GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, APRIL 2006, 57, 2, 103—122
Middle Miocene (Badenian) ostracods and green algae
(Chlorophyta) from Kamienica Nawojowska, Nowy Sącz Basin
(Western Carpathians, Poland)
Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa, Poland; firstname.lastname@example.org
(Manuscript received November 9, 2004; accepted in revised form June 16, 2005)
Abstract: The paper documents Middle Miocene (Badenian) ostracods of the Polish part of the Western Carpathians for the
first time. The material has been collected at the outcrop in the Kamienica Nawojowska locality, in the Nowy Sącz Basin.
The ostracods allowed the identification of 42 species, referred to 26 genera and representing 15 families. Among them, a
few species (e.g. Neonesidea cf. corpulenta (G.W. Müller, 1894), Pokornyella cf. devians Bonaduce, Ruggieri et Russo,
1986) and the genus Jonicythere Mostafawi, 1986, appear to be recorded from the Middle Miocene of the Central
Paratethys for the first time. Some species show uncommonly high variability. Besides the ostracods, the associated
remnants of green algae (Chlorophyta), assigned to three genera, are also preliminarily identified and illustrated. The
taxonomic composition of ostracods, as well as their preservation state, and the associated green algae suggest their marine,
shallow-water (inner neritic), rather highly dynamic and unstable environment. The close similarity of the recognized
ostracod assemblage to those known from the Middle Miocene deposits of the others parts of the Central Paratethys
(including the Carpathian Foredeep), Mediterranean areas, and the Atlantic border of Europe seems to be important. It
suggests intensive exchange of fauna within these bioprovinces.
Key words: Middle Miocene, Badenian, Western Carpathians, Nowy Sącz Basin, Chlorophyta, Ostracoda.
The previous elaborations of the marine Miocene ostra-
cods from Poland were mostly limited to those from the
Carpathian Foredeep and its southeastern prolongation,
namely the Roztocze Upland (the western part of the Lub-
lin Upland). A notable exception was the ostracods listed
by Schiller (1976) from the parautochthonous Lower Bad-
enian peri-Carpathian deposits outcropping in Benczyn.
Thus, the presented study of ostracods from the Kamienica
Nawojowska outcrop near Nowy Sącz, within the Nowy
Sącz Basin, is the first one concerning this group of micro-
fauna from the Neogene deposits from the Polish part of
the flysch Carpathians. It is undertaken in parallel with
studies on the foraminifers from that site (Gonera subm.).
The microfossils, mostly foraminifers, but also other
groups, including the green algae (Chlorophyta) mentioned
herein, from the marine Miocene deposits outcropping or
pierced by boreholes in the Nowy Sącz Basin, were de-
scribed in numerous studies (Gonera subm.). They also
prompted many speculations concerning both their age and
the depositional conditions. They were referred to the Low-
er Badenian (corresponding to the Langhian) up to the Sar-
matian (corresponding to the Serravallian).
Considering the existing opinions concerning the age
and the depositional conditions of the Miocene strata
from the Nowy Sącz Basin, sometimes differing even from
the same locality (cf. Oszczypko et al. 1991, 1992; Gonera
subm.), the attempt at the research on microfossils from the
Kamienica Nawojowska outcrop seemed particularly justi-
fied and interesting. The main reason for this work was to
recognize the ostracod assemblages and the co-occurring
remnants of flora from the Kamienica Nawojowska outcrop,
then to establish their supposed age and environmental
The studied material is housed in the Institute of Paleo-
biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (abbrevi-
Material and geological setting
The samples were taken from a geological section, near-
ly 4 meters thick and about 50 meters long, outcropping
as dark grey, indistinctly stratified and somewhat inclined
sandy-silty deposits, dipping about 35° to the south, on
the left bank of the Kamienica Nawojowska River, at the
southern boundary of the town Nowy Sącz (Fig. 1). The
studied section is situated just above the water surface,
and is overlain by about 1.5 m thick Quaternary deposits
(Gonera & Styczynski 2002; Bitner & Kaim 2004).
This outcrop was exposed in 2001, after a flood, and is
one of few outcrops of the transgressive Miocene sedi-
ments, infilling intramountainous depressions, including
the Nowy Sącz Basin, within the flysch Carpathians, and
overlying the Cretaceous-Paleogene flysch deposits of the
Magura Nappe (Fig. 1). The rather complex sedimentolog-
ical and tectonic situation, as well as various faunistic
contents of the deposits within the Nowy Sącz Basin, ob-
scure their lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy (cf. e.g.
Oszczypko 1973; Oszczypko et al. 1991, 1992; Gonera
subm.). In general, fresh-water facies (sandy clays with lig-
nite and coal) occur at the bottom of the section, and are
overlain by marine sediments (mostly sands and marly
silts) and the brackish-water intercalations. The Miocene
deposits of the Nowy Sącz Basin are slightly deformed
and they distinctly dip from the south-west to the east.
Oszczypko et al. (1992), working on microfauna (foramin-
ifers) and the calcareous nannoplankton from the Neogene
marine deposits from boreholes and outcrops from the
Nowy Sącz Basin, have distinguished two formations
there: the Iwkowa and Niskowa Formations, of which the
Iwkowa Formation consists mostly of clayey mudstones
(350—470 m thick sequence), and is referred to the Upper
Badenian and/or Lower Sarmatian, while overlying it the
Niskowa Formation, represented by sandy-silty deposits
(about 50 m thick), is referred to the Lower Sarmatian.
Gonera (subm.), on the basis of foraminifers (mostly
calcareous benthic forms) from one sample from the Ka-
mienica Nawojowska outcrop, assigned it to the Lower
Badenian (Moravian), a substage not recognized by Osz-
czypko et al. (1992) within the distinguished formations
of the Nowy Sącz Basin, and she compared the studied for-
aminiferal assemblage to that from Niskowa. According to
Bitner & Kaim (2004), who studied brachiopods (2 species
of Argyrotheca) from samples from Kamienica Nawojows-
ka, they indicate (although tentatively) a Badenian age of
the strata. Ostracods, so far unknown from the Nowy Sącz
Basin, do not allow correlation of the studied deposits
from Kamienica Nawojowska with those known from this
basin, but they contain biostratigraphic markers suggest-
ing their Late Badenian age.
For the present study I used one sample collected by Mal-
gorzata Gonera just above the water level for her foramin-
iferal studies (Gonera subm.), and four samples (about
30 kg each), collected by Andrzej Kaim for examination of
molluscs as well as brachiopods (see Bitner & Kaim 2004)
from the entire section at Kamienica Nawojowska.
These latter samples were divided into smaller ones to
obtain possibly homogeneous samples for micropaleonto-
logical examination and to avoid mixing of the material.
Samples were washed in hot water with some powder (gen-
erally used) (e.g. 5 % nonionic surfactans, soap, polycar-
boxylates, 5—15 % zeolites, anionic surfactans) for washing
and then sieved with 0.1 mm and 0.3 mm mesh sieves.
Since a close similarity of the taxonomic structure of os-
tracods from the studied samples was found, they were all
referred to a single ostracod assemblage. This assemblage
appears to be of rather uniform origin, when consider its
age and environment.
From the entire residuum of the above mentioned sam-
ples, several thousands of specimens of ostracods (includ-
ing fragments) were obtained, of which only the larger
(identifiable) fragments were picked up. They represent
valves and complete carapaces, mostly of adults, and
mostly of the large-sized forms (species). The specimens
are generally badly preserved, since they have been abrad-
ed, crushed or compressed, often covered or infilled with
quartz grains; sometimes they are covered by salt crystals
Fig. 1. The sketch maps indicating the location of sampled section at
Kamienica Nawojowska. A – structural sketch map of the Polish Car-
pathians, middle part: 1 – Tatra units, 2 – Podhale flysch, 3 – Pie-
niny Klippen Belt, 4 – Magura Nappe, 5 – Dukla and Fore-Magura
units, 6 – Silesian and Subsilesian units, 7 – Skole unit, 8 – folded
Miocene deposits, 9 – autochthonous Miocene deposits in the Car-
pathian Foredeep, 10 – Miocene deposits transgressive on the
Carpathians, 11 – Carpathian frontal overthrust, 12 – subordinate
thrust (after Oszczypko et al. (somewhat simplified) 1992). B – Nowy
Sącz region with locality Kamienica Nawojowska. C – sampled part
of the Kamienica Nawojowska section. D – general view of the sec-
tion at Kamienica Nawojowska (B—D after Bitner & Kaim 2004).
MIDDLE MIOCENE OSTRACODS AND GREEN ALGAE FROM NOWY SĄCZ BASIN (POLAND)
(Fig. 8.1). It seems probable, that the studied ostracod as-
semblage is biased, as a result of being selected mechani-
cally by the dynamic hydrological conditions of their
The green algae (Chlorophyta) (Fig. 11) in the studied
samples from Kamienica Nawojowska are rather rare and oc-
cur generally as poorly preserved fragments of thalli (?) or
Considerations on the taxonomy of ostracods
Since the studied material is rather badly preserved, it
seems probable, that the thin-shelled and small-sized spec-
imens (species) have been mechanically selected and thus
the preserved assemblage is not identical with the original
biocenosis. The afore-mentioned state of preservation of
the ostracod remnants from the Kamienica Nawojowska do
not favour their identifications. Moreover, there exists
large intraspecific variability among some of the recog-
nized species, especially those assigned to Grinioneis
haidingeri (Reuss, 1850) and Pokornyella deformis (Reuss,
1850). This polymorphism concerns the size as well as the
morphology of specimens and is particularly distinct
among the adult forms.
However, 42 species, belonging to 26 genera and 15
families have been identified among the studied ostracods
(Figs. 2—10). The most common are representatives of the
genera Aurila, Tenedocythere, Pokornyella, Cytheridea,
Grinioneis, Nonurocythereis and ?Ghardaglaia, while
only singular specimens belong to the genera Flexus,
Parakrithe, Triebelina, Pontocypris and Carinocythereis.
As it was stated above, probable secondary composition of
the studied assemblage caused rarity of the small-sized
and thin-shelled forms (species), mostly Callistocythere,
Jonicythere and Loxoconcha representatives.
In the available elaborations of even the recent ostra-
cods, the specimens most probably belonging to the same
species, since they have similar morphology, are some-
times variously named. At the same time, specimens re-
ferred by various authors to the same species, often differ
more or less distinctly from each other. This seemingly
stems from common neglect of intraspecies variability,
and not acknowledging the actual range of features of a
An example is provided by the ostracod fauna from Ka-
mienica Nawojowska, especially by some species discussed
below. One of them is the species assigned to Grinioneis gr.
haidingeri (Reuss, 1850) (Fig. 8.8,10—13). It was described
by Reuss (l.c.) (among others) from the Lower Badenian of
Nussdorf, Vienna Basin, but is broadly known from the Ter-
tiary deposits of numerous parts of Europe (more details see
Gross 2002). It has distinct and continuous variability con-
cerning its size as well as morphology and ornamentation,
which are only partly presented here. Its different represen-
tatives may be assigned at least to Grinioneis pirata (Rug-
gieri, 1960), G. haidingeri minor (Ruggieri, 1962) and G.
haidingeri rectangularis (Ruggieri, 1962) (the two last also
regarded as separate species), all from the Neogene of the
Mediterranean areas, or to Hermanites sp. 2 (Cernajsek,
1974) from the Sarmatian of Austria; Barra & Bonaduce
(2001) identify G. pirata with G. rectangularis. Interesting-
ly, a similar dilemma concerning the taxonomy of speci-
mens close to G. haidingeri was discussed by Babinot
(2002), working on the Miocene ostracods from Turkey, as
well as by Gross (2002, p. 95), studying the Middle Mi-
ocene ostracods of Austria.
Similar polymorphism, concerning the size, shape and
ornamentation of the adult forms also exists in the here
recognized Pokornyella deformis (Reuss, 1850) (Fig. 6.
?8,9,?10,11—14), described by Reuss (l.c.) from (among
others) the Lower Badenian of Nussdorf. Some specimens
seem to correspond to those, known as P. deformis minor
(Moyes, 1965) from Miocene of the Aquitanian Basin and
Turkey (Bassiouni 1979), P. italica Ruggieri, Russo et
Bossio, 1992 from the Upper Miocene of Italy, P. aff.
galeata (Reuss, 1850), sensu Ducasse & Coustillas (1981),
from the Oligocene of the Aquitanian Basin; there are also
specimens “transitory” to the here distinguished Pokornyel-
la sp. (Fig. 6.1—7), which seems comparable to P. limbata
(Bosquet, 1852), sensu Ducasse & Coustillas (1981), also
from the Oligocene of the Aquitanian Basin. It seems
worth mentioning, that also Ducasse & Coustillas (1981),
working on the Tertiary ostracods of the Aquitanian Ba-
sin, observed conspicuous variability among the recog-
nized species belonging to the genus Pokornyella, and
they distinguished there various morphs, changing both in
time as well as within one sample.
Another example of the polymorphism among the here
examined ostracods is presented by Tenedocythere sul-
catopunctata (Reuss, 1850) (Fig. 5.1—9), also being de-
scribed by Reuss (l.c.) from the Lower Badenian of
Nussdorf. Some of its representatives are very similar, either
conspecific or closely related, as with T. cruciata
Bonaduce, Ruggieri et Russo, 1984 from the Miocene of
the Mediterranean areas, or T. perplexa Bonaduce, Ruggieri
et Russo, 1984. This latter species is described from the
Lower Badenian of Nussdorf, and their authors assigned to
this species T. sulcatopunctata Reuss, 1850, figured by
Brestenská & Jiříček (1978) from the Badenian of Hungary;
according to these authors (l.c.) the specimen figured by
Brestenská & Jiříček (1978) only tentatively may corre-
spond to the specimen established by Reuss (1850) as Cyp-
ridina (recte Tenedocythere) sulcatopunctata. Regarding
the variability among T. sulcatopunctata from Kamienica
Nawojowska, T. cruciata described by Babinot (2002) from
the Miocene of Turkey appears to be conspecific with this
first one. It is noteworthy that Procythereis sulcatopuncta-
tus (Reuss, 1850) is known from the Middle Miocene of
Turkey (Bassiouni 1979). Considerable confusion in deter-
minations of species within the genus Tenedocythere are to
some extent presented by Mostafawi (2002), who revised
some ostracod species from Uliczny’s (1969) collection.
A similar but more troublesome problem results from the
taxonomic studies of the smooth-shelled specimens, espe-
Fig. 2. All pictures (in all following figures) represent external views except where stated. Abbreviations: C – carapace, RV – right
valve, LV – left valve. 1, 4 – Neonesidea cf. subdeltoidea (Münster, 1830); 1 RV, a – lateral view, b – ventral view, ZPAL O. 54/311;
4 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/104. 2, 5, 8 – Neonesidea cf. corpulenta (G.W. Müller, 1894); 2 LV, a – lateral view, b – ventral view,
ZPAL O. 54/315; 5 RV, seen from inside, ZPAL O. 54/313; 8 LV, ZPAL O. 54/262. 3, 6, 9 – Neonesidea cf. mediterranea (G.W. Müller,
1894); 3 LV, a – lateral view, b – ventral view, ZPAL O. 54/79; 6 LV, seen from inside, ZPAL O. 54/309; 9 LV, ZPAL O. 54/258.
7 – Triebelina raripila (G.W. Müller, 1894), RV, ZPAL O. 54/81. 10 – Cnestocythere lamellicosta Triebel, 1950; LV, ZPAL 0. 54/195.
11 – Flexus reussianus Ruggieri, 1992, C, a – right side, b – oblique ventral view, ZPAL O. 54/127. 12, 13 – Carinocythereis galilea
Ruggieri, 1972 jiriceki Aiello et Szczechura, 2001; 12 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/265; 13 C, a – ventral side, b – left side, ZPAL O. 54/130.
MIDDLE MIOCENE OSTRACODS AND GREEN ALGAE FROM NOWY SĄCZ BASIN (POLAND)
Fig. 3. 1—4, 6, 7, 10 – Jonicythere cf. tribrachys (Bonaduce, Ruggieri, Russo et Bismuth, 1992); 1 C, left side, ZPAL O. 54/213; 2 C,
left side, ZAL O. 54/234; 3 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/223; 4 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/224; 6 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/235; 7 C, left
side, ZPAL O. 54/225; 10 RV, ZPAL O. 54/222. 5 – Callistocythere sp. 1, RV, ZPAL O. 54/232. 8 – Callistocythere sp. 2, RV, ZPAL
O. 54/230. 9, 12, 15 – Nonurocythereis seminulum (Sequenza, 1880); 9 RV, ZPAL O. 54/192; 12 C, left side, ZPAL O. 54/194; 15 C,
right side, ZPAL O. 54/193. 11, 14 – Pseudocytherura cf. calcarata (Sequenza, 1880); 11 RV, ZPAL O. 54/246; 14 LV, a – oblique
ventral view, b – lateral view, ZPAL O. 54/252. 13 – Callistocythere cf. pallida (G.W. Müller, 1894), RV, ZPAL O. 54/231. 16 – Para-
cytheridea triquetra (Reuss, 1850), LV, ZPAL O. 54/257.
Fig. 4. 1—4 – ?Ghardaglaia cf. pectinata (Hejjas, 1894); 1 RV, ZPAL O. 54/116; 2 RV, seen from inside, ZPAL O. 54/115; 3 C, right
side, ZPAL O. 54/100; 4 LV, seen from inside, ZPAL O. 54/311. 5, ?6, 7, 8 – Pontocythere cf. curvata (Bosquet, 1852); 5 RV, ZPAL
O. 54/239; 6 RV, ZPAL O. 54/304; 7 RV, seen from inside, ZPAL O. 54/134; 8 RV, ZPAL O. 54/302. 9—12, 15 – Pontocythere cf.
elongata (Brady, 1868); 9 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/135; 10 LV, seen from inside, ZPAL O. 54/303; 11 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/245;
12 LV, ZPAL O. 54/136; 15 LV, ZPAL O. 54/239. 13, 14 – Neocytherideis gr. subulata (Brady, 1868); 13 LV, seen from inside,
ZPAL O. 54/243; 14 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/226. 16 – Pontocypris sp., LV, seen from inside, ZPAL O. 54/306. 17, 18 – Parakrithe sp.;
17 LV, seen from inside, ZPAL O. 54/322; 18 RV, seen from inside, ZPAL O. 54/316.
MIDDLE MIOCENE OSTRACODS AND GREEN ALGAE FROM NOWY SĄCZ BASIN (POLAND)
cially belonging to the genera Neonesidea, Neocytheride-
is, Pontocythere and Xestoleberis. The so far distinguished
species of these genera, are sometimes not sufficiently de-
scribed with regard to their external and internal features,
resulting in confusion concerning the taxonomy of repre-
sentatives of this (mentioned above) ostracod group, the
uncertainty additionally reinforced by the lack of knowl-
edge about the variability of extinct species. As is known,
for example, in the case of Upper Oligocene—Lower Mi-
ocene populations of ostracod species, referred to Neo-
cytherideis (including Neocytherideis linearis (Roemer,
1838) from the Aquitanian Basin (Ducasse 1994)), a dis-
tinct polymorphism occurs concerning the size as well as
the shape and ornamentation of the valves; the recogniz-
able “morphs” co-exist and/or change in time; N. linearis,
similar to that determined here as N. gr. subulata is report-
ed by Zorn (1998) among Early Miocene ostracods of
Lower Austria. Similarly variable is Pontocythere elonga-
ta, sometimes identified with P. turbida (G.W. Müller,
1894), which according to Wouters (1976) represents the
Cenozoic evolutionary lineage Cushmanidea (recte Pon-
lithomoides (Bosquet, 1852)—P.
(Brady, 1868). The actual taxonomic position of ?Ponto-
cythere longa, described by Reuss (1850) from the Middle
Miocene of Austria (Molasse Zone) as Cytherina longa,
close to that occurring in Kamienica Nawojowska, at least
in their external appearance, needs additional studies.
However, even this preliminary analysis of the collected
ostracods from the Kamienica Nawojowska allows us to
state that they are similar to those known from the Miocene,
especially the Middle Miocene of the Central Paratethys, in
particular, for example the Polish part of the Carpathian
Foredeep as well as its eastern prolongation, Roztocze Up-
land (see Szczechura & Pisera 1986; Paruch-Kulczycka &
Szczechura 1996; Szczechura 1998; Aiello & Szczechura
2001) and the peri-Carpathian area (Schiller 1976), Austria
(Huber-Mahdi 1984; Zorn 1999, 2003; Gross 2002), Czech
Republic and/or Slovakia (Brestenská & Jiříček 1978; Říha
1983; Říha & Odehnal 1988; Zelenka 1985; Holcová et al.
1996), northwestern and northcentral Bulgaria (Stancheva
1962; Tzankov et al. 1965), former Yugoslavia (Bosnia and
Serbia) (e.g. Rundić 1992; Rundić & Mitrović 1995;
Knežević & Krstić 1996; Rundić et al. 2000) and in south-
western Romania (Olteanu 1971).
Significant exceptions in this assemblage seem to be
represented by Neonesidea cf. corpulenta (G.W. Müller,
1894) (Fig. 2.2,5,8), Jonicythere cf. tribrachys (Bonaduce,
Ruggieri, Russo et Bismuth, 1992) (Fig. 3.1—4,6,7,10),
Pokornyella cf. devians Bonaduce, Ruggieri et Russo,
1985 (Fig. 8.2—7,9), Pontocypris sp. (Fig. 4.16), Aurila sp. 2
(Fig. 8.14—16) and Pokornyella sp. (Fig. 6.1—7) (the two last
species probably new ones). These taxa were not recorded
so far from the Miocene of the Central Paratethys. Among
them the representatives of Jonicythere Bassiouni, 1986,
were unknown up to now from Miocene deposits of the
above discussed area. Interestingly, some of them, such as
Neonesidea cf. corpulenta and Pokornyella cf. devians oc-
cur in the Upper Badenian deposits in the Węglin outcrop,
in the Roztocze region (newest author’s observations).
Considerations on the taxonomy of green algae
Among the collected fragments of green algae
(Fig. 11.1—13) from the Kamienica Nawojowska, the most
common belong to the genus Acicularia d’Archiac, 1843.
A single fragment (a segment of thallus) represents Cy-
mopolia Lamoroux, 1816, while a few of them are referred
to Halicoryne Harvey, 1859. The poor state of preserva-
tion as well as insufficient amount of the studied fossils
precluded any detailed taxonomic identification; they are
assigned to Cymopolia sp., Acicularia sp. and Halicoryne
(formerly Chalmasia) cf. morelleti (Pokorný, 1948). All
these genera, as well as H. morelleti are known from the
Middle Miocene of the Central Paratethys, including Po-
land, both from the Carpathian Foredeep as well as from
the Carpathians (Malecki 1970; Stancu & Tautu 1974;
Bucur et al. 1993; Paruch-Kulczycka 1994).
Biostratigraphic significance of ostracods and
As was indicated above, the Middle Miocene ostracods
are broadly distributed in the Cenral Paratethys and they are
quite well recognized. At the same time, their biostrati-
graphic significance was proposed by various authors (e.g.
Jiříček 1975, 1983; Brestenská & Jiříček 1978; Jiříček &
Říha 1991). Unfortunately, these propositions, concerning
ostracod-based stratigraphic zonation of the Middle Mi-
ocene deposits, generally do not consider the dependence
of their distribution on their environmental conditions and
therefore are barely useful in this discussion on the age of
ostracods from the Kamienica Nawojowska deposits, repre-
senting a shallow-water and unstable environment.
Among ostracods from Kamienica Nawojowska, a sig-
nificant majority of species (in sum more than 75 %) occur
in the Badenian (especially in the Early Badenian) of Aus-
tria (both in the Molasse Basin as well as in the Vienna
Basin) (Huber-Mahdi 1984; Gross 2002; Zorn 2003,
2004), in the Badenian of the Polish part of the Carpathian
Foredeep (e.g. in the Korytnica Basin) and in the Roztocze
region (Szczechura & Pisera 1986, newest author’s obser-
vations). However, some of them appeared earlier in the
Central Paratethys, for example in the Karpatian of the
Korneuburg Basin (Austria) (Zorn 1998). As results of the
stratigraphic extent of the ostracod species known from
the Vienna Basin and other areas of the Central Paratethys,
established by Gross (2002), and recognized in the studied
material, at least the following species indicate its Badenian
(not later and not earlier) age: Aurila angulata, A. cicatri-
cosa, A. haueri, Cnestocythere lamellicosta, Cytheridea
acuminata, Flexus reussianus, Senesia cinctella, S. trigo-
nella and Tenedocythere sulcatopunctata.
The Badenian age of the studied materal also seems to be
confirmed by the occurrence of Triebelina raripila and
Carinocythereis galilea jiriceki (Szczechura 1998; Aiello
& Szczechura 2001), the species so far known from the Cen-
tral Paratethys from the Badenian deposits only. At the
same time, C. galilea jiriceki is regarded as the Upper Bad-
Fig. 5. 1—9 – Tenedocythere sulcatopunctata (Reuss, 1850); 1 RV, ZPAL O. 54/180; 2 RV, ZPAL O. 54/183; 3 C, left side, ZPAL O.
54/99; 4 RV, ZPAL O. 54/181; 5 RV, ZPAL O. 54/7; 6 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/186; 7 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/96; 8 LV, ZPAL O.
54/9; 9 LV, ZPAL O. 54/185. 10—12, 14 – Cytheretta ornata (Hejjas, 1894) semiornata (Brestenská, 1978); 10 RV, ZPAL O. 54/157;
11 LV, ZPAL O. 54/158; 12 LV, ZPAL O. 54/105; 14 LV, ZPAL O. 54/264. 13, 15—17 – Pterygocythereis jonesii (Baird, 1850); 13 RV,
ZPAL O. 54/260; 15 RV, ZPAL O. 54/152; 16 LV, ZPAL O. 54/141; 17 LV, ZPAL O. 54/257.
MIDDLE MIOCENE OSTRACODS AND GREEN ALGAE FROM NOWY SĄCZ BASIN (POLAND)
Fig. 6. 1—7 – Pokornyella sp. (? sp. n.); 1 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/286; 2 LV, seen from inside, ZPAL O. 54/269; 3 C, a – left side,
b – ventral side, ZPAL O. 54/2; 4 LV, ZPAL O. 54/24; 5 LV, ZPAL O. 54/25; 6 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/89; 7 C, right side, ZPAL O.
54/188. ?8, 9, ?10, 11—14 – Pokornyella deformis (Reuss, 1850); 8 LV, ZPAL O. 54/121; 9 LV, ZPAL O. 54/119; 10 RV, ZPAL O.
54/255; 11 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/290; 12 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/279; 13 C, ventral side, ZPAL O. 54/270; 14 LV, ZPAL O.
Fig. 7. 1, 2, 5 – Cytheridea acuminata Bosquet, 1852; 1 RV, ZPAL O. 54/137; 2 LV, ZPAL O. 54/83; 5 LV, ZPAL O. 54/133.
3, 4, 6, 7 – Aurila sp. 1; 3 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/148; 4 LV, ZPAL O. 54/149; 6 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/150; 7 C, a – left
side, b – oblique ventral view, ZPAL O. 54/83. 8, 11 – Aurila angulata (Reuss, 1850); 8 C, a – right side, b – oblique ventral view,
ZPAL O. 54/151; 11 LV, ZPAL O. 54/256. 9, 10, 12, 13 – Senesia trigonella (Reuss, 1850); 9 RV, ZPAL O. 54/146; 10 C, ventral
side, ZPAL O. 54/144; 12 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/145; 13 LV, ZPAL O. 54/147.
MIDDLE MIOCENE OSTRACODS AND GREEN ALGAE FROM NOWY SĄCZ BASIN (POLAND)
enian biostratigraphic marker (Szczechura 1998; Aiello &
Szczechura 2001). Notably, the discussed ostracod assem-
blage from Kamienica Nawojowska does not contain spe-
cies characteristic for the Sarmatian of the Central
Paratethys (cf. e.g. Cernajsek 1974; Jiříček 1974; Szcze-
Considering the stratigraphic significance of the ostra-
cod species found in Kamienica Nawojowska but so far
unknown from the Central Paratethys – the species Neo-
nesidea corpulenta is living now in the Mediterranean re-
gion, where it is known, at least since the Lower Miocene,
but is mentioned (among others) from the Langhian of the
Tejo Bay (Portugal) (Nascimento 1988) and from the
Antakya area (southern Turkey) ( afak 1993). It seems
probable that N. cf. corpulenta from Kamienica Nawo-
jowska is conspecific with specimens from the Badenian
of Austria assigned by Huber-Mahdi (1984) to Bairdoppi-
lata (?) succinata (Deltel, 1963).
Jonicythere tribrachys was described from the Upper
Miocene of Tunisia, however, according to Bonaduce et
al. (1992) it is conspecific with specimens from the
Langhian of Portugal assigned by Nascimento (1988) to
Cytheromorpha zinndorfi (Lienenklaus, 1905); C. zinndor-
fi, unfortunately not figured, is also mentioned by Bassiou-
ni & Elewa (2000) from the late Middle Miocene of the
Western Desert of Egypt. Since C. zinndorfi, typical of the
Oligocene of Europe, prefers brackish conditions (salinity
1 6 ‰) (Keen 1978), specimens referred to C. zinndorfi
and co-occurring with normal marine ostracod species in
Egypt may in fact represent the genus Jonicythere. Possi-
bly, basal representatives of this genus (and maybe the
species) existed already in the Paleogene of the Tethys (cf.
Cytheromorpha zinndorfi from the molasse Oligocene of
Switzerland (Oertli 1956—58)).
Pokornyella devians is known from the Upper Miocene
of Italy (Sicily) (Bonaduce et al. 1985) and Tunisia
(Bonaduce et al. 1992), while very similar forms, deter-
mined as Pokornyella? sp. and Procythereis? sp., are de-
scribed from the Miocene (Serravallian—Messinian) of
southern Turkey (Babinot 2002). Thus, also these two last
species, namely Jonicythere cf. tribrachys and Pokornyel-
la cf. devians suggest a Middle Miocene (Badenian) age
of the discussed meiofauna from Kamienica Nawojowska.
It should be added, that both Neonesidea cf. corpulenta
and Pokornyella cf. devians (together with, among others,
C. galilea jiriceki) occur in the Upper Badenian deposits
of the Roztocze region, in the Węglin outcrop (newest au-
thor’s observations). Interestingly, also brachiopods from
Kamienica Nawojowska, elaborated by Bitner & Kaim
(2004), co-occurring there with the here described ostra-
cods, are similar to those present in the Upper Badenian of
the Roztocze region.
These latest observations complicate, to some degree,
the estimation of the age of biota from Kamienica Nawo-
jowska, especially given the opinion of Gonera (subm.).
Gonera (l.c.), working on foraminifers from Kamienica Na-
wojowska, because of the lack of planktonic forms, used
the ecostratigraphic signal of the collected calcareous
benthic forms, in particular the presence of the warm-water
taxons, characteristic for the Lower Badenian (Moravian
substage) for example Borelis representatives. The strong
dependence of distribution of fauna (especially foramini-
fers) and flora on temperature (mostly reflecting climate) is
obvious, however, the changes of the environmental con-
ditions (including temperature) in the Middle Miocene of
the Polish part of the Carpathian Foredeep and the adjoin-
ing areas seems to need additional study.
More detailed determination of the age of the Kamieni-
ca Nawojowska sediments on the basis of ostracods is
presently impossible, however, in general it agrees with
those by Gonera (subm.) and Bitner & Kaim (2004).
The genera present among the recognized green algae
Chlorophyta) from Kamienica Nawojowska, i.e. Acicu-
laria, Cymopolia and Halicoryne (including Halicoryne
morelleti) are known from the Badenian as well as the
Sarmatian of the Central Paratethys (Stancu & Tautu
1974), thus this group of fossils is not helpful in estimat-
ing of age of sediments from Kamienica Nawojowska.
They are described mostly from the Sarmatian deposits,
however H. morelleti occurs in the Upper Badenian de-
posits from the Roztocze region (e.g. in Węglin) (au-
thor’s observations). Various species of these algae,
known from the Miocene of the Central Paratethys, have
broad stratigraphic and paleogeographical distributions
(Stancu & Tautu 1974) and seem to be important mostly
as paleoecological markers.
Paleoecological significance of microfossils from
The taxonomic composition of the studied ostracods, on
the generic level, especially the presence of Triebelina,
Neocytherideis, Cytheretta, Aurila, Pokornyella, Para-
cytheridea, Pseudocytherura and Carinocythereis rather
explicitly indicate their normal marine and shallow-water
(upper part of the epineritic zone, inner littoral) deposition-
al environment, while Xestoleberis and Loxoconcha are
more bathymetrically tolerant (Morkhoven 1963). In the
opinion of Maddocks (1969) Neonesidea represents ostra-
cods living in the shallow-marine environment, rich in bot-
tom vegetation (algae, grasses) and associated with detrital
accumulations, while Triebelina is restricted to very shal-
low waters, with reefs and a high wave-energy level. Al-
though this latter genus is known as thermophilic, some rare
species, including T. raripila, occur in temperate latitudes.
According to Athersuch (1979) both Aurila and Xes-
toleberis represent phytophilous forms, while Ducasse &
Bekaert (1996) stated that also Callistocythere, Loxocon-
cha, Neocytherideis and Pontocythere represent forms pre-
ferring phytal environment, that is they live in pericoastal
areas with bottom vegetation. At the same time, the coex-
isting and quite common Grinioneis (e.g. G. haidingeri)
and Nonurocythereis (e.g. N. seminulum) are often found
in Miocene and younger ostracod assemblages, represent-
ing shallow-water biotopes, sometimes connected with
various kinds of plants (Moyes 1965; Peypouquet 1977;
Fig. 8. 1 – Halite crystals infilling (covering) ostracod valve, ZPAL O. 54/265. 2—7, 9 – Pokornyella cf. devians Bonaduce, Ruggieri
et Russo, 1986; 2 LV, seen from inside, ZPAL O. 54/275; 3 RV, ZPAL O. 54/254; 4 RV, ZPAL O. 54/255; 5 C, left side, ZPAL O. 54/81;
6 C, left side, ZPAL O. 54/20; 7 C, oblique ventral view, ZPAL O. 54/80; 9 LV, ZPAL O. 54/251. 8, 10—13 – Grinioneis gr. haid-
ingeri (Reuss, 1850) [10 – form close to G. pirata (Ruggieri, 1960)]; 8 C, left side, ZPAL O. 54/177; 10 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/18;
11 C, a – left side, b –oblique ventral view, ZPAL O. 54/170; 12 C, left side, ZPAL O. 54/4; 13 C, left side, ZPAL O. 54/17.
14—16 – Aurila sp. 2; 14 C, left side, ZPAL O. 54/111; 15 C, a –right side, b – oblique ventral view, ZPAL O. 54/109; 16 LV, ZPAL
MIDDLE MIOCENE OSTRACODS AND GREEN ALGAE FROM NOWY SĄCZ BASIN (POLAND)
Yassini 1979a; Aranki 1987; Nascimento 1988; Ducasse
& Cahuzac 1996; Conesa & Babinot 1999; Babinot 2002;
Recent forms living especially in the northern and/or
southern borders of the Mediterranean Sea and in the adja-
cent seas are relatively numerous among the studied and
recognized ostracod species, or are close to them. They in-
clude Callistocythere pallida, Loxoconcha tumida, L.
rhomboidea, Neonesidea corpulenta, N. mediterranea,
Neocytherideis subulata, Pontocythere elongata, P. cur-
vata, Pterygocythereis jonesii, Pseudocytherura calcara-
ta and Triebelina raripila (e.g. Puri et al. 1964; Bonaduce
& Masoli 1968; Masoli 1968; Barbeito-Gonzalez 1971;
Uffenorde 1972; Bonaduce et al. 1975; Yassini 1979b;
Lachenal 1989; Ruiz-Munoz et al. 1996; Barra 1997;
Ruiz et al. 1997, 2000, 2003; afak 1999), thus their envi-
ronmental preferences are well known and corroborate the
above expressed suggestions.
Only a few species among the distinguished ones, for ex-
ample Pontocythere elongata, Neocytherideis subulata
and Loxoconcha rhomboidea, are known to live also in the
southwestern and northern pericoastal areas of Europe, e.g.
in the Arcachon Bay (Yassini 1969), the Bay of Seine
(Chait et al. 1998) and the coastal parts of England (Ather-
such et al. 1989); according to Chait et al. (1998) they rep-
resent species with large latitudinal distribution, in contrast
to the “northern” species which do not cross the Bay of
Seine in their southward extent. In the modern pericoastal,
marine waters of England P. elongata and N. subulata pre-
fer sandy substrate, while L. rhomboidea represents a phytal
species, showing different environmental preferences
(Athersuch et al. 1989); they coexist, however, on the sandy
bottom in the Bay of Seine (Chait et al. 1998).
It is worth reminding here, that the distribution of ostra-
cods depends not only on the physical and chemical fea-
tures of water in their habitats, but also (as indicated above)
on the bottom character, especially the type of sediment,
and the kind as well as availability of food; among the phy-
tophilous forms various species prefer different groups of
plants. According to Ruiz et al. (1997), studying ostracods
from a shallow-water estuary on the coast of southwestern
Spain (Cadiz Gulf), and Uffenorde (1972), working on os-
tracods from the Limsky Canal on the Adriatic Sea coast,
their regional and bathymetric distributions depend on
seasons and on local hydrographic and hydrodynamic
conditions. So the ostracod assemblage from Kamienica
Nawojowska may represent a different paleobiocenosis,
but probably all from the shallow-water environment.
The generally poor preservation of this fauna as well as the
predominance of the large-sized, adult carapaces suggests a
highly energetic (at least periodically agitated) environment
and rapid sedimentation, while a considerable amount of the
thick-shelled species may indicates its good saturation with
. Moreover, the presence of the phytophilous forms in-
dicates that the ostracods lived in well oxygenated waters,
well illuminated by the sun, as expected of the shallow-water
conditions. Bitner & Kaim (2004) do not exclude, however,
the redeposition of fauna from Kamienica Nawojowska, in-
volving its transportation basinward.
According to Puri (1971), the thick, heavy, large cara-
paces, containing representatives of Cytheridea, Mutilus
(here Aurila) and Carinocythereis “characterize near-
shore, coarse-grained sediments” (l.c. p. 165).
The distinct intraspecific variability among ostracods
from Kamienica Nawojowska is, most probably, the result
of the variability of the environment, which is ecopheno-
typic in character and may reflect seasonal fluctuations in-
volving various hydrological factors: temperature, salinity,
amount of CaCO
, dissolved O
, food supply, run off water
masses (cf. e.g. Szczechura 1971; Keen 1982; Ikeya & Ueda
1988; Peypouquet et al. 1988; Babinot et al. 1991; Ducasse
1994). According to Babinot et al. (1991), the presence of
numerous ostracod morphs in one sample may result from
the seasonal fluctuation of the environment.
Since the ostracode assemblage from Kamienica Nawo-
jowska is only indistinctly diversified along the studied
section, it is regarded, in general, as living in rather a simi-
lar environment considering the entire studied deposition-
al sequence. However, the sporadic occurrence of species
preferring deeper waters, such as Pterygocythereis jonesii
and Parakrithe sp., and greater diversity of ostracods in
the lower part of the section, may indicate indistinct
changes in the sea level, towards shallowing, and/or
weakening of influence of the open sea during the deposi-
tion of sediments in the upper part of the section. Brachio-
pods are also more frequent in the lowermost sample
(Bitner & Kaim 2004).
The shallow-water environment, well illuminated by the
sun (high photic zone) and with bottom vegetation, indicat-
ed by ostracods from Kamienica Nawojowska, is confirmed
by the coexistence of the calcareous green algae (Chloro-
phyta): the representatives of Acicularia, Halicoryne and
Cymopolia (Fig. 11), nb. known (among others) from the
Middle Miocene deposits (assigned to the Sarmatian) of the
other areas of the Nowy Sącz Basin (e.g. from Niskowa)
(Malecki 1970). According to Paruch-Kulczycka (1994),
working on the marine algae (including H. morelleti) from
the Sarmatian of the Carpathian Foredeep, they lived in
“mainly shallow (5—30 m deep), tropical and subtropical
waters with normal or increased salinity and low turbulence
typical for coastal lagoons” (l.c. p. 572). Also according to
Bucur et al. (1993), reporting on the Sarmatian algal microf-
lora from Romania, they needed almost normal marine and
subtropical-tropical (23—30 °C) waters.
Paleobiogeographic significance of the studied
microfossils from Kamienica Nawojowska
– As said above, the notable majority of the
ostracod species from Kamienica Nawojowska is largerly
known from the Badenian deposits of the other parts of the
Central Paratethys. They are also known from the Middle
Miocene sediments from the areas outside the Central
Paratethys, mainly from the Mediterranean bioprovince,
including its central part as well as the northern and south-
ern adjacent parts, such as Italy (Bonaduce & Russo 1984;
Dall’Antonia & Bossio 2001), southern Turkey (Bassiouni
Fig. 9. 1, 2 – Senesia cinctella (Reuss, 1850); 1 C, a – right side, b – ventral side, ZPAL O. 54/106; 2 LV, ZPAL O. 54/277. 3, 4 – Auri-
la haueri (Reuss, 1850); 3 C, a – right side, b – ventral side, ZPAL O. 54/102; 4 LV, ZPAL O. 54/268. 5, 6 – A. cf. opaca (Reuss,
1850); 5 C, a – right side, b – oblique ventral side, ZPAL O. 54/266; 6 LV, ZPAL O. 54/284. 7, 8, 11 – A. sp. 3; 7 C, a – right
side, b – ventral side, ZPAL O. 54/112; 8 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/113; 11 C, left side, ZPAL O. 54/117. 9, 10 – Aurila cicatricosa
(Reuss, 1850); 9 LV, ZPAL O. 54/104; 10 C, right side, ZPAL O. 54/124.
MIDDLE MIOCENE OSTRACODS AND GREEN ALGAE FROM NOWY SĄCZ BASIN (POLAND)
Fig. 10. 1 – Xestoleberis sp., RV, ZPAL O. 54/256. 2, 4 – X. cf. tumida (Reuss, 1850); 2 C, a – oblique ventral view, b – right side,
ZPAL O. 54/215; 4 C, a – oblique ventral view, b – right side, ZPAL O. 54/319. 3 – Loxoconcha cf. punctatella (Reuss, 1850); LV,
ZPAL O. 54/34. 5—8, 10 – L. cf. tumida (Brady, 1868); 5 RV, ZPAL O. 54/207; 6 RV, ZPAL O. 54/317; 7 LV, ZPAL O. 54/108; 8 C,
right side, ZPAL O. 54/128; 10 LV, ZPAL O. 54/204. 9, 11, 12 – L. cf. rhomboidea (Fischer, 1855); 9 LV, ZPAL O. 54/216; 11 RV,
ZPAL O. 54/205; 12 LV, ZPAL O. 54/217. 13—15 – Loxocorniculum cf. hastatum (Reuss, 1850); 13 LV, ZPAL O. 54/208; 14 LV,
ZPAL O. 54/47; 15 RV, ZPAL O. 54/206.
Fig. 11. 1—5, 7, 10 – Acicularia sp., ZPAL Al. 8/1—5, 7, 10. 6 – Cymopolia sp., ZPAL Al. 8/6. 8, 9, 11—13 – Halicoryne cf. morelleti
(Pokorny, 1948); ZPAL Al. 8/8, 9, 11—13.
1979; Doruk 1979; afak 1993; Tunoûlu & Bilen 2001;
Babinot 2002), northern Algeria (Carbonnel & Courme-
Rault 1997). They are known, moreover, from that time,
from the European peri-Atlantic parts (Atlantic bioprov-
ince), especially the southwestern France (Aquitanian Ba-
sin) (Ducasse & Cahuzac 1996, 1997) and Portugal (Tejo
Bay) (Nascimento 1988). Almost all these conclusions
were presented earlier, when also other ostracod species
from the discussed time and areas were compared (see e.g.
Jiříček 1983; Szczechura 1994, 1998; Nascimento & Říha
1996; Zorn 1998; Gross 2002). The ostracod assemblages
compared and mentioned here are more or less different
with regard to their taxonomic composition probably
mainly due to their more or less different environments.
The occurrence of the ostracod species in Kamienica
Nawojowska so far unknown from the Middle Miocene of
the Central Paratethys, but known from that time from the
peri-Atlantic areas (e.g. Jonicythere tribrachys and Neo-
nesidea corpulenta) (Nascimento 1988) and/or southern
Turkey (e.g. Pokornyella sp. and associated forms) (Bab-
inot 2002) additionally confirms the similarity of these
faunas and indicates the sea connections and the existence
of migratory routes. These Middle Miocene marine con-
nections were suggested (among others) also by Studenc-
ka et al. (1998) and Rögl (2001).
Interestingly, the geographical range of the discussed
ostracod species appears to be limited to the above men-
tioned areas. However, a species similar to this recognized
here as Pokornyella deformis, is described from the Mid-
dle Miocene of the Caribbean region by van den Bold
(1968, 1973), as Procythereis (recte Pokornyella) cf. de-
formis; it is associated with forms unknown from the Mi-
MIDDLE MIOCENE OSTRACODS AND GREEN ALGAE FROM NOWY SĄCZ BASIN (POLAND)
ocene of Europe. The shallow-water ostracod species from
the Middle Miocene of the Caucasus, studied by
Schneider (1949) as well as those listed by Pishchikova
(1992) from the Middle Miocene of Crimea differ from
those discussed here and represent mostly endemic forms,
although P. jonesii is recorded from the Lower Miocene of
both areas; the latter (late Middle Miocene deposits of
Crimea) contain fresh-water elements. At the same time,
however, the comprehensively figured and recognized os-
tracod assemblage presented by Schneider (l.c.), being
poorly documented, seems worth additional studies, es-
pecially when considering its taxonomy and age, and so
its paleobiogeographic importance.
– The reported green algae (especially H.
morelleti), like the ostracods, are rather broadly distribut-
ed in the Middle Miocene deposits of Europe but mainly
of the Central Paratethys; they are known, for example
from the Carpathians and the Carpathian Foredeep, Vien-
na Basin, Serbia, Hungary and Romania (cf. Stancu & Tau-
tu 1974; Bucur et al. 1993; Paruch-Kulczycka 1994).
The presented ostracods (Figs. 2—10) and green algae
(Chlorophyta) (Fig. 11) have been studied in samples from
an outcrop situated in the left bank of the Kamienica Na-
wojowska River, at the Kamienica Nawojowska locality,
at the southern outskirts of the Nowy Sącz town, in the
Nowy Sącz Basin, within the Outer Western Carpathians
(Fig. 1). The outcropping marine deposits consist of dark
grey sandy silts. Among the ostracods, attributed to 42 spe-
cies (including 9 species left in the open nomenclature)
and 26 genera, the representative of the genus Jonicythere
Mostafawi, 1986 (J. cf. tribrachys (Bonaduce, Ruggieri,
Russo et Bismuth, 1992)), so far unknown from the Mi-
ocene of the Central Paratethys seems to be particularly
interesting. Also Neonesidea cf. corpulenta (G.W. Müller,
1894) and Pokornyella cf. devians Bonaduce, Ruggieri et
Russo, 1986 are recorded for the first time from the Middle
Miocene of the Central Paratethys.
The remnants of green algae are assigned to three genera
and three species, of which two species are left in the open
The ostracods indicate that they lived in the pericoastal,
shallow-water and normal marine environment, with bot-
tom vegetation and high energy, but rather unstable
conditions. These resulted in large, most probably
ecophenotypic variability of some species, being charac-
teristic for shallow-water ostracod faunas. These environ-
mental conditions may be confirmed by the associated
algal remnants as well as the coexisting foraminifers
studied by Gonera (subm.).
The analysis of the spatiotemporal distribution of the
studied ostracods allowed us to conclude that they are of
Middle Miocene (Badenian) origin and have common ele-
ments with those known from sediments of this age from
various areas of the Central Paratethys (including the Car-
pathian Foredeep) as well as the Mediterranean region and
the peri-Atlantic areas of southwestern Europe; it means
that in the Middle Miocene there were marine routes en-
abling their migrations. The algae, not helpful in determing
the age, are more restricted regionally than ostracods; their
distribution is rather limited to the Central Paratethys.
The supposed Middle Miocene (Badenian) age of the
studied microfossils, mainly ostracods, from Kamienica
Nawojowska is in agreement with that indicated by the co-
existing foraminifers (Gonera subm.) and brachiopods
(Bitner & Kaim 2004).
The exact age within the Badenian Stage of the studied
microfossils from Kamienica Nawojowska is difficult to
estimate. It might be possible after additional studies on
the evolution of the Middle Miocene faunas in the Central
Paratethys, mostly of its northern areas, and especially
their environmental conditions.
The author is very thankful to Dr.
Malgorzata Gonera (Institute of Nature Conservation of
the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków) as well as Dr.
Andrzej Kaim (Institute of Paleobiology of the Polish
Academy of Sciences, Warszawa) for providing samples
from the Kamienica Nawojowska outcrop; to Dr. Martin
Gross (Landesmuseum Joanneum, Geologie und Paläon-
tologie, Graz) for his kind and useful remarks on the tax-
onomy of ostracods; the SEM photomicrographs were
taken by Dr. Janusz Blaszyk, whereas A. Holda, M. Sc. and
Ms. D. Koscielska (all from the Institute of Paleobiology
of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa) were very
helpful in preparation of figures. The author appreciates
very much the reviewers Dr. Nadia Krstić and Dr. Radovan
Pipík for their helpful remarks concerning the text.
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