GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, AUGUST 2005, 56, 4, 327336
Non-marine evaporites in the Lower Miocene of Upper Silesia
(Carpathian Foreland Basin, Poland)
TADEUSZ MAREK PERYT
, ZBIGNIEW BU£A
, STANIS£AW HA£AS
, BARBARA OLSZEWSKA
and BARBARA S£ODKOWSKA
Polish Geological Institute, Rakowiecka 4, 00-975 Warszawa, Poland; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Polish Geological Institute, Oddzia³ Górnol¹ski, ul. Królowej Jadwigi, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland; email@example.com
Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sk³odowska University, 20-031 Lublin, Poland;
Polish Geological Institute, Oddzia³ Karpacki, Skrzatów 1, 31-560 Kraków, Poland; firstname.lastname@example.org
G³ówny Instytut Górnictwa, pl. Gwarków 1, 40-166 Katowice, Poland; email@example.com
(Manuscript received December 8, 2004; accepted in revised form March 17, 2005)
Abstract: A continual record of Eggenburgian to Late Badenian deposition, mostly in non-marine environments during
the Early Miocene and in marine settings during the Middle Miocene time periods, was studied in the Woszczyce IG1
borehole (Zawada Basin, the Upper Silesia segment of the Carpathian Foreland Basin). In addition to the earlier-de-
scribed Early Miocene foraminiferal assemblages, a Late Ottnangian pollen assemblage, which can be correlated with
the MF4 Zone from Slovakia was found. Anhydrite-bearing deposits occur some 25 m below the Lower Badenian Skawina
Formation. The foraminifers found immediately above the anhydrite-bearing complex and the redeposited foraminifers
recorded in the lowermost part of the complex indicate its Karpatian age. The anhydrite is replacing gypsum, which
originally formed displacive lenticular crystals within claystones and siltstones. The δ
S values of anhydrite (+2.17
to +9.2 , average +4.4 ) are considerably lower and the δ
O values (+18.0 to +22.0 , average +20.1 ) are
considerably higher than the values characteristic for Miocene marine sulphates. On the other hand, the range of δ
values found in the anhydrites of the Woszczyce IG1 borehole is similar to the range recorded in the sulphur from
Carboniferous coals. The sulphate was recycled and evaporite deposits in the Woszczyce IG1 borehole, and thus in the
entire Zawada Basin, formed from recycled solutes. Thus, the anhydrite-bearing sequence originated in a non-marine
environment, in which periodically saline conditions prevailed.
Key words: Karpatian, lacustrine environment, Ottnangian palynomorphs, oxygen isotopes, sulphur isotopes, anhydrite.
The Carpathian Foredeep Basin is a typical peripheral fore-
deep basin filled with synorogenic flysch and molasse sedi-
ments, mainly deltaic and turbiditic siliciclastic deposits of
Miocene age. Evaporites of Early and Middle Miocene age
also occur in it (e.g. Garlicki 1979; Stoica & Gherasie 1981;
Kovalevich & Petrichenko 1997; Fig. 1). In the Polish part of
the Foredeep, evaporites are Badenian in age; the nannoplank-
ton study of sections in Upper Silesia showed that the Bade-
nian gypsum corresponds to the lower part of the NN6 Zone
(Peryt 1997). In the Ukrainian part of the Carpathian Foredeep
the number of evaporite formations and their stratigraphical
position are still under discussion although it seems that in ad-
dition to the Badenian, the most important phases of evaporite
deposition are related to the Karpatian and Eggenburgian
(Wójtowicz et al. 2003).
The evaporites of the Carpathian Foredeep Basin formed at
the transition between marine and continental sedimentation
as a consequence of restriction to the open sea caused by tec-
tonics during the Alpine orogenesis and/or sea-level changes.
Traditionally it was thought that these evaporites are marine in
origin. However, geochemical modelling of the Badenian
evaporites (Cendón et al. 2004) showed that the general hy-
drological evolution of the basin is explained as a restricted
basin with an important continental input and ongoing recy-
In the Upper Silesia segment of the Carpathian Foreland Ba-
sin, in the WE elongated Zawada Basin located between
Rybnik and Owiêcim (Fig. 2), anhydrite-bearing deposits
were recorded approximately 250 m below the Badenian
evaporites and some 25 m below the Lower Badenian Skawi-
na Formation (Jura 2001). The aim of this paper is to present
recent results of stratigraphic and geochemical studies on the
anhydrite-bearing sequence whose origin has remained enig-
matic so far.
The Paleogene time period was traditionally regarded as a
period of intensive inversion and erosion in the western part of
the Carpathian foreland area, with local accumulations of con-
tinental deposits (Picha 1979, 1996; Moryc 1985), until dis-
covery of marine autochthonous deposits at the base of the
Lower Miocene molasses (Oszczypko & Oszczypko-Clowes
2003, with references therein). These findings show that there
existed a broad Eggenburgian foreland basin in the Northern
328 PERYT et al.
Outer Carpathians and the adjacent part of the European Plat-
form, followed by Late Ottnangian folding and the uplift and
overthrust of the Outer Carpathians onto the foreland platform
(Oszczypko 1998; Kováè et al. 1998; Oszczypko & Oszczyp-
ko-Clowes 2003). During the Karpatian, intensive subsidence
and deposition in the inner foredeep took place, and during the
Late KarpatianEarly Badenian, a relatively deep sea flooded
both the foreland plate and the Carpathians (e.g. Adámek et al.
2003), leading to deposition of the marly mudstones of the
In Upper Silesia the Eggenburgian transgression event onto
the southern edge of the European Platform was probably re-
corded in the Woszczyce IG1 borehole (Oszczypko & Osz-
czypko-Clowes 2003), located in the Zawada Basin
(Figs. 2, 3). The Zawada Basin occurs south of the Be³k
Owiêcim regional fault, which plays an important role in the
structure of the Carboniferous deposits of the Upper Silesia
Coal Basin. This fault originated (or was reactivated) due to
Alpine tectonic movements (Kotas 1985; Jureczka & Kotas
Fig. 1. Occurrence of Miocene evaporites in the Carpathian region in time
(A) and space (B); asterisked (in B) is the location of the Zawada Basin.
1995). The central, deepest part of the Zawada Basin is
related to that portion of the Be³k-Owiêcim fault
where the greatest downthrows of Carboniferous de-
posits are recorded, about 500600 m compared to
100200 m east and west of that structure (Fig. 3).
In the entire area of the Upper Silesia Coal Basin, at
the top of the coal-bearing Carboniferous deposits oc-
cur weathered and/or thermally-modified deposits
(termed red beds), which originated due to oxidation
or spontaneous heating of coal (Lipiarski 2001) at the
temperature range between several hundred and
>1000 ºC (Kralik 1984).
The Carboniferous deposits are overlain by the Röt
deposits; they were recorded in the depth interval
706.8719 m in the Woszczyce IG1 borehole (Senko-
wiczowa 1991; Fig. 3). The Röt deposits contain Lower
Miocene foraminiferal fauna (Odrzywolska-Bieñkowa
1986); single specimens of Globorotalia peripheroron-
da Blow et Banner, Globoquadrina langhiana Cita et
Gelati and Globigerinoides trilobus (Reuss) have been
recognized. This indicates the reworking of the Röt de-
posits during transgression which led to their mixing
with Lower Miocene (Ottnangian) microfauna.
The Röt deposits are overlain by marls and red clay-
stones 203.9 m thick (Fig. 4). Jura (1986) distinguished
the following lithological complexes within this interval:
550.4576.0 m: claystones and marly claystones
with fish fragments;
576.0627.5 m: anhydritic claystones with clay-
stone and rare mudstone and tuffite intercalations (lo-
cally dolomitic or bituminous), mostly massive;
627.5675.9 m: mudstones locally dolomitic with
claystone intercalations and fish fragments;
675.9683.8 m: intercalated beds of dolomite and
683.8686.8 m: marls and limestones/dolomites;
686.8705.2 m: brownish (in places green) medi-
um- and fine-grained sandstone with a sandy claystone
intercalation (at the depth of 700.5701.0 m), in places
abundant pyrite, locally horizontal lamination, more
rarely flaser and small-scale cross-stratification; the contact
with the underlying breccia sharp, possibly erosive;
705.2706.8 m: breccia composed of clasts (15 cm
across) of nodular limestone, marly limestone, claystone and
rare quartz grains.
Below the depth of 668.5 m rare specimens of ostracod
Cytherissa sp. (occurring from Paleogene to date in deeper
parts of fresh-water lakes or in shallow lakes and brackish wa-
ter) and oogonia of Chara tenuitecta levis Straub. (known
from the Aquitanian-Burdigalian border in southern Germany)
were found (Odrzywolska-Bieñkowa 1986). An abundant as-
semblage of mostly benthic foraminifers occurs at the depth of
573.5 and 574 m. It was regarded by Odrzywolska-Bieñkowa
(1986) as similar to the Karpatian assemblages of the Czech
Republic, although the presence of planktonic species Praeor-
bulina glomerosa Blow in the assemblages advocates rather
an early Badenian age (Cicha et al. 1998, 2003).
The above-characterized interval is covered by the Lower
Badenian Skawina Formation (346.5550.4 m) overlain by
NON-MARINE EVAPORITES IN THE LOWER MIOCENE OF SILESIA (POLAND) 329
Fig. 2. A Occurrence of Miocene deposits in Upper Silesia (after Kubica 1998). B Map of the top of the Carboniferous deposits (af-
ter Bu³a & Kotas 1994) showing the location of the Zawada I and Woszczyce IG1 boreholes.
Fig. 3. Geological cross-section through the Zawada Basin showing the distribution of Lower Miocene deposits (in grey). Q Quaternary,
T Röt, WF Wieliczka Formation. 14 Carboniferous (1: Namurian BC Upper Silesian Sandstone Series, 2: Westphalian B
Siltstone Series Za³ê¿e Beds, 3: Westphalian B Siltstone Series Orzesze Beds, 4: Westphalian BD Cracow Sandstone Series).
330 PERYT et al.
Fig. 4. Sedimentary log of the interval contained between the Low-
er Badenian Skawina Formation and the Carboniferous in the
Woszczyce IG1 borehole.
the Wieliczka Formation (245.0346.5 m) (Garlicki 1994; Ale-
xandrowicz 1997). The top 58.0 m of the Woszczyce IG1
borehole section are Quaternary deposits.
For the purpose of this study fifty-four samples for micropa-
leontological study were collected by Z. Bu³a from the inter-
val of 584.0699.0 m. Foraminiferal investigations (done by
B. Olszewska) applied to whole the interval studied while
studies of calcareous nannoplankton (by M. Garecka) and pa-
lynological studies (by B. S³odkowska) were carried out only
on selected samples (twenty and eight samples, respectively).
Preparation of samples for foraminiferal investigations includ-
ed washing and drying disintegrated samples, picking up mi-
crofossils and designating their nature, quantity and age. Sam-
ples for study of calcareous nannoplankton were prepared
according to standard techniques. Samples chosen for palyno-
logical studies were macerated, and the treatment involved
crumbling of rocks and collecting ca. 5 g of sediment from in-
side each sample. Carbonates were removed using 10% HCl.
The material was subsequently boiled in 7% KOH in order to
eliminate humic compounds. The mineral fraction was isolat-
ed from organic matter by means of dense-media separation
and with a use of cadmium iodide and potassium iodide of
density 2.21 g/cm
. Organic matter was macerated using the
acetolysis method. 20×20 mm glycerine preparations for mi-
croscopic studies were made out of the obtained macerate. The
preparations were analysed using the Leica ARISTOPLAN
biological microscope at magnification of 400× and 1000×.
The strontium content of nine core samples (collected by
T.M. Peryt) was measured using an XRF spectrometer (Philips
PW 2400). 6 g of sample and 1.5 g of wax were pressed into a
powder pellet (40 mm in diameter). Total uncertainty of analy-
sis is about 5 %.
Seven samples of sulphate rocks were selected by I. Pluta
and T.M. Peryt for sulphur and oxygen stable isotope analysis
at the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Maria Curie-Sklodows-
ka University, Lublin; the analyses were done by S. Ha³as.
The isotopic compositions, δ
S and δ
O, were analysed by a
dual inlet and triple collector mass spectrometer on SO
gases, respectively. The SO
was extracted by the method
developed in the Lublin laboratory (Halas & Szaran 2001),
was prepared by the method described by Mi-
zutani (1971). Typically 8 to 12 mg of BaSO
was used in
each preparation. The reproducibility of the two delta analyses
(2 standard deviations) was about 0.16 .
Results and interpretation
The anhydrite is the commonest sulphate mineral occurring
as an admixture in dolomitic claystones and siltstones. The
commonest clay minerals are illite and illite/smectite. The
content of clay minerals in the anhydrite-bearing rocks ranges
from 10 % to 60 %, and the dolomite content is 327 %. The
anhydrite content is 2055 %. Only rarely does the anhydrite
content exceed 50 % of rock volume and the most common
NON-MARINE EVAPORITES IN THE LOWER MIOCENE OF SILESIA (POLAND) 331
mode of occurrence of the anhydrite is millimetric (rarely up
to 4 cm) crystals arranged parallel to the bedding (Fig. 5). The
anhydrite is replacing gypsum, which formed displacive len-
ticular crystals within the claystones (Fig. 5). Thus the gyp-
sum grew below the groundwater table, mostly within clayey
deposits, as is common in recent sabkhas of Abu Dhabi (e.g.
Shearman 1963) and in many recent and ancient continental
basins (e.g. Truc 1979; Handford 1982; Türkmen & Özkul
1999). In some cases the anhydrite replacements of displacive
lenticular gypsum crystals form almost continuous laminae re-
sembling the pavement of post-sedimentary gypsum described
from a recent paralic salt basin of Tunisia (Perthuisot 1975).
The gypsum was replaced by the anhydrite during burial and
secondary gypsum occurs locally.
The most frequent fossils are fragments of fish and sponge
spicules. Carbonized remnants of land (?) plants are also fre-
quent. Occasionally, in variable quantities, pseudomorphs of
echinoderm spines were recorded. Foraminifera were ob-
served sporadically (Fig. 4). The richest assemblage was
found at the depth of 620.9 m in beige mudstones. The recog-
nized species: Textularia gramen dOrbigny, Textulariella sp.,
Siphonaperta sp., Ammonia beccarii (Linne) had tests covered
with fine sand particles suggesting redeposition. The lack of
diagnostic species precluded a precise age designation, how-
ever the occurrence of the assemblage occurring between the
distinct early Early Miocene and Badenian faunas may imply
its late Early Miocene age. The mode of preservation of en-
countered specimens suggests their redeposition. In the sam-
ple from the depth of 624.7 m few, poorly preserved speci-
mens of large Ammonia beccarii (Linne) have been found. In
other cases (depth 628.0 and 642.3 isolated specimens of
Rhabdammina cf. exilis Mjatliuk have been found, accompa-
nied by few diatom frustules. Sponge spicules, fish remnants
and carbonized plant fragments were more abundant in the
studied material suggesting rather shallow sedimentary set-
tings and possibly high river run-off. No calcareous nanno-
plankton was found.
After using standard laboratory preparation methods, the
palynological matter with numerous palynomorphs (sporo-
morphs) and palynoclasts (phytoclasts) has been isolated.
Their frequency was diverse: in some samples it was low and
in others it was satisfactory. The state of preservation of the
sporomorphs was poor. The surface of the specimens was of-
ten effaced, worn out with the traces of inconvenient external
factors. The determination of the sporomorphs was based on
the morphological system; using the natural systematic of
plants as far as it was possible. Among the phytoclasts, black
and brown wood debris are very common. The occurrence of
the sporomorphs (68 taxa and 3 taxonomically undefined cate-
gories) is shown in Table 1.
Two pollen assemblages were distinguished: the lower one
at the depth of 681.2687.2 m and the upper one at the depth
of 620.9658.2 m; the sample from the depth of 658.2 m is
transitional between the two assemblages (Table 2).
The lower assemblage contains rich and very well preserved
sporomorphs. An important role in this assemblage is played
by gymnosperm pollen with dominant Pinuspollenites and
Sciadopityspollenites, Inaperturopollenites hiatus, Sequoia-
pollenites. A significant share consists of very poorly pre-
served pollen from the Pinaceae family, making unreasonable
more precise taxonomical identification. The angiosperm pol-
len assemblage contains many species and has quantification
differential in the domination of individual taxa. In the lower
part of this interval a significant role is played by Caryapolle-
nites, Pterocaryapollenites, Intratriporopollenites instructus,
Ericipites ericius, while in its upper part Intratriporopolleni-
tes instructus, Castaneoideaepollis pusillus, C. oviformis, Tri-
colporopollenites pseudocingulum, Quercoidites, Engelhard-
tioipollenites punctatus, Ericipites ericius, E. callidus,
Caryapollenites, Pterocaryapollenites, Liquidambarpollenites
and others form a greater share. No marine phytoplankton or
other palynological indicators of marine facies were recorded.
The differences in the pollen spectra composition are connect-
ed with the variability of the plant communities: the middle
part of the interval records a domination of the riparian forest
community and the lower and upper parts correspond to mixed
forest communities. The phytogenic material was accumulated
in freshwater and low hydrodynamic conditions as indicated
by a considerable quantity of phytoclasts. The plant vegetation
adjacent to the sedimentary basin indicates a warm and humid
A different pollen assemblage at the depth of 620.9
658.2 m is characterized by a poor state of preservation of
sporomorphs, with the effaced pollen grain surface due to un-
favourable physical and chemical conditions during the depo-
sition and diagenesis. Spores with many pre-Paleogene spe-
cies are frequent elements of the assemblage. Only pre-Paleo-
gene species and worn-out grains of the Pinaceae family occur
among gymnosperm pollen grains. Another evidence of rede-
position is the presence of the Upper CretaceousLower Pa-
leogene Normapolles pollen grains the extinct group of an-
giosperm plants. The typical Paleogene and Neogene an-
giosperm taxa include Ericipites ericius, Quercoidites, Ulmi-
pollenites, Betulaepollenites, Myricipites microcoryphaeus,
Quercoidites microhenrici, Q. henrici, Platycaryapollenites,
Tetracolporopollenites, Engelhardtioipollenites punctataus,
Tricolporopollenites pseudocingulum, Castaneoideaepollis
pusillus and C. oviformis. There is no record of marine influ-
ence within this palynomorph assemblage. Abundant phyto-
clasts in the form of black, non-transparent, wood debris indi-
cate periodical emergence and oxidation of palynological mat-
ter. Plants growing around the basin shores represented mixed
mesophilous forest. Slight quantitative differences in the share
of individual taxa suggest the temperature oscillation and the
Fig. 5. Anhydrite replacing displacive lenticular crystals of gyp-
sum within claystone (coin diameter is 15 mm).
332 PERYT et al.
Table 1: Sporomorphs in the Woszczyce IG1 borehole.
NON-MARINE EVAPORITES IN THE LOWER MIOCENE OF SILESIA (POLAND) 333
domination of less or more thermophilous plant vegetation.
The stratigraphic position of this interval based on the palyno-
logical study is enigmatic.
The strontium content in the bulk rock samples is 0.04
0.47 % (Table 3). Although it is within the range characteristic
for ancient anhydrites (Dean 1978), quite substantial differ-
ences between the particular samples are probably related to a
varied degree of supersaturation of the interstitial brines (see
Rosell et al. 1998 for discussion).
S values of the studied samples are +2.17 to
+9.2 (average +4.4 ) and the δ
O values are from
+18.0 to +22.0 (average +20.1 ) (Table 3). The δ
values are considerably lower and the δ
O values are consid-
erably higher compared to the values characteristic for the Mi-
ocene marine sulphates (Fig. 6). The δ
S values are also con-
siderably lower than those displayed by the Röt sulphates
(27.1 32.0 ; Kovalevych et al. 2002) and therefore the
studied anhydrites cannot be interpreted as the result of the re-
cycling of the Röt sulphates in non-marine settings. On the
other hand, the range of δ
S values found in the anhydrites of
Woszczyce IG1 borehole is within the range recorded in the
Carboniferous coals occurring in the mines of the southern
part of the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (from +3.5 to +9.1
Pluta 2002). Accordingly, it is interpreted that sulphate
ions originated in a near-surface zone due to the oxidation of
sulphides occurring in the Carboniferous coals and then were
transported by meteoric water to the basin centre (Pluta &
Halas 2005) where the sulphate-bearing deposits accumulated
in non-marine settings. It should be noted that the δ
show a clear upward-decrease trend (with one exception); the
reason may be the reservoir effect.
S values of anhydrites are accompanied by high
O values. In the non-marine gypsum of the Tertiary Ebro
Basin, a similar differentiation was attributed by Utrilla et al.
(1992) to bacterial sulphate reduction in the sedimentary envi-
ronment. However, in order to explain such unusual ranges of
S and δ
O values recorded in Ebro Basin, these authors
invoke somewhat specific conditions (the dual layer system),
because normally during the sulphate reduction the remaining
solution is enriched both in
O (Mizutani & Rafter
1973). On the other hand the high δ
O and low δ
recorded in the Zawada Basin anhydrite are consistent with
those observed in sulphate ions of recent summer rains in Po-
land (Trembaczowski & Halas 1991) and in the sulphates ex-
tracted from dry ashes collected from industrial sites (Pluta
2000). The atmospheric and dry-ash sulphate ions have the
same origin: they are formed from SO
being a by-product of
fuel burning, and the main reason for the high δ
O values is
high temperature burning of the pyrite-bearing coals. During
that process the oxygen isotope were exchanged between the
water and SO
in a hot cloud. In anhydrites of the Zawada Ba-
sin, the original ranges of isotope ratios are likely to have been
somewhat altered by other geochemical processes such as the
The dry-ash sulphate originated due to the industrial coal
burning has, however, somewhat higher δ
O (from +22.8
Significant components of palynological matter
frequency low, two types of sporomorphs preservation, spores pre-Paleogene, gymnosperms:
Pinaceae pre-Paleogene, angiosperms: Normapolles, Ericipites ericius, Quercoidites,
Ulmipollenites, phytoclasts: mass black wood debris
frequency satisfactory, poor preservation of sporomorphs, spores pre-Paleogene, gymnosperms:
Pinaceae pre-Paleogene, Araucariapollenites, angiosperms common: Normapolles, Myricipites
microcoryphaeus, Quercoidites microhenrici, Q. henrici, Tricolporopollenites pseudocingulum,
phytoclasts: common black wood debris
frequency satisfactory, poor preservation of sporomorphs, spores pre-Paleogene and old
Paleogene, gymnosperms: Pinaceae worn-out, angiosperms: Engelhardtioipollenites punctatus,
Tetracolporopollenites, Tricolporopollenites pseudocingulum, Platycaryapollenites,
Quercoidites, phytoclasts: common black wood debris
frequency very low, poor preservation of sporomorphs, spores pre-Paleogene and old
Paleogene, gymnosperms: Pinaceae worn-out, angiosperms: Engelhardtioipollenites punctatus,
Tetracolporopollenites, Ulmipollenites, Betulaepollenites, phytoclasts: common black wood
frequency high, poor preservation of sporomorphs, spores indeterminate, gymnosperms:
Pinaceae worn-out, angiosperms abundant: Castaneoideaepollis pusillus, C. oviformis,
Engelhardtioipollenites punctatus, Quercoidites microhenrici, Tricolporopollenites
pseudocingulum, Tetracolporopollenites, phytoclasts: abundant black wood debris
frequency and state of preservation sporomorphs satisfactory, spores indeterminate,
gymnosperms: Pinuspollenites, Pinaceae worn-out, angiosperms: Ericipites ericius,
Pterocaryapollenites, Caryapollenites, phytoclasts: abundant black and brown wood debris
frequency and state of preservation sporomorphs satisfactory, spores indeterminate,
gymnosperms: Pinuspollenites, Pinaceae worn-out, angiosperms abundant:
Intratriporopollenites instructus, Castaneoideaepollis pusillus, C. oviformis,
Engelhardtioipollenites punctatus, Quercoidites, Tricolporopollenites pseudocingulum,
phytoclasts: abundant black wood debris
frequency very low, poor preservation of sporomorphs, gymnosperms: Pinuspollenites,
angiosperms rare: Castaneoideaepollis pusillus, Engelhardtioipollenites punctatus,
Pterocaryapollenites, rare phytoclasts
Table 2: Characteristics of palynological spectra.
334 PERYT et al.
to +27.9 Pluta 2000) than the summer rainwater sul-
phate and the anhydrites of the Zawada Basin, because the sul-
phates formed in high chimneys underwent more favourable
conditions for their enrichment in
O due to the oxygen iso-
tope exchange with water vapour.
Altogether the results indicate that the anhydrite-bearing se-
quence originated in a non-marine environment.
Discussion and conclusions
In the Zawada Basin, the Röt deposits are overlain by marls
and red claystones. In the Zawada I borehole; in the upper part
of this complex, 31 m below its top, one specimen of mollusc
(Pecten n. sp. cf. P. semicingulatus) was found and the Oli-
gocene age of the complex was accepted on this basis (Micha-
el 1913). However, our data contradict such an assumption.
The Zawada Basin represents a continual record of Eggen-
burgian to Late Badenian deposition, mostly in non-marine
environments during the Early Miocene and in marine settings
during the Middle Miocene time period. The marine influence
is recorded due to the presence of marine foraminiferal assem-
blages at the base of the Miocene sequence in the Woszczyce
IG1 borehole (i.e. near the Egerian/Eggenburgian boundary
cf. Oszczypko & Oszczypko-Clowes 2003), below, within and
above the anhydrite-bearing deposits (which probably repre-
sent the Karpatian) and in the Badenian formations (Odrzy-
wolska-Bieñkowa 1986). The timing of those marine inflows
fits the general evolution of the Carpathian Foreland Basin
(Kováè et al. 2003; Oszczypko & Oszczypko-Clowes 2003).
Palynological study showed that the lower part of the inter-
val contained between the Lower Badenian and Eggenburgian
deposits contains the pollen assemblage, which can be corre-
lated with the Late Ottnangian MF4 Zone from Slovakia
(Planderová 1990) where a significant participation of the
Arctotertiary element was noticed, especially in the riparian
forest community (Doláková & Slamková 2003). In the same
interval Odrzywolska-Bieñkowa (1986) found oogonia of
Chara tenuitecta levis Straub. They are known from the
Aquitanian-Burdigalian border in southern Germany and thus
either the oogonia are reworked or they appeared in the
Woszczyce IG1 borehole later than in southern Germany.
Most of the pre-Badenian deposits in the Zawada Basin
originated in periodically emerged non-marine settings. This
refers to the anhydrite-bearing sequence. Evaporites need a
climate aridization to be formed, and the occurrence of Karpa-
tian evaporites in the Ukrainian part (Korenevskiy et al. 1977)
and the Romanian part (Stoica & Gherasie 1981) of the Car-
pathian Foredeep Basin as well as in the East Slovak Basin
(Kováè et al. 1994) indicates a regional climate aridization
during the Karpatian time period.
The anhydrite-bearing deposits in the Woszczyce IG1 bore-
hole are related to lacustrine deposits, in which periodical sa-
line conditions prevailed. The resulting brines were rich in
sulphate ions formed, as indicated by the sulphate isotopic
O) of anhydrite, in near-surface condi-
tions during oxidation of sulphides or spontaneous heating of
coal-bearing deposits and then the sulphate recycling from the
more peripheral parts of the Zawada Basin (cf. Fig. 3). Ac-
cordingly, evaporite deposits in the Woszczyce IG1 borehole,
and thus in the entire Zawada Basin, formed from recycled
solutes. Taberner et al. (2000) concluded that evaporite units
could be entirely formed from solutes recycled from previous
units. The case of Karpatian evaporites in the Woszczyce IG1
borehole fits this general conclusion although the provenance
of sulphate ions is more complex than a simple dissolution of
Acknowledgments: The study resulted from the Pañstwowy
Instytut Geologiczny Grant No. 6.65.0001.00.0. I. Iwasiñska-
Budzyk did the XRD analyses and M. Garecka examined the
samples for calcareous nannoplankton occurrence. The journal
SCDT () ä
Table 3: Strontium content and isotopic composition of sulphates
from the Woszczyce IG1 borehole.
Fig. 6. Isotopic plot (box showing the range of values for Miocene
gypsum deposited from normal marine brines after Paytan et al.
1998; Badenian sulphate data after Peryt et al. 2002; fly-ashes of
Carboniferous coal burning after Pluta & Ha³as 2005).
NON-MARINE EVAPORITES IN THE LOWER MIOCENE OF SILESIA (POLAND) 335
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