginning gravity sta-
tions were installed mainly along leveling lines due to
limited accessibility and the scarcity of geodetic stations
in rugged mountainous terrain. Senftl (1965) published
the first Bouguer gravity map of Austria based on this in-
Fig. 2. Schematic tectonic map of the CELEBRATION 2000 region (after Guterch et al. 2003a).
BIELIK and CELEBRATION 2000 Working Group
formation. Consequently stations were predominantly
situated within regions of very local anomalies due to the
gravity effect of sedimentary valley fillings, for example.
In order to get more detailed information about the struc-
ture of the Alpine crust a few cross-sections were surveyed
30 years ago along N-S directed profiles (Ehrismann et al.
1969, 1973, 1976; Götze et al. 1978). However, interpo-
lated gravity values do not reproduce correctly important
features of the Bouguer gravity. Interpolation errors of up
to 10 mGal (100 µms
) can occur in the Bouguer gravity
anomaly pattern when stations are arranged along profiles
exclusively (e.g. Steinhauser et al. 1990). Therefore grav-
ity stations have to be distributed regularly with a lot of
stations even high up mountain flanks and tops which ne-
cessitates remarkable changes in measuring techniques
and reduction procedures. The first areal investigation was
done during the seventies on the so-called Gravimetric Al-
pine Traverse (Meurers et al. 1987) and by the gravimetric
research group of the Technical University of Clausthal
(Germany) (e.g. Götze et al. 1979; Schmidt 1985) in the
adjoining central part of the Eastern Alps. The most west-
ern part of Austria was investigated by the Mining Univer-
sity of Leoben (Posch & Walach 1989). The Calcareous
Alps are mainly covered by industrial data (Zych 1988). A
selection of this data set meanwhile has been contributed
for scientific purposes by the Austrian Oil Company. Nev-
ertheless, some gaps still remained especially along the
crest of the Eastern Alps. Therefore additional gravity in-
vestigations in the central Alps area of Tyrol have been
performed since 1990 in cooperation between the Institute
of Meteorology and Geophysics (University of Vienna),
the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics
(Vienna) and the Department of Physical Geodesy of Tech-
nical University in Graz. These supplementary measure-
ments were performed by applying GPS techniques and
helicopter transportation in otherwise in-accessible moun-
tainous regions. Presently in most areas of Austria the maxi-
mum station interval is about 3 km or less resulting in an
average station density of 1 station/9 km
The data set available in Austria is quite inhomoge-
neous as it consists of contributions from different institu-
tions and agencies acquired over a period of four decades.
Therefore reprocessing was required to obtain high quality
gravity maps. This concerns especially the basic equations
and the geodetic reference system used for calculating the
Bouguer gravity but also the mass correction procedures.
Thus the Bouguer gravity anomaly was re-calculated us-
ing the following common assumptions (Meurers 1992):
Geodetic Reference System 1980 (Moritz 1984).
Absolute gravity datum (Ruess 1988).
Closed expression for the gravity of the normal ellipsoid.
Height correction by a Taylor series expansion of
normal gravity up to 2
order in geometric flatten-
ing and height (Wenzel 1985).
Atmospheric correction (Wenzel 1985).
Spherical mass correction up to 167 km radius (Hayford
) assuming a constant density of 2670 kg/m
This value is close to the mean density of the surface
rocks in Austria.
All calculations are based on an orthometric height
system referred to the Adriatic sea level.
A new digital terrain model developed at the Federal Of-
fice of Surveying of Austria (BEV) covers the entire Aus-
trian territory with a resolution of 50 m even in rugged
topography. It enables us to introduce more exact and
more economic procedures for calculating high precise
mass corrections (Meurers et al. 2001). In the distant zones
( > 1 km) the topographic mass is presented by flat-topped
rectangular prisms while in the station vicinity the topog-
raphy is approximated by arbitrary polyhedral surfaces
that define the upper boundary of homogeneous prisms
extending down to the reference level. The corresponding
gravity effect at the stations is calculated by applying
Gauss’ theorem in 3D and 2D in order to transform the vol-
ume integrals into line integrals along the polygonal
edges. The line integrals are evaluated analytically (Götze
& Lahmeyer 1988).
In the territory of the Czech Republic there are two
gravity data sets. The 1 : 200,000 data set consists of
30,400 gravity stations of the regional coverage and the
1 : 25,000 data set comprises more than 280,000 gravity
stations of the current detailed gravity mapping. For the
construction of the Bouguer gravity map of Central Eu-
rope we have decided to release the 1 : 200,000 gravity
data set with an average density of one station per
. The gravity station network was tied to the local
Gravity System S-Gr57 used in the territory of former
Czechoslovakia. The mean error of the gravity differences
was less than 0.5 mGal (Švancara 2004). Elevation mea-
surements are based on the Baltic system B46. Later on
the 1 : 200,000 data set was transformed to the improved
Gravity system S-Gr64 using the following formula:
are the observed gravity tied
to the Gravity system S-Gr57 and S-Gr64 respectively.
To adjust the gravity data to the International Gravity
Standardization Network (IGSN71) we performed the fol-
is the observed gravity tied to the IGSN71
and —13.8 mGal comprise the correction of the Potsdam
gravity system (—14 mGal) and a minor adjustment
( + 0.2 mGal) of the Gravity system S - Gr64.
The Bouguer gravity anomaly was calculated using the
WGS84 ellipsoidal normal gravity formula. The Bouguer
gravity anomaly, the terrain correction and the Bullard term
were calculated for the reduction density of 2670 kg/m
The terrain correction was calculated for Hayford zones
that is up to the distance of 166.735 km from the
gravity station. The same distance was used as the outer
GRAVITY ANOMALY MAP OF THE CELEBRATION 2000 REGION
radius of a spherical cap replacing the infinite Bouguer
gravity slab by calculating the Earth curvature correction.
In the Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute of Hungary
(ELGI) the gravity measurements began in 1919, when it
was founded. It means, that the gravity dataset of Hungary
has been acquired during the past 85 years.
Between 1930 and 1945 oil exploration companies
(EUROGASCO, Wintershall AG.) carried out gravity mea-
surements in the country (Bérczi & Jámbor 1998). Since
1968 the Hungarian oil industry has carried out a lot of
new gravity measurements. Gravity measurements of ELGI
were located generally along the roads or for local explo-
ration in local square grids with 500 m spacing each,
while oil industry measurements were always established
in square grids of 500 m spacing.
Nowadays ELGI stores all observed gravity data in Hun-
gary. The Hungarian gravity data set contains more than
382,000 measurement points. Thus the density of gravity
data is more than 4 stations/km
on average, but it varies
within the territory.
The elementary data of gravity measurements (identifi-
cation, coordinates, height, g value, and so on) are stored
in the gravity database, therefore we can easily draw up
different maps (e.g. Bouguer anomaly, Faye anomaly)
from these data with different processing and parameters
(density for reduction, different formulas for normal grav-
ity, system of coordinates, and datum of height).
In this study the Bouguer gravity anomaly and terrain
correction were calculated for the reduction density of
, and the terrain correction was calculated up
to a distance of 22.5 km from the gravity station. The
Bouguer gravity anomaly was calculated using the
WGS84 ellipsoidal normal gravity formula. The grid of
digitalization was 2 2 km.
The basic gravity land data result from detailed gravity
surveys (at the scale of 1 : 50,000) executed between 1957
and 1989. About 900,000 gravity stations have been oc-
cupied with an average density of 2.74 stations/km
gravity data were measured in the Potsdam gravity system
and using the geodetic Borowa Góra local Transverse
Mercator (Gauss-Krüger) system and Bessel ellipsoid.
They have been transformed into the IGSN71 gravity sys-
tem and the GRS 80 geodetic reference system respec-
tively by using the Krassovski ellipsoid and the 42
Gauss-Krüger projection. The Bouguer gravity correction
for the data used in the map is 2670 kg/m
The territory of Slovakia is covered by gravity measure-
ments with a density of 4—6 stations/km
. The measure-
ments in a scale 1 : 25,000 began in 1956 and were
finished in 1992. In 2001 a new gravity database was cre-
ated (Grand et al. 2001). This new database includes about
240,000 stations of the regional gravity mapping.
All existing data from Slovakia have been recalculated
and uniformed with standards used in most of European
countries. Previous archive gravity measurements have re-
ferred to the Potsdam system. Presently, all gravity data
are referred to the IGSN71 system. The transformation of
the gravity data into IGSN71 was performed in the same
way as in Czech Republic.
The Bouguer gravity anomaly has been calculated by
WGS84 ellipsoidal normal gravity formula on the ba-
sis of Somigliana’s formula (Torge 1989).
Height correction by a Taylor series expansion of nor-
mal gravity up to 2
order in geometric flattening
and height (Wenzel 1985).
Spherical Bouguer gravity slab with radius of
In the framework of a compilation of the new gravity
measurement database the Cassinis-Dore-Ballarin formula
(Cassinis et al. 1930) has been applied.
The terrain correction with a radius of 166.7 km is based
on the T
digital elevation models (DEM)
for different distances from the station. T
use a pla-
nar DEM, T
use spherical DEMs related to the
Atmospheric correction was applied according to
The Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the CELEBRA-
TION 2000 region (Fig. 3) was prepared using nine gravity
data sets, which can be divided into two different groups.
The first one is represented by regularly distributed data
(grids) from CELEBRATION 2000 countries:
1. Austria – 1 1 km grid of Bouguer anomaly data, co-
ordinates in Gauss-Krueger projection.
2. Czech Republic – 2.5 2.5 km grid of Bouguer anoma-
ly data, co-ordinates in Gauss-Krueger projection.
3. Hungary – 2 2 km grid of Bouguer anomaly data,
co-ordinates in Gauss-Krueger projection.
4. Poland – 1 1 km grid of Bouguer anomaly data,
co-ordinates in Transverse Mercator projection with
the central point at 19° E and 52° N corresponding
to the co-ordinates —500 km (Easting) and —350 km
5. Slovakia – 1 1 km grid of Bouguer anomaly data,
co-ordinates in Gauss-Krueger projection.
The second group consists of regional data of the whole
area of interest:
6. A regional grid (0.5° 0.5°) of free-air anomaly pre-
pared for calculating the EGM96 geopotential model
(Lemoine et al. 1997).
7. A data set with irregular spacing compiled during
the European Geotraverse (EGT) Project. Partly
original data, partly from digitized analogue gravity
BIELIK and CELEBRATION 2000 Working Group
maps: Bouguer anomaly data with geographical co-
ordinates on CD-ROM attached to the EGT final
publication (Klingele et al. 1992).
8. A data set of world gravity data with irregular spacing
compiled by Bureau Gravimetrique International
(land data and sea data) (Bureau Gravimétrique Inter-
national 1996): Bouguer and free-air anomaly data
with geographical co-ordinates.
9. A 2’ 2’ data set of free-air anomaly sea data with
regular spacing obtained using satellite altimetry, the
latest (11.2, 2004) version (Sandwell & Smith 1997,
//topex.ucsd.edu /pub/ global_grav_2min/ ).
The Transverse Mercator projection was chosen for the
main map using 19° E as the central meridian and 52° N as
the central parallel, with the same central point as used for
Every data set from the CELEBRATION countries has
been transformed from Cartesian to geographical co-ordi-
nates and afterwards to the co-ordinates of the Transverse
Mercator projection. Finally a 1 1 km grid covering all
CELEBRATION countries has been interpolated.
Regional gravity data (items 6—9) given in geographical
co-ordinates have been transformed directly to Transverse
Mercator projection. They have been used for extending
Fig. 3. Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the CELEBRATION 2000 region. Austria: CMB – crust-mantle boundary gravity low, GI – granitic
intrusion gravity low, MR – metamorphic rocks density high (or VSZ – Vitis Shear Zone), MOL – Molasse gravity low, VB – Vienna
Basin gravity low, IN – Inn gravity low, SV – Salzach gravity low, DV – Drau gravity low. Czech Republic: KKZ – Krušné hory
(Erzgebirge)—Krkonoše Zone, KVP – Karlovy Vary pluton, BBZ – Barrandian-Broumov Zone, TBS – Teplá-Barrandian sub-region,
LBS – Labe (Elbe)-Broumov sub-region, CBS – Central Bohemian Suture, MKZ – Moldanubian-Kłodzko Zone, MS – Moldanubian
sub-region, OKS – Orlice-Kłodzko sub-region, ŽHS – Železné hory sub-region, MSZ – Moravo-Silesian Zone, MOS – Moravian sub-
region, SS – Silesian sub-region, PMZ – Přibyslav Mylonite Zone. Hungary: MHL – Mid-Hungarian Line, DRB – Danube-Rába Ba-
sin, ZB – Zala Basin, DB – Dráva Basin, EAU – Eastern Alpine units, TDCR – Transdanubian Central Range, NCR – North Central
Range, ARM – Aggtelek-Rudabánya Mountains, DTI – Danube-Tisza Interfluve, BB – Békés Basin, MT – Makó Trough, NR – Nyír
region, MM – Mecsek Mountains. Poland: SBH – Southern Baltic High, MMH – Mazury-Mazovia High, POH – Podlasie High,
PL – Pomeranian Low, KL – Kujawy Low, POL – Podlasie Low, LL – Lublin Low, PH – Pomeranian High, KH – Kujawy High,
MH – Małopolska High, SZL – Szczecin Low, MGL – Mogilno Low, MIEL – Miechów Low, LSH – Lower Silesian High, SUH – Su-
detes High, SUL – Sudetes Low, OL – Opole Low, USH – Upper Silesian High. Slovak Republic: OWCGL – Outer Western Car-
pathian gravity low, IWCGL – Inner Western Carpathian gravity low, DVGH – Danube-Váh gravity high, SSGH – South Slovak
gravity high, ESGH – East Slovak gravity high.
GRAVITY ANOMALY MAP OF THE CELEBRATION 2000 REGION
the 1 1 km grid to an area covering Central Europe. Both
the regional grid covering the whole area and that of the
CELEBRATION countries have been merged together to
form one common grid, the latter having priority.
The original gravity data from the CELEBRATION
countries have been used without any corrections, and
they fit together very well. Differences along the state bor-
ders can be seen only in some places.
The following open-source software was used during
1. for data processing – potential-field software elabo-
rated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (Cordell
et al. 1992);
2. for topography background and projection manipula-
tion – Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) (Wessel &
The map image was obtained using one of co-author’s
(SW) software based on the USGS potential field package
(Cordell et al. 1992; Wybraniec 1999).
Regional gravity anomaly patterns
The regional anomaly pattern (Fig. 3) reflects the crust-
mantle boundary (CMB) beneath the Eastern Alps increas-
ing to a depth of more than 50 km towards the main crest
of the Alps where the Bouguer gravity exhibits its mini-
mum (< —180 mGal). Within the Variscan Orogene in
Northern Austria the gravity reflects the low density of the
granitic intrusions (GI) near Freistadt in contrast to a zone
of high density metamorphic rocks (MR) following to the
East. Well pronounced anomaly features include those
caused by the Molasse (MOL) and Vienna Basin (VB), as
well as local negative anomalies that image the sedimen-
tary fillings of large Alpine valleys like the Inn (IN),
Salzach (SV) and Drau (DV) valleys.
The gravity field of the Czech Republic is divided into
several sub-parallel belts with predominantly NE—SW ori-
entation. For the description of the gravity field we use the
scheme described by Ibrmajer & Suk (1989), which in some
cases does not correspond to the regional geological subdi-
vision of the Bohemian Massif. The Northern and NW part
of territory of the Czech Republic belongs to the negative
gravity zone Krušné hory (Erzgebirge)—Krkonoše (KKZ).
The main upper crustal sources of the negative gravity
anomalies of this zone are huge bodies of light granitoids.
The most pronounced gravity low is caused by the Karlovy
Vary pluton (KVP), whose maximum thickness approaches
half of the Earth’s crust thickness in this region.
The middle part of the Bohemian Massif characterized
by positively disturbed gravity field is called Barrandian-
Broumov Zone (BBZ). The gravity maxima of the Teplá-
Barrandian sub-region (TBS) are lined up into three
parallel belts of the NE—SW trend. Proterozoic spilite belts
with accumulations of basic volcanites and other mafic
rocks are the sources of these anomalies. The NE part of
the Barrandian-Broumov Zone, the Labe (Elbe)-Broumov
sub-region (LBS), is characterized by anomalies turning
towards the W-E direction. Several positive gravity
anomalies of this sub-region are interpreted as a manifes-
tation of basic volcanites.
The Central Bohemian Suture (CBS) is an important tec-
tonic line separating the positively disturbed gravity field
of the Teplá-Barrandian Zone from the negative gravity
field of the Moldanubian-Kłodzko Zone (MKZ). Negative
gravity anomalies of the Moldanubian sub-region (MS)
are mainly caused by huge bodies of light granitoids of
the Central Bohemian and the Moldanubian plutons. The
negatively disturbed gravity field of the Moldanubian sub-
region continues towards the NE, to the Orlice-Kłodzko
sub-region (OKS) whilst interrupted by the positive
anomaly of the Železné hory sub-region (ŽHS). The main
sources of the negative gravity field of the Orlice-Kłodzko
sub-region are bodies of light orthogneises and granitoids.
The positively disturbed gravity field of the eastern part
of the Czech Republic, which is called the Moravo-
Silesian Zone (MSZ), is separated by the Upper Morava
depression into the Moravian sub-region (MOS) to the
south and the Silesian sub-region (SS) to the NE. A pro-
nounced gravity gradient accompanying the contact of
the negatively disturbed Moldanubian sub-region and the
positively disturbed Moravian sub-region delineates a
deep fault zone called the Přibyslav Mylonite Zone
(PMZ). The southern prolongation of this tectonic line is
known as Vitis Shear Zone (VSZ), in Austria as the zone of
metamorphic rocks (MR). The upper crustal sources of the
positive gravity anomalies in the Moravian sub-region are
huge basic and ultra basic bodies. The positive gravity
field of the Silesian region is attributed to heavier Devo-
nian and Lower Carboniferous rocks. Several local gravity
anomalies are caused by basic Devonian volcanites.
The easternmost part of the territory of the Czech Re-
public is characterized by the negatively disturbed gravity
field of the Western Carpathians.
Most of Hungarian territory (77 %) is covered by young
sediments. The rest is formed by the Paleozoic and Meso-
zoic basement. Smooth anomalies with low gradients char-
acterize the deep sub-basin areas of the Pannonian Basin.
On the contrary, the parts where the basement outcrops are
indicated by anomalies which are more pronounced and
have high gradients.
The most characteristic features are elongated anomalies
striking NE-SW. Among them the Mid-Hungarian is the
most typical one. The Mid-Hungarian Line (MHL) is a
structural line belonging to the Zagreb—Kulcs—Hornád line.
These anomalies are due to the topography and structure
of the pre-Tertiary basement (Fülöp & Dank 1987). Note
that the highest anomaly values are not observed over the
highest density basement (built by dolomite and crystal-
line limestone). The difference between the anomalies of
BIELIK and CELEBRATION 2000 Working Group
the deep sub-basins are about 25—30 mGal. In the SE part
of the country they are characterized by higher gravity
values (e.g. the Békés Basin, the Makó Trough) and those
in the W and NW parts by lower gravity values (e.g. the
Zala Basin). This phenomenon could result from high den-
sity crustal sources, which are in a higher position com-
pared to other places (Szabó & Páncsics 1999).
Several regional anomalies can be observed in the grav-
ity field of Hungary: the Danube-Rába Basin (DRB), the
Zala Basin (ZB) and the Dráva Basin (DB) are lowlands
characterized by sedimentary filling of several km (Kilényi
& Šefara 1989).
Alpine Paleozoic rocks are the source of the gravity
anomalies of the Eastern Alpine units (EAU) in Hungary.
The Transdanubian Central Range (TDCR) is due to Me-
sozoic rocks (mainly Carbonates) on the surface. The
North Central Range (NCR) is caused by Paleozoic and
Mesozoic rocks (Fülöp & Dank 1987). The gravity zone of
the Aggtelek-Rudabánya Mountains (ARM) images the
outcrop of the Mesozoic rocks. The Danube-Tisza Inter-
fluve (DTI) is a result of young sediments and Paleozoic
and Mesozoic rocks in the basement. The Békés Basin
(BB) and the Makó Trough (MT) are one of the thickest
sub-basins within the Pannonian Basin. In spite of the
large thickness, their gravity fields are characterized by
positive values. It indicates that they are influenced by
deeply seated structures of the crust and the lower lithos-
phere. The Trans-Tisza anomaly is due to the superposition
of effects of Neogene sediments, Flysch Belt, Paleozoic and
Mesozoic rocks in the basement. The Nyír region (NR)
anomaly is due to thick Neogene volcanic rocks and sedi-
ments covering the basement. The outcrop of Paleozoic
and Mesozoic rocks is reflected in the gravity anomaly
zone of the Mecsek Mountains (MM).
The anomaly pattern is closely related to the geological
structure of the country. The North-Eastern part of Poland
belongs to the East European Craton (EEC) also called
Baltica. Different terranes docked to the EEC during the
Phanerozoic (Avalonia, Armorica, Bohemia and Bruno-
Silesia) form the rest of the country. The North-Western
and central parts are occupied by the Polish Basin which
is a part of the big sedimentary basin extending from the
North Sea over Denmark and Germany to Poland. The
Western Carpathians Mts are located in the south. They
are part of the Alpine Orogene.
The EEC anomaly can be separated into the Southern
Baltic High (SBH), the Mazury-Mazovia High (MMH) and
the Podlasie High (POH). The SBH has a rectangular shape
and extends from southern Sweden to the Polish Baltic
coast. Bornholm is evidently part of this block. This grav-
ity high is probably connected with thinner crust (Dèzes &
Ziegler 2001). The MMH unit shows a mosaic anomaly
pattern and is connected with sources of different density
and origin. In the northern part two distinct negative
anomalies originate from Proterozoic anorthosite massifs:
the Kętrzyn Anorthosite Massif (in the west) and the
Suwałki Anorthosite Massif (near the Lithuanian border).
Other negative anomalies are caused by syenite massifs.
Positive anomalies are connected with the high density of
mafic rocks. The most prominent one is the Pisz anomaly
(Pisz gabro-syenite massif). The POH anomaly is due to
the Proterozoic Podlasie Metamorphic Belt composed of
gneisses, enderbites, migmatites and amphibolites.
The middle of the country is built up by a collision
zone called the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone, which is a part
of the Trans-European Suture Zone. This mega-unit in-
cludes the following gravity subdivisions from the North-
West to South-East and South: the Pomeranian Low (PL),
the Kujawy Low (KL), the Podlasie Low (POL) and the
Lublin Low (LL), the Pomeranian High (PH), the Kujawy
High (KH), the Małopolska High (MH), the Szczecin Low
(SZL), the Mogilno Low (MGL) and the Miechów Low
(MIEL). The Pomeranian Low is a very big negative
anomaly between the Southern Baltic High and the
Mazury-Mazovia High and belongs to the EEC, but looks
quite different from its neighbours. It is homogenized to a
very high degree without the distinct anomalies seen in
both adjacent EEC units.
On the basis of gravity modelling along the LT-7 profile,
Petecki (2002) pointed out that the Pomeranian Low is in
part caused by a source situated in the uppermost mantle
beneath the marginal zone of the EEC. Seismic data along
the LT-7 profile (Guterch et al. 1994) do not indicate the
occurrence of anomalously low upper mantle velocities, but
on the P2 profile a low-velocity body has recently been in-
dicated at the base of the crust beneath the cratonic edge
(Janik et al. 2002). It may indicates, however, the occur-
rence of a transitional zone between the crust and upper
mantle as a result of the underplating of mantle material.
Kujawy Low, the Podlasie Low and the Lublin Low
have a similar character. The Lublin Low extends into the
Ukraine and Romania. The new lithosphere depth map
(Dérerová et al. 2005) shows there a sharp increase of
lithosphere thickness which coincides with a gravity low
both in Ukraine and Romania. The sources of the KL are
mainly situated within the Zechstein-Mesozoic sedimen-
tary complex (Petecki 2000).
The central part of the Mid-Polish Collision Zone forms
gravity highs connected with the Mid-Polish Swell in geo-
logical nomenclature. The Pomeranian High is the north-
ernmost part of the gravity high. Near the Baltic coast it
bifurcates to two parts. The northern part continues to
Bornholm and the southern to Danish Ringkøbing—Fyn
High. The source of this anomaly high is situated partly in
the Permian-Mesozoic positive structure and partly deep
in the crust. On the basis of the analyses of gravity anoma-
lies from the sub-Zechstein basement in the Pomeranian
segment of TESZ (Królikowski & Petecki 1997, 2002;
Petecki 2002) the PH was interpreted as being caused by
upper crustal intrusions of high density and increased den-
sity of the lower crust and upper mantle in the TTZ. The
Kujawy High is different from the Pomeranian High. Prob-
ably the sources are connected with the Permian-Mesozoic
structure (here – the Kujavy Swell) and also by older and
deep-seated sources, as indicated by Petecki (2000). On
GRAVITY ANOMALY MAP OF THE CELEBRATION 2000 REGION
the “stripped” gravity anomaly map caused by the struc-
tures below the Zechstein, the KH adjoins the strongly ex-
pressed Mazury-Mazovia High, located within the EEC
(Petecki 2000). The results of interpretation of gravity
data, in particular 2D gravity modelling, indicate that the
edge of the elevated crystalline basement of the EEC is
situated along the SW boundary of the KH, expressed by a
very strong gravity gradient (Petecki 2000).
The Małopolska High unit is not a homogenous zone. It
covers several geological units of distinctly different char-
acter and evolution. They are separated by major fault
zones (Dadlez 2001). The MH is separated into two re-
gional segments by an approximately NW—SE trending nar-
row belt of local negative gravity anomalies. It also
coincides with a boundary between crustal units of different
magnetic character (Petecki et al. 2003). The results of inter-
pretation of geophysical data, in particular 2D gravity and
magnetic modelling, indicate that the edge of the crystal-
line basement of the East European Platform is situated
along this line (Grabowska & Bojdys 2001). The sources of
gravity highs in the NE part of the MH are huge dense intru-
sive bodies which penetrated the cratonic crust. It is also
confirmed by seismic investigation along, for example, the
CEL01 seismic profile. In the area at the SW margin of the
EEC, anomalously high velocities of about 7.0 km/s were
found at depth of about 15 km (Środa at al. 2003).
The Szczecin Low, the Mogilno Low and the Miechów
Low form a wide band of low gravity values extending
from Szczecin in the north-western corner of the country
and joining the Carpathian low in south-eastern corner of
Poland. The Szczecin Low occupies a geological unit
called the Szczecin Trough which is a part of the Polish
Basin. According to recent interpretations, together with
the Pomerania High they form the easternmost part of the
Avalonia Terrane, but the lower crust can be of Baltica ori-
gin. The shape of the MGL is similar to that of a geologi-
cal unit called the Mogilno-Łódź Depression, also a part
of the Polish Basin. Interpretation of gravity anomalies
from the sub-Zechstein basement (Petecki 2000) indicates
that the MGL is also attributed to the presence of pre-
Zechstein Paleozoic deposits of considerable thicknesses.
MIEL occupies the Miechów Trough (called also the Nida
Trough) and the south-eastern part of the Silesia-Cracow
Monocline. The sources of these three negative anomalies
are not fully known. Most researchers assume a prevailing
influence of the crystalline basement on their origin.
In the South-Western part the Lower Silesian High
(LSH), the Sudetes High (SUH), the Sudetes Low (SUL)
and the Opole Low (OL) can be observed, which form the
northern part of the Bohemian Massif. The Southern part
of Poland is characterized by the Upper Silesian High
(USH) and the Carpathian Low (CL). The LSH gravity unit
is close to the Fore-Sudetic Monocline. It is formed by
Variscan externides. Its high gravity values are caused by
a shallower Moho depth. The USH is a northern part of the
Bruno-Silesian Terrane called also Bruno-Vistulian, which
begins in Austria, goes across Czech Republic and ends
in Poland where it covers the Upper Silesian Basin and
the Cracow Monocline. The SUH is called a Fore-Sudetic
Block in geological nomenclature and consists of differ-
ent Paleozoic rocks and mafic intrusions. The NW parts of
the LSH and SUH are crossed by the P4 seismic profile
(Grad et al. 2003). The seismic data clearly indicate that
the sources of these anomalies are related to the elevated
upper crustal structure. The LSH is bounded to the north
by a regional gravity gradient zone which corresponds to
the Dolsk fault zone. This fault zone, expressed also as a
magnetic lineament (Petecki et al. 2003), is certainly re-
lated to the major crustal discontinuity related to funda-
mental change in crustal structure (Grad et al. 2003). An
integrated gravity and magnetic model along the P4 seis-
mic profile (Petecki 2005) provides evidence of the
bivergent nature of the Dolsk fault zone. While the con-
tact in the upper part of the crust shows a dip to the NE the
contact in the middle and lower crust dips to the oppo-
site side. The SUL forms two different subunits: the
Karkonosze Mts. Low with the North-Sudetic Trough Low
in the west and the Kłodzko Low in the middle of the
Sudetes. Their sources are granite massifs of Variscan ori-
gin. The OL, which is on the eastern end of the Sudetes,
has the same origin.
The gravity field of Slovakia can be divided into two
parts: the Western Carpathian gravity low zone and the
Western Carpathian gravity high zone.
The prevailing part of the Western Carpathian gravity
low zone extends over the territory of northern and partly
also central Slovakia. Its westernmost part interferes with
the region of the Czech Republic and Austria and its
northernmost part extends into Polish territory. The West-
ern Carpathian gravity low zone consists of two parts:
the Outer Western Carpathian gravity low (OWCGL) and
the Inner Western Carpathian gravity low (IWCGL). The
OWCGL is associated with the Outer Western Carpathians.
The prevailing source of the low is the Outer Flysch Belt
including its basement (the Outer Carpathian Foredeep).
Other deeper inhomogeneities probably participate in its
effect only minimally. The IWCGL is associated with the
Central Western Carpathians. The anomalous section is in-
terpreted as an effect of greater crustal thickness which is,
according to some authors (Buday 1991), related to the
continuation of the European plate deeper beneath the
Carpathians. Several authors (Ibrmajer 1958; Tomek et al.
1979; Pospíšil & Filo 1980; Obernauer & Kurkin 1983;
Pospíšil & Mikuška 1983) worked on the interpretation of
this striking anomaly and they had different opinion on
the source inducing the minimum (e.g. low density and
porous Flysch and molasse deposits or granitoid rocks
having lower density in the Tatric area). The effect of the
Moho dipping from south to north is confirmed by the re-
sults of deep seismic measurements (Tomek et al. 1979;
Mayerová et al. 1985).
The Western Carpathian gravity high zone continues
from the area of the Central and Inner Western Carpathians
to Hungary. It is mainly induced by deep density inhomo-
geneities. The positive effect of the Moho elevation as
BIELIK and CELEBRATION 2000 Working Group
well as the high density upper and lower crustal anoma-
lous bodies (core mountains, pre-Tertiary basement eleva-
tions, basaltic volcanism, metamorphic and basic rocks) in
the area superimpose the negative gravity effect of the as-
thenosphere. The whole area is divided into three parts:
Danube-Váh, South Slovak and East Slovak. The Danube-
Váh gravity high (DVGH) can be observed in the western
part of Slovakia. It is a result of the superposition of posi-
tive and negative gravity effects. The positive anomalies
are caused by the Core Mountains, submerged ridges of the
Tertiary basement and the Moho elevation. The negative
effects are due to the Tertiary, partly Paleogene cover of the
Danube Basin and the intramountain depressions. In this
zone the effect of the deep lithospheric structure (Moho and
upper crust elevations) is dominant (Sitárová et al. 1984;
Šefara et al. 1987, 1996; Nemesi et al. 1996). The South
Slovak gravity high (SSGH) region is divided into three
parts. The positive anomalies are due to the elevation of the
pre-Tertiary basement (western part), the youngest basaltic
volcanism (central part) and the basaltic volcanics, Paleo-
zoic metamorphites and the core mountains (eastern part).
In this region local negative anomalies can be observed too.
They result from low density depression fills and granite
rocks. The East Slovak gravity high (ESGH) region is due
mostly to the deep structure of the lithosphere (Moho and
upper crust elevations), Core Mountains and neovolcanics.
Local negative anomalies are due to depressions and the
central volcanic zone.
The newly compiled gravity map is a result of a huge ef-
fort of many peoples who participated in acquiring gravity
data during the past years of this and the past century. In
all five CELEBRATION 2000 countries the total gravity
data set contains more than 1,620,000 measurement points
and the average station density is approximately 2.4 sta-
The regional gravity anomalies of the compiled
Bouguer gravity anomaly map reflect the main tectonic
units of Central Europe.
The highest topography of the Eastern Alps is characterized
by the most intensive regional gravity low ( < — 180 mGal).
The crust-mantle boundary gravity (CMB) low is due to
the large crustal thickness ( > 50 km) beneath the Eastern
In the Variscan Orogene (Bohemian Massif) several sub-
parallel belts with predominantly NE—SW orientation
dominate, which in some cases does not correspond to the
regional geological subdivision of the Bohemian Massif.
The negative gravity zones reflect mostly the low density
of the granitic intrusions [the Granitic intrusion gravity
low (GI), the Krušné hory (Erzgebirge)—Krkonoše Zone
(KKZ), the Karlovy Vary pluton (KVP), the Central Bohe-
mian Suture (CBS), Moldanubian sub-region (MS), the
Orlice-Kłodzko sub-region (OKS] that exhibit large thick-
ness in many cases. Several local gravity anomalies are
caused by basic Devonian volcanites. The northern mar-
gin of the Bohemian Massif occurs in Poland and is repre-
sented by the Lower Silesian High (LSH), the Sudetes
High (SUH), the Sudetes Low (SUL), the Opole Low (OL).
Other well pronounced negative anomaly features are
those caused by the Molasse (MOL) and Vienna Basin
(VB), as well as local negative anomalies that image the
sedimentary fillings of large Alpine valleys like the Inn
(IN), Salzach (SV) and Drau (DV) valleys.
In contrast to high density metamorphic rocks, spilite
belts with accumulations of basic volcanites, mafic rocks
and huge basic and ultra basic bodies result in gravity highs
[the metamorphic rocks density high (MR), the Barrandian-
Broumov Zone (BBZ), the Teplá-Barrandian sub-region
(TBS), the Labe (Elbe)-Broumov sub-region, Železné hory
sub-region (ŽHS), Moravian sub-region (MOS)].
The regional gravity anomaly pattern of the Western
Carpathians can be divided into two parts: the Western
Carpathian gravity low zone and the Western Carpathian
gravity high zone.
The first part consists of two gravity lows: the Outer
Western Carpathian gravity low (OWCGL) and Inner
Western Carpathian gravity low (IWCGL). The OWCGL
(< —60 mGal) is considerably less than the Eastern Alpine
gravity low CMB (< —180 mGal). This gravity low contin-
ues along the Carpathian orogene arc with amplitude in-
creasing over the Eastern and Southern Carpathians
(> —100 mGal). The prevailing source of the Western
Carpathians low is the Outer Flysch Belt including its
basement (the Outer Carpathian Foredeep). Other deeper
inhomogeneities probably contribute only minimally. But
this does not hold in the Eastern and Southern
Carpathians, where the influence of the increasing depths
of the crust-mantle boundary ( > 50 km) and the lithos-
phere-asthenosphere boundary ( > 200 km) also plays a
very important role.
The second part (Western Carpathian gravity high)
continues from the area of the Central and Inner Western
Carpathians to Hungary. It is mainly induced by deep
density inhomogeneities (mostly by Moho elevation,
then by outcrop and elevation of the pre-Tertiary base-
ment as well as the high density upper and lower crustal
The long wavelength Pannonian gravity high is mainly
induced by deep-seated density inhomogeneities. The posi-
tive effect of the Moho is the main source of this regional
gravity high, to which the upper and lower crustal high den-
sity anomalous bodies (Core Mountains, pre-Tertiary base-
ment elevations, basaltic volcanism, metamorphic and
basic rocks) contribute additionally. The most characteristic
features of the Pannonian gravity high are elongated
anomalies striking NE-SW. Note that its W and NW part is
accompanied by lower gravity values than those in the S
and SE part even though the thickness of sedimentary fill-
ing of the Pannonian Basin is larger in the S and SE part
than in the W and NW one. This abnormal phenomenon
could be explained by an influence of high density deep-
seated crustal sources, which are in the S and SE part in
higher position (Bielik 1988a,b; Szabó & Páncsics 1999).
Both parts are divided by the Mid-Hungarian Line.
GRAVITY ANOMALY MAP OF THE CELEBRATION 2000 REGION
In the regional, long wavelength Pannonian gravity high
several relative gravity lows can be observed [Danube-Rába
Basin (DRB), Zala Basin (ZB), Dráva Basin (DB)].
The North-Eastern part of Poland is covered by the East
European Craton (Baltica) gravity high, which consists of
the Southern Baltic High (SBH), the Mazury-Mazovia High
(MMH) and the Podlasie High (POH). Each of these highs
has a different source. The first gravity high results from
thinner crust, the second one is connected with the high
crustal density of mafic rocks and the last one is due to the
Proterozoic Podlasie Metamorphic Belt. The TESZ includes
several positive and negative gravity anomaly zones with
different wavelength and amplitude. The central part of the
Mid-Polish Collision Zone forms the gravity highs con-
nected with the Mid-Polish Swell. The Pomeranian High
(PH) is the northernmost part of this gravity high, the
Kujawy High (KH) can be observed in the central part and
the Małopolska High (MH) spreading in the south eastern
part of Poland. The Szczecin Low (SZL), the Mogilno Low
(MGL), Miechów Low (MIEL) form a wide band of low
gravity extending from Szczecin in the north-western corner
of the country and joining the Carpathian low in south-
western corner of Poland. It is supposed that their main
source is the crystalline basement.
Acknowledgments: Special thanks are addressed to all
people who have been participating in the acquisition of
gravity data during a long history. The paper is a part of the
research program of the Department of Applied and Envi-
ronmental Geophysics, Comenius University in Bratislava,
Slovak Republic and the Geophysical Institute, of the Slo-
vak Academy of Sciences (VEGA Grants No. 2/3004/25,
2/3057/25 and Grant No. APVT-51-002804). In Austria re-
search has partly been funded by the Austrian Science Fund
(FWF) Grants S47/11 and P12343-GEO as well as by the
Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics). In the
Czech Republic the research has been founded by the Min-
istry of the Environment as a Project No. VaV/630/3/02
and by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports as a
Research Plan MSM No. 21600412.
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