GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, JUNE 2005, 56, 3, 273284
Magnetostratigraphy of Badenian evaporite deposits
(East Slovak Basin)
, DIONÝZ VASS
, STANISLAV KAROLI
, JURAJ JANOÈKO
, EVA HALÁSOVÁ
and BORIS BELÁÈEK
Geophysical Institute SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 28 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; email@example.com
Technical University, Department of Natural Environment Masarykova 24, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovak Republic
Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, branch Koice, Jesenského 9, 040 01 Koice, Slovak Republic
Technical University, Department of Geology and Mineralogy, Park Komenského 15, 043 84 Koice, Slovak Republic
Department of Geology and Paleontology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava,
Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Geological Institute SAS, branch Banská Bystrica, Severná 5, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovak Republic
(Manuscript received February 5, 2004; accepted in revised form September 29, 2004)
Abstract: The Zbudza Formation of the East Slovak Basin is a consequence of major salinity crisis in Central Paratethys
(Central Europe) in the Badenian age. The magnetostratigraphic investigation results of the P-3 borehole (NW of village
Zbudza, Michalovce district, East Slovakia) were used to correlate the Zbudza Formation with magnetic time-scale
(Berggren et al. 1995). From the most probable variant of correlation follows that the Zbudza Formation is coeval with
Chrons C5ADr p.p., C5ADn, C5ACr, C5ACn, C5ABr, C5ABn and its numerical age is = 14.713.3 Ma (1.4 m.yr.). This
time interval corresponds to planktonic biozone Globorotalia peripheroacuta Lineage Zone, lower and middle part and
to calcareous nannoplanktonic Zone NN5 upper part and NN6 lower part. Thick delta and prodelta formations (ca.
2000 m) covering the Zbudza Formation originated in a relatively short time 13.313.0 Ma (0.3 m.yr.) during the upper-
Key words: Badenian, Central Paratethys, Western Carpathians, magnetostratigraphy, evaporites.
In geology and related scientific branches the opinion prevails
that the formation periods of the economic accumulations and/
or thick bodies of evaporites are specific synergic activity pe-
riods of climatic and paleogeographic factors extremely
favourable for evaporization. The evaporites are considered to
be an excellent time correlation marker. For example, this ap-
plies to the Messinian evaporites of the Mediterranean. Like-
wise, the salt of the Central Paratethys Middle Miocene have
been considered contemporaneous Middle Badenian and
the name of Middle Badenian substage Wieliczkian comes
from a famous salt mine Wieliczka in the Western Car-
pathian Foredeep in Poland. Of course the Middle Miocene
was not a unique period of evaporite formation in the Central
Paratethys. At least two salinity crises occurred during the
Early Miocene. One of them during late Eggenburgianearly
Ottnangian (evaporites of the Vorotyshcha Formation of
Borislav-Pokuty Zone; Andreyeva-Grigorovich et al. 1997,
and their equivalents in the Eastern Carpathians of Romania;
Micu 1982). The second crisis was during the Karpatian
(So¾ná Baòa Formation in the East Slovak Basin, Buday in
Matìjka (Ed.) 1964; Vass & Èverèko 1985). Older evaporites
originated at the end of Paleogene and at the early begining of
Miocene in the Central Western Carpathians (Krupina Forma-
tion; Marková et al. 1972; Vass 1995).
The Badenian evaporites have the largest areal extent
among other evaporitic formations of the Central Paratethys.
Their area of extension begins at Opava and Kobìrice towns
in the Upper Silesia and it continues in the foredeep of the
Western, Eastern and Southern Carpathians. Evaporites also
extend southward of the Outer Flysch Carpathians in the
Transcarpathian Basin (East Slovak Basin and its continua-
tion in the Ukrainian ZakarpatieSolotvino Basin) and in the
Transylvanian Basin (compare Steininger et al. in Papp et al.
1978, Fig. 10).
In recent years the Middle Badenian age of the important
salinity crisis of the Paratethys has begun to be doubted
(Gazdzicka 1994; Peryt 1997; Oszczypko 1998; Andreye-
va-Grigorovich et al. 2003a, a.v.) and/or the doubts about
the synchronicity of the Middle Miocene evaporites have
The Middle Miocene evaporite Zbudza Formation (Vass &
Èverèko 1985; in older papers informally described as 2
Salt Formation, Gypsum Horizon, Albinov Salt Sequence
Janáèek 1959; Slávik 1967) of the East Slovak Basin was the
object of investigation. By finding the paleomagnetic polari-
ty of the sampled rocks we tried to correlate the Zbudza For-
mation with the magnetostratigraphic scale and by cross cor-
relation with the marine biostratigraphic scales to obtain a
more precise chronostratigraphic and numerical age for the
274 TÚNYI et al.
Geological characteristics of the Zbudza Formation
The Zbudza Formation is composed of salt clays and
evaporites represented dominantly by halite, in lesser extent
by anhydrite and gypsum, and/or by salt breccias and anhy-
dritic sandstones. The formation does not outcrop anywhere,
but it was penetrated by numerous boreholes for the oil explo-
According to the boreholes the Zbudza Formation lies on
the siliciclastic Vranov Formation formed by marine grey cal-
careous siltstone and sandstone with layers of acid tuff. The
Vranov Formation originated on the shelf of the sea with nor-
The overlying formations of the Zbudza Formation are the
Lastomír and Klèovo Formations. Both formations represent
a delta complex. The Klèovo Formation is a delta fan and the
Fig. 1. Situation sketch of the borehole P-3 and seismic reflection profiles (700/92, XI-160).
Lastomír Formation is a prodelta body. The thickness of the
Zbudza Formation reaches approximately 300 m and the for-
mation is spread in the northeastern and central part of the
East Slovak Basin. Towards the east in the Zakarpatie (Tran-
scarpathia, West Ukraine) the equivalent of the Zbudza For-
mation is the upper part of the Tereblya Formation (Vialov in
Muratov & Nevesskaya 1986; Andreyeva-Grigorovich et al.
In the borehole P-3, situated NNW of the village Zbudza,
close to the Laborec river (Fig. 1) the Zbudza Formation
thickness is about 100 m (506.1610.70 m, Fig. 2). The P-3
well core interval 380.0627.1 m was paleomagnetically mea-
sured including the whole Zbudza Formation. The lower por-
tion of the formation is characterized by fine-bedded siltstone
and sandstone with crystalline aggregates, and/or nodules of
the anhydrite, its amount increases from the bottom to the top.
MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY OF BADENIAN EVAPORITE DEPOSITS 275
Fig. 2. Geological profile of the borehole P-3 (Zbudza) with the pa-
leomagnetic polarity measured. 1 siltstone/claystone, 2 sand/
sandstone, 3 conglomerate, 4 halite, 5 salt breccia, 6
halite fragments, 7 anhydrite crystalic aggregates and nod-
ules, 8 secondary fibrous halite, 9 coal, coalified wood,
10 lamines and thin layers of anhydrite, 11 parallel lamina-
tion, 12 fine bedding, 13 massive structure, 14 sampling.
Black normal polarity; white reversal polarity.
276 TÚNYI et al.
To the top of the basal portion the siltstone and sandstone rep-
resent only the matrix of anhydrite agregates or nodules. Up-
ward the grey sandstone with pelitic intercalations and frag-
ments of coalified wood follows. The sandstone is
fine-grained, laminated to fine-bedded, locally massive with
the clasts of fine-crystalline anhydrite (mean size of clasts is
0.52 cm) and with anhydrite veins filling the fissures (2
3 mm thick). The following layer as much as 20 m thick is
composed by white-grey, and/or white coarse-grained halite
with variable admixture of grey claystone and siltstone repre-
senting the matrix of the halite body, and/or thin layers or lam-
inas 1 to 30 mm thick. In the halite body there are grains (2
10 mm) and nodules (up to 5 cm) of white-grey anhydrite. In
the whole halite body there are inclusions and veins of sec-
ondary fibrous halite. The process of halite evaporation and
deposition was not continuous, the deposition was interrupted
many times, as is documented by the erosional surfaces within
the halite body, by the presence of halitorudite layers, the lay-
ers of primary halite are locally dissolved (Figs. 3 and 4). The
Fig. 3. Borehole P-3 corn from the depth 525.1 m. In the lower part
there is salt breccia. Above is a 0.3 cm thick layer of siltstone with
anhydrite, indicating a break in deposition and/or a break in evapo-
ration as the consequence of a salinity drop in the salt pan. Above
there is a layer of primary salt composed of fine crystals resulting
from a salinity increase and the rejuvenation of the primary precipi-
tation from the salt brine. The salt layer 4.5 cm thick is covered by
the redeposited salt breccia, probably a part of a slump body. The
sliding was triggered by tectonic movements. The marginal parts of
salt pan raised, the primary salt was destroyed and redeposited by
sliding towards the salt pan centre. The sedimentary structures
shown on the photo clearly indicate the discontinuous halite precipi-
tation with the periods without precipitation.
Fig. 4. The laminated halite (alternation of dark halite laminae with
white laminae). The lamination is interrupted by fine- to medium
grained salt breccia. The lower breccia consists small nodules of an-
hydrite. The breccia layers indicate the interruption of evaporation
as a consequence of tectonic disturbance.
following set of layers is 17 m thick. It is build up by fine si-
liciclastics, mostly by siltstone with veins of secondary fi-
The next bank of medium grained crystaline halite is 5 m
thick. In the halite there are fragments und laminas of clay-
stone and silstone. The halite is covered by more than 20 m of
a composite layer of grey siltstone with nodules of anhydrite,
clasts of halite, and layers of salt breccia. In the basal part of
the layer there is a 2 m thick bank of crystalline salt with frag-
ments of coalified wood.
A bench of breccia 5 m thick is composed of fragments of
halite, claystone and siltstone.
The Zbudza Formation is topped by massive or laminated
grey siltstone with the laminae, thin beds and nodules of anhy-
The siltstones of Zbudza Formation contain well expressed
traces of halite dissolution and less frequent milky and dim
hopper crystals of halite, then there are layers of haliterudite
with nests of vibrous secondary halite. The rudites testify to
the redeposition of the primary halite beds and/or an intrafor-
Position of Zbudza Formation in the stratigraphic
The chronostratigraphic Middle Miocene Stage Badenian of
the Central Paratethys (before the 1970s described as Torto-
MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY OF BADENIAN EVAPORITE DEPOSITS 277
nian) was subdivided by Grill (1943) on the basis of differenc-
es in foraminiferal assemblages into biozones (from base to
top): Lagenide Biozone (Early Badenian), biozone of aggluti-
nance or Spiropolectamina Zone (Middle Badenian), biozone
with BolivinaBulimina and biozone of Rotalia (Late Bade-
The Zbudza Formation was correlated with the lower part of
the Bolivina and Bulimina Biozone (Janáèek 1960; Buday et
al. in Matìjka (Ed.) 1964). Gapariková (1963) studied the
foraminiferal assemblage directly in the Zbudza salt deposit.
Beneath and above the salt body Gapariková (l.c.) described
a foraminiferal assemblage containing the species Globigerina
aff. bulloides, Globorotalia ex gr. scitula, Globigerinoides tri-
lobus, Uvigerina aff. acuelata and Bulimina sp., and in the
frame of the BolivinaBulimina Biozone she defined
a subzone of Globigerina and Globorotalia. According to
Gaparikovas opinion the Zbudza salt deposit main compo-
nent of later defined Zbudza Formation is inside of the Bolivi-
On the basis of lateral and superpositional relationship of
the sedimentary sequences in the East Slovak Basin Èverèko
& Ïurica (1967) considered the sequence of the Zbudza For-
mation as part of the Spiroplectamina Biozone. Vass & Èverè-
ko (1985) in the definition of the Zbudza Formation accepted
the same opinion. Sene (1989) in accordance with the conclu-
sions of the IGCP Project 25 concerning the age of Badenian
salinity crisis in the Central Paratethys, put the Badenian
evaporites into the upper part of the Spiroplectamina Biozone.
Later, in the 1990s, the efforts to make younger the age of the
Badenian salinity crisis appeared. The reasons for such efforts
were the new biostratigraphic data based on the calcareous
nannoplankton coming from the Polish/Ukrainian Carpathian
Foredeep (Gazdzicka 1994; Peryt 1997; Oszczypko
1997, 1998; Andreyeva-Grigorovich et al. 2003a,b).
The biostratigraphic age of the Zbudza Formation penetrat-
ed by the borehole P-3 has been revised by the new studies of
calcareous nannoplankton and foraminifers (Halásová & Zlín-
ská in this paper).
The nannoplankton associations studied are crowded by the
Paleogene redeposited forms (up to 99 %). Sphenolithus het-
eromorphus Deflandre a typical species of NN5 Zone has
been found among the biostratigraphically significant Middle
Miocene taxa in the samples coming from the base of the
Zbudza Formation (depth interval 608.70594.20 m). The
samples from the middle and upper part of the formation were
found to be sterile.
In the Lastomír Formation laying directly on the Zbudza
Formation in the depth interval of 494.0477.90 m beside the
isolated occurrence of Sphenolithus heteromorphus, species
such as Helicosphaera carteri var. wallichii (Lohman) The-
odoridis, H. walbersdorfensis Müller, Sphenolithus abies De-
flandre and Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilica (Gartner) Gart-
ner appear (the size of last species is larger as 7 ηm).
From the above mentioned it follows that the lower part of
Zbudza Formation corresponds to the upper part of NN5 Zone
(occurrence of the index taxa Sphenolithus heteromorphus).
Similarly the lower part of the salt-bearing formation in the
salt mine of Wieliczka is correlated with the upper part of the
Zone NN5 (Andreyeva-Grigorovich et al. 2003b). The Las-
tomír Formation and/or its lower part in the borehole P-3 is
most probably the equivalent of NN6 Zone because the above
mentioned species such as Helicosphaera carteri var. valli-
chii, H. walbersdorfensis, Sphenolithus abies and Reticu-
lofenestra pseudoumbilica occur in the upper part of the NN5
Zone (NN5c, Andreeva-Grigorovich et al. 2001) but they oc-
cur also in NN6 Zone, where they are not accompanied by the
Sphenolithus heteromorphus. Sphenolithus heteromorphus
occurs very sporadically (one exemplar in a sample) in the
Lastomír Formation and may be considered to be redeposited.
Besides the common Miocene species the foraminiferal as-
semblages from the Lastomír Formation (depth interval in the
borehole P-3: 504.40384.50 m) include the typical Badenian
forms such as Globoquadrina altispira (Cushman et Jarvis),
Uvigerina aculeata Orb., Globigerinoides quadrilobatus
(Orb.), Globoturborotalia druryi (Akers), Orbulina suturalis
Broenn. The Late Badenian species Pappina neudorfensis
(Toula) has been found approximately in the middle of the
Lastomír Formation at a depth of 437 m. The Late Badenian
ostracods Phlyctenophora farkasi (Zalányi) and Cytheridea
arcuata Jiøíèek occur beside it in the Lastomír Formation.
Pappina neudorfensis was also found in the lower part of
the Zbudza Formation (depth 601.7 m). The Vranov Forma-
tion (depth 624.3 m) contains Globigerinopsis grilli (Schmid)
and uvigerinas as U. venusta Franzenau, U. semiornata adol-
phina Daniels et Cicha, species of the Middle Badenian.
The 183 specimens from 47 block samples from the core of
borehole P-3 were studied. Each specimen was subjected to
thermal magnetic cleaning. Paleomagnetic measurements
were carried out in the Paleomagnetic Laboratory of the Geo-
physical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Brat-
islava. The demagnetization step of 50
from the natural stage
up to 650
C was used. The remanent magnetization as well as
volume magnetic susceptibility were measured after each de-
magnetization step. Thermal cleaning was performed by the
Magnetic Vacuum Control System, magnetization was mea-
sured on the spinner magnetometer JR-5 and volume magnetic
susceptibility on Kappabridge KLY-3 (all instruments come
from the AGICO Comp. of Brno). The demagnetization
graphs, so-called Zijderveld diagrams of the XY and XZ com-
ponents and stereographic projection of the remanent magneti-
zation, were analysed. Each block sample represented a spe-
cific depth of the borehole. From 2 to 6 specimens were
prepared from it. It means that characteristic polarization for
magnetostratigraphy was stated from 26 specimens. Because
the borehole core was not horizontaly oriented, we could point
only polarity of Z-component of magnetization without the
spatial orientation of specimens.
The characteristic polarity of measured sample was chosen
according to demagnetization graphs. Two ways were used for
analysis of paleomagnetic data. In the first we considered the
vectors of remanent magnetization. In the second we took vec-
tor differences between the steps of demagnetization, which
means the change of direction of magnetization during heating
from temperature T
to temperature T
. The division of
278 TÚNYI et al.
thermal steps into three intervals, 20200 °C, 200400 °C
400650 °C, was performed and used in both analyses. The
characteristic parameters were chosen from the results of six
items (2 ways, 3 thermal intervals).
Figure 5 presents the results of thermal demagnetization, in-
cluding the graphs of the change of magnetic susceptibility of
samples with the temperature. The results show a substantial
growth of magnetic susceptibility beyond 350 °C during heat-
ing of the samples (Fig. 5 samples 2b, 21b). This effect corre-
sponds to an alternation of the Fe-sulphide in favour of the Fe-
oxide magnetite. Very low values of bulk magnetic
susceptibility (15 to 514×10
SI units), low values of inten-
sity of remanent magnetization of samples (0.015 to 49 nT)
and the above mentioned effects of the change of magnetic
susceptibility with the temperature have shown that the domi-
nant magnetism carriers in sandstones, siltstones/claystones
under study are the Fe-sulphides.
Interpretation of the magnetostratigraphic
The magnetostratigraphic investigation of samples coming
from the borehole P-3 at the village of Zbudza point out that
Fig. 5. Graphs of thermal demagnetization of the samples from borehole P-3 (2b sandstone, 21d siltstone/claystone). Top stere-
oprojections of directions of remanent magnetizations (N north) after each demagnetization step; the biggest point means the beginning
of demagnetization. Full points downward, empty points upward direction of remanent magnetization. Bottom thermal behaviour of
magnetization (curve J; J=J
, where J
is magnetiztion at laboratory temperature (ca. 20 °C) and J
magnetization after thermal step t °C)
and magnetic bulk susceptibility (curve K; K=K
, where K
is magnetic susceptibility at laboratory temperature (ca. 20 °C) and K
thermal step t °C). Zijderveld diagrams of XY and XZ elements of remanent magnetization (Mc Elhinny & Mc Fadden 2000).
Zbudza Formation originated under conditions of prevailing
normal magnetic polarity. From 19 samples 11 samples have
normal polarity and 8 of them have reversed polarity. The
samples of normal polarity have been grouped from 2 to 4
samples meanwhile the samples having a reverse polarity were
In contrast the sediments laying above Zbudza Formation
corresponding to Lastomír and Klèovo Formations originated
under condition of prevailing reverse polarity. From 26 sam-
ples only 6 were of normal polarity and 20 were of reversed
According to paleomagnetic polarity the Zbudza Formation
taking in consideration other circumstances as areal relation-
ship with other Badenian formations and radiometric time-
scale of the Central Paratethys Neogene (Vass et al. 1987) as
well as the cross correlation of the Neogene magnetostrati-
graphic scale and marine biozones (Berggren et al. 1995) the
Zbudza Formation may be correlated with the magnetostrati-
graphic time-scale in two variants.
Variant No. 1 (Fig. 6)
The Zbudza Formation is coeval with the older part of the
chron C5Bn, that is the normal Subchron C5Bn.2n. Its numer-
MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY OF BADENIAN EVAPORITE DEPOSITS 279
ical age is 15.03415.155 Ma. The overlying Lastomír Forma-
tion is coeval with the reverse Subchron C5Bn.r (14.888
15.034 Ma), normal Subchron C5Bn.1n (14.80014.888 Ma)
and with larger part of reverse Chron C5ADr. The lower part
of the Klèovo Formation, sampled in borehole P-3 is coeval
Fig. 6. Correlation of the magnetic polarity record from the bore-
hole P-3 with the magnetostratigraphic time-scale and marine bio-
zonation variant No. 1.
with the upper part of Chron C5ADr and partly corresponds to
the normal Chron C5ADn. The numerical age of the Chrons
C5ADr and C5ADn boundary is 14.612 Ma.
Variant No. 1 is supported by the assumption that the sedi-
mentation of evaporites is relatively rapid. According to vari-
ant No. 1, the Zbudza Formation originated in a short time in-
terval (15.03415.155 Ma = 0.121 m.yr. i.e. 121 000 years).
This interval according to Neogene time-scale of Berggren et
al. (1995) is within nannoplanktonic Zone NN5 and within
planktonic foraminiferal Zone M6 (interval zone of Orbulina
Against the reliability of the variant No. 1 is especially the
fact, that the paleomagnetic properties of the samples taken
from Zbudza Formation are not consistent as they have to be,
if the formation is coeval with the relatively short C5Bn.2n
Subchron. Repeated intervals of the reverse polarity within
the Zbudza Formation compromise the reliability of the syn-
chronity of both the Zbudza Formation and C5Bn.2n Sub-
Variant No. 2 (Fig. 7)
According to variant No. 2 the Vranov Formation upper
part subjacent to Zbudza Formation is coeval with the Chron
C5Bn upper part, that is the younger part of the reverse Sub-
chron C5Bn.1r, more than with the normal Subchron C5Bn.2n
and with the lower part of the reverse Chron C5ADr. The nu-
merical age of the Vranov Formation p.p. according to Neo-
gene magnetostratigraphy is approximately 14.914.7 Ma cor-
responding to the nannoplanktonic Zone NN5 middle part and
planktonic foraminiferal Zone M6 (interval zone of Orbulina
suturalisGl. peripheroronda Berggren et al. 1995).
The Zbudza Formation itself was coeval with the upper part
of the reverse Chron C5ADr, rather than with the Chrons
C5ADn, C5ACr, C5ACn, C5ABr and C5ABn. The chrons
mentioned correlate with the lower and middle part of the
planktonic Zone M7 (lineage zone of Gl. peripheroacuta with
the upper part of nannoplanktonic Zone NN5 and lower part
of the NN6 Zone. The numerical age of the Zbudza Formation
time interval is ≈ 14.713.3 Ma.
The Lastomír Formation (prodelta) and the lower part of the
Klèovo Formation (prograding delta fan) have predominantly
reverse paleomagnetic polarity and may be coeval with the
Chron C5AAr (13.30213.139 Ma). The upper, paleomagneti-
cally not investigated part of the Klèovo Formation should be
coeval with the normal Chron C5AAn (13.13912.991 Ma).
Because the Klèovo Formation is unconformably covered
by the Stretava Formation (Figs. 1, 8) with typical hyposaline
(brackisch) fossil assemblages (moluscs and foraminifers) of the
early Sarmatian it must be stated that the Klèovo Formation is
Late Badenian in age The numerical age 13 Ma may be accept-
ed for the Sarmatian/Badenian boundary (13.6±0.2 Ma Vass
et al. 1987; 13.514.0 Ma Chumakov et al. 1992; 13.0 Ma
Rögl 1998; 12.8 Ma Oszczypko 1997).
According to variant No. 2 the time of deposition of the
Lastomír and Klèovo Formations (from the beginning of delta
progradation approximately 13.3 Ma BP to the Sarmatian
transgression 13 Ma BP) was short, approximately 0.3 m.yr.
The maximum thickness of the prodelta Lastomír Formation is
280 TÚNYI et al.
about 2000 m after decompaction 2600 m and that of delta
(Klèovo Formation) is about 1700 m, after decompaction
2150 m. Both formations are in mutual lateral transition
Fig. 7. The same as Fig. 6, variant Nr. 2. *1 Chronostratigraphy
after Gaparíková (1963), Gazdzicka (1994), Peryt (1997), Rögl
(1998), Andreyeva-Grigorovich et al. 2003a,b. *2 Subdivision
of Late/Middle Badenian after new definition of the Serravallian/
Langhian boundary (Sprovieri et al. 2002) and first appearance of
Velapertina spp. (Workshop of the Stratigraphy group EEDEN
Program, Parma 2002; Hudáèková et al. 2003).
(Figs. 1, 9) and represent one deltaprodelta complex. The
mean sedimentation rate of prodelta formation was 866.7 cm ×
and of delta formation 736.7 cm × 1000 y
mean sedimentation rates are reliable, because they do not
overpass the mean sedimentation rates of recent deltas includ-
ing prodeltas 15002000 cm × 1000 y
(Kukal 1964). Ap-
proximately 0.3 m.yr. is time of the both formation sedimenta-
tion enough to accumulate deposits of mentioned thickness.
According to Gaparíková (1963), Gazdzicka (1994), Peryt
(1997), Rögl (1998), Andreyeva-Grigorovich et al. (2003a,b),
the variant No. 2 results in the time correlation of the Zbudza
Formation with the Late Badenian.
The boundary NN6/NN5 of nannoplanktonic zone numeri-
cally calibrated to 13.6 Ma (Bergreen et al. 1995) is recently
preferred as the Late/Middle Badenian boundary (Sprovieri et
al. 2002). In this case the Zbudza Formation in the variant
No. 2 is an equivalent of the Middle Badenian upper part
overstepping into the Late Badenian (see Fig. 7).
The critical point of the variant No. 2 is the long duration of
the Zbudza Formation from 14.7 to 13.3 Ma, that is a total of
1.4 Ma. The Zbudza Formation is a sedimentary record of
a salinity crisis. The time interval of evaporitic sedimentation
is generally considered to be a short one. According to Ivanov
(1953, 1956 fide Petránek 1963) extremely short: 6000 to
10 000 years. On the other hand, the Messinian Stage a typical
evaporitic stage of the Late Mediterranean Miocene indicates
an important salinity crisis lasting 1.75 Ma (Berggren et al.
1995) which is comparable to the duration of the Badenian sa-
linity crisis in the Central Paratethys (1.4 Ma).
The Messinian Stage stratotype is composed of two partial
stratotypes Capodaroso representing the lower part of the
Messinian and Presquasia representing the middle and upper
portion of the stage, including the evaporites (gypsum and/or
anhydrite) has a cumulative thickness of approximately 174 m.
The sedimentary sequence shows alternation of silty marl, mar-
ly diatomite (tripoli), gypsum (2 layers 67.9 m and 18.5 m thick
respectively) and evaporite limestone (Selli 1971).
Comparison of the Messinian stratotype cumulative thick-
ness with the thickness of the Zbudza Formation (104.6 m) as
well as the comparison of the both Messinian Stage and Zbud-
za Formation time of origin 1.75 Ma and 1.4 Ma, respectively
enables us to conclude that the time of the Zbudza Formation
is origin obtained when the variant No. 2 is used may be
the real one.
Of course the origin of the evaporite horizons within the
Messinian Stage and Zbudza Formation may be of relatively
short duration, but the duration of shallow marine sedimenta-
tion, when the evaporation was interrupted and the input of
clastic material was moderate, has to lengthen the time of the
origin of the whole formation, up to 12 m.yr.
The second more convenient variant for the magnetostrati-
graphic interpretation of the Zbudza Formation in the East
Slovak Basin results in some significant conclusions of gener-
al validity in the chronostratigraphy and numerical calibration
of the Central Paratethys Neogene:
MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY OF BADENIAN EVAPORITE DEPOSITS 281
Fig. 8. Seismic line 700/92 situated in the western part of the East Slovak Basin showing unconformity at the Klèovo Formation (Upper
Badenian) and Stretava Formation (Lower Sarmatian) boundary. Lenght of seismic line = 10 km.
1 If we accept the huge evaporite accumulations as ex-
cellent time correlation markers, we must conclude that the
evaporites of the Wieliczkian substage in the Central Parat-
ethys, including the Zbudza Formation of East Slovak Basin,
are coeval. The numerical age of the Zbudza Formation result-
ing from the magnetostratigraphic investigation is from 14.7
to 13.3 Ma. A similar age may be assumed for the whole
Wieliczkian (Andreyeva-Grigorovich et al. 2003a,b). The sub-
stage was defined as the substage of Middle Badenian (Cicha
& Sene 1975; Papp et al. 1978). The magnetostratigraphic as
well as biostratigraphic data shows that the evaporite forma-
tions grouped into the Wieliczkian substage are either Late
Badenian (Gaparíková 1963; Gazdzicka 1994; Peryt 1997;
Andreyeva-Grigorovich et al. 2003a,b) or Middle to Late Bad-
enian in age (after the Late/Middle Badenian boundary con-
cept compare Sprovieri et al. 2002; Workshop EEDEN Parma
2002; Hudáèková et al. 2003). Because of it we suggest can-
cellation of Wieliczkian as the name of the Middle Badenian
282 TÚNYI et al.
substage and we recommend use of that name, derived from
the famous salt main at Wieliczka, as the lithostratigraphic
name of a group Wieliczka Group consisting of several for-
mations such as the Zbudza Formation, Tereblya Formation,
upper part in Transcarpathia, Tyras Formation and Kalush
Formation in the Carpathian Foredeep of Ukraine.
2 The Sarmatian (Seuss 1866) in the East Slovak Basin is
of typical Central Paratethys biostratigraphic and/or biofacial
development with clearly recognizable foraminiferal zones of
Grill (1943). Many boreholes as well as seismic sections show
that the Lower Sarmatian in the basin represented by the Stre-
tava Formation (Vass & Èverèko 1985) disconformably lies
on the Klèovo and/or Lastomír Formations (Fig. 9). The nu-
merical age of the Sarmatian/Badenian boundary numerically
calibrated to 13.6 Ma (Vass et al. 1987) must be younger be-
cause the age of the Zbudza Formation top is estimated at
13.3 Ma and the Lastomír and Klèovo Formations covering
the Zbudza Formation and being subjacent to the Stretava
Formation needed at least 0.3 m.yr. to be deposited. So, the
realistic numerical age of the Sarmatian/Badenian boundary
seems to be 13.0 Ma. Rögel (1998) suggests the identical nu-
Fig. 9. Seismic line XI-160 situated NE of the town of Seèovce in the middle of the East Slovak Basin. The Klèovo Formation
a delta fan, expressed by strong and continuous reflectors progrades. The Lastomír Formation a prodelta, free of strong and continu-
ous reflectors. The Zbudza Formation an evaporitic formation conformably covered by the Lastomír Formation is expressed by
strong reflectors (after Hutman 2003). Length of seismic line = 7 km.
MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY OF BADENIAN EVAPORITE DEPOSITS 283
Fig. 10. Distribution of the Badenian evaporites in the Central Parat-
ethys (according to Steininger et al. in Papp et al. (Eds.) 1978).
The Zbudza Formation of the East Slovak Basin originated
as a consequence of a major salinity crisis during the Badenian
in the Central Paratethys. Paleomagnetic investigations were
used to correlate the Zbudza Formation with the magnetic
time scale (Berggren et al. 1995). The most probable variant
of the measured paleomagnetic data correlation shows that the
Zbudza Formation is coeval with the Chrons C5ADr p.p.,
C5ADn, C5ACr and C5ACn, C5ABr and C5ABn and its nu-
merical age is 14.713.3 Ma (1.4 m.yr.). The time interval cor-
responds to the planktonic Biozone M7: Globorotalia periph-
eroacuta Lineage Zone, lower and middle part and to
calcareous nannoplanktonic Zone NN5 upper part and NN6
lower part. The thick delta and prodelta formations (ca.
2000 m) covering the Zbudza Formation originated in the rel-
atively short time interval of 13.313.0 Ma (0.3 m.yr.) of the
The Badenian substage Wieliczkian comprising the evapor-
itic formations as the Zbudza Formation, after the original de-
scription considered to be a substage of the Middle Badenian,
is Middle to Late Badenian in age. We suggest transformation
of the chronostratigraphic subunit Wieliczkian into a lithos-
tratigraphic one of the range of a group: Wieliczka Group. The
numerical age of the Sarmatian/Badenian boundary would be
conventionally calibrated 13.0 Ma.
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