GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, JUNE 2005, 56, 3, 237244
Konradsheim Limestone of the Gresten Klippen Zone
(Austria): new insight into its stratigraphic and
, ANDRZEJ L¥CZKA
, MARIAN A. GASIÑSKI
and MARTA B¥K
Department Geography, Geology and Mineralogy, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria;
Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Kraków, Poland; firstname.lastname@example.org
(Manuscript received December 4, 2003; accepted in revised form September 29, 2004)
Abstract: Biostratigraphic investigations of pelitic intercalations and pebbles within the Konradsheim Limestone (Gresten
Unit, Gresten Klippen Zone) in the area of Konradsheim and Pechgraben Maria Neustift (Lower and Upper Austria)
imply that at least a part of that limestone is Cretaceous and not only Jurassic in age. In marly intercalations Foraminifera
assemblages with Caudammina ovulum were found, in addition some pebbles in conglomeratic limestones contain
Radiolaria of Early Cretaceous age. Therefore, the sedimentation of the Konradsheim Limestone lasted at least to the
Early Cretaceous. The provenance of the Cretaceous Radiolaria bearing limestones is interesting, as north from the
anticipated paleogeographical position of the Gresten Unit (European Platform) there are no similar deposits; they are
only known from the Alpine realm. Implications for the Alpine and Carpathian geodynamic evolution are discussed.
Key words: Cretaceous, Eastern Alps, Gresten Unit, Foraminifera, Radiolaria, Konradsheim Limestone.
Brecciated to conglomeratic whitish limestones from the
Gresten Klippen Zone (Fig. 1) were described for the first
time by Geyer (1909) in a comprehensive paper on the Geolo-
gy of the Northern Calcareous Alps in Lower and Upper Aus-
tria. Trauth (1950, p. 166) named these brecciated and con-
glomeratic limestones Konradsheimer Kalk and assigned it
to the KimmeridgianEarly Tithonian. This stratigraphic view
was held by all later authors (Aberer 1951; Schnabel 1970;
Egger 1986; Widder 1988). Reinvestigation of the Konrad-
sheim Limestone at the locus typicus in the village of Konrad-
sheim and biostratigraphic researches based on Foraminifera
indicate that at least a part of this limestone is younger than
the Late Jurassic and represents Early Cretaceous. The further
studies (Höck et al. 2003) within the Gresten Unit in the Pech-
graben area have confirmed its Cretaceous age.
The Gresten Unit, often termed the Gresten Klippen Zone is
one of the units situated today in front (Figs. 1, 2) of the
Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA). It is regarded as a unit orig-
inally deposited north of the Rheno-Danubian Flysch along
the southern margin of the Bohemian Massif (Oberhauser
1980; Schnabel 1992). It forms several klippen, built up of Ju-
rassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits covered by variegated
marls (Buntmergelserie) ranging from Late Albian to
Eocene (Widder 1988; Ruttner & Schnabel 1988). An exten-
sive facies analysis about the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous
deposits has been made by Decker (1987) in a thesis with a fa-
cies and paleogeographical viewpoint.
The most characteristic lithofacies are the Gresten Beds of
Early Jurassic age (Hettangian to Toarcian according to Prey
1980) with arkoses, sandstones and shales intercalated by coal
in the lower part, and calcareous deposits in the upper part
(Fig. 3). The Gresten Beds are covered by a sequence of marly
and silty beds with some intercalations of sandy limestones
(the Middle Jurassic Posidonia Marls) and by Oxfordian radi-
Fig. 1. Geological sketch map of the Eastern Alps with their fore-
land between Vienna and Munich. The small insert depicts the posi-
tion of the research area shown in more detail in Fig. 2. 1 Alpine
Foredeep, 2 Bohemian Massif, 3 Helvetic zone including the
Gresten Klippen Zone (GKZ) and the Hauptklippen Zone (HKZ),
4 Rheno-Danubian Flysch (RDF), 5 Austroalpine nappes, 6
238 HÖCK, L¥CZKA, GASIÑSKI and B¥K
olarite (Lampelsberg Beds). The Late Jurassic and Early Cre-
taceous are represented by limestones and marls of various fa-
cies. These include turbiditic siliceous limestones (Scheibb-
sbach Beds), the red ammonite bearing nodular Arzberg
limestone, which contains locally marly limestones, the dark
grey micritic Arthof limestone and the Aptychus limestones
(Lower Blassenstein Beds), which pass upwards into marls
(Upper Blassenstein Beds). In the absence of formally deter-
mined lithostratigraphic formations we follow here the no-
menclature used by Widder (1988), where the reader can find
a more detailed lithological discussion. Within these sedi-
ments there are intercalations of conglomerates up to hundred
meters in thickness, named Konradsheim Limestone (Konrad-
sheimer Kalk by Trauth 1950).
This is schematically depicted in Fig. 3, which shows the
general relationship of the Konradsheim Limestone with the
Scheibbsbach Beds, Arthof/Arzberg limestones and Blassen-
stein Beds according to Widder (1988). The Konradsheim
Limestone is usually developed as thick and very thick self-
and matrix-supported conglomerates and sedimentary brec-
cias, usually displaying gradation (comp. Faupl 1975). The
clasts are generally represented by fragments of limestones, up
to tens of centimeters in diameter. It is interpreted as a proxi-
mal channel-fill sediment along the southern margin of the
European Platform (Decker 1987).
At the type locality in Konradsheim (Fig. 2) the Konrad-
sheim Limestone is developed as a complex of massive con-
glomerates with thin intercalations of limestone and greenish
marls. In the PechgrabenMaria Neustift area (Fig. 2) the
Konradsheim Limestone developed as intercalations of graded
calcareous conglomerates within greenish marly limestones
and marls (Upper Jurassic Scheibbsbach Beds) and/or within
micritic limestones with Saccocoma and Aptychus, variegated
marly limestones, and variegated nodular limestones (Arthofer
Kalk), KimmeridgianTithonian in age (Widder 1988; Schna-
Fig. 2. Sketch map of the Gresten Unit (Gresten Klippen Zone) and
adjacent units between Gresten and Pechgraben based on Schnabel
(1992). The inserts show the areas displayed in Figs. 4 and 5.
1 Alpine Foreland, 2 Gresten Unit (Gresten Klippen Zone),
3 Helvetic Zone, 4 Rheno-Danubian Flysch Zone, 5 Ybb-
sitz Klippen Zone, 6 Northern Calcareous Alps, K Konrad-
sheim, M Maria Neustift, KG Kohlgraben.
bel 1970). The Konradsheim Limestone also occurs as sepa-
rate blocks within variegated marls of Late Albian to Eocene
age (Buntmergelserie), together with other blocks of various
limestones and exotic blocks of granitoids (Widder 1988).
The age of the Konradsheim Limestone in the Konradsheim
area was established by Trauth (1950) as Malmian. This was
based mainly on ammonites, which occur in the matrix of the
limestone. The ammonite species found, indicate a strati-
graphic range from Oxfordian to the Late Tithonian (Trauth
1950). According to various authors (Trauth 1950; Prey 1980;
Tollmann 1985, Widder 1988) the age of the Konradsheim
Limestone and the other limestones and marls is only poorly
constrained, for example, according to Widder (1988), the
Scheibbsbach Beds are the lowermost formation of all, just
deposited on top of the Oxfordian Lampelsberg Beds, while
Trauth (1950), Prey (1980) and Tollmann 1985) assign the
former to the Neocomian.
Generally, the Late Jurassic (Malmian) age of the Kon-
radsheim Limestone has been accepted (Oberhauser 1980), al-
Fig. 3. Generalized lithostratigraphic column of the Gresten succes-
sion at the Höhenberg region (based on Widder 1988). ××××× marks
the sample sites.
KONRADSHEIM LIMESTONE OF THE GRESTEN KLIPPEN ZONE (AUSTRIA) 239
though Schnabel (1970) mentioned the occurrence of the Cre-
taceous Hormosina ovulum (Grzybowski) in marly intercala-
tions within the Konradsheim Limestone, which, after recent
investigations, points to a Cretaceous age. In addition, Widder
(1988) assumed a lowermost Neocomian age for the upper-
most part of the Konradsheim Limestone.
Area of investigations
Our studies were carried out in three areas: at the Castle hill
in Konradsheim village (Fig. 4), in the Finkengraben some
100 m west of this exposure and in the area between Pechgra-
ben and the village of Maria Neustift (Fig. 5). Near Konrad-
sheim several samples were collected from an intercalation of
greenish marls between conglomerate layers of the Konrad-
sheim Limestone, exposed at the lower bend of the road to the
church (Figs. 6, 7). The Konradsheim Limestone forms here a
big block within variegated marls (Buntmergelserie) more
than 600 meters in length (Schnabel 1970). In the Finkengra-
ben samples were taken from light pelitic limestones above
red marls in the creek and from limestones at the southern
slope of valley. In the area between Pechgraben and Maria
Neustift (Fig. 5) two exposures were sampled (compare the
map of Widder 1988 for the localities): several samples were
taken from marly limestones and marls at the base of the Kon-
radsheim Limestone, exposed in an abandoned quarry, situat-
ed in the area of Höhenberg along the road from the locality
Fig. 4. Geological map of the Konradsheim area according to
Schnabel (1970). 1 Flysch Zone; 2 Gaultflysch; 3 Buntmer-
gelserie; 4 Early Cretaceous to Early Cenomanian Sandstone and
Marls; 5 Konradsheim Conglomerate; 6 Konradsheim Lime-
stone; 7 Aptychus Limestone and Spotted Marl, Tithonian to Neo-
comian; 8 Arzberg Limestone; 9 Posidonia marls; 10 Gresten
Beds; 11 Northern Calcareous Alps; 12 Overthrust of the North-
ern Calcareous Alps; 13 Overthrust of the Flysch Zone; 14
Fault. ××××× sample locations of Finkengraben and Konradsheim.
Fig. 5. Structural sketch map of the area between Pechgraben and
Maria Neustift (based on Widder 1988). 1 Rheno-Danubian Flysch
Zone; 2 Gresten Klippen Zone; 3 Randcenoman; 4 Northern
Calcareous Alps; 5 Faults; 6 overthrust line. K sampled site
in Kohlgraben, A sampled site along road towards Arthof.
Fig. 6. General view of the exposure in Konradsheim. The arrow
indicates the area shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Detail of Fig. 6, Sampled site, on the bend of the road to
Konradsheim. Samples 3A/2000, 4A/2000, 1A/2001, 2A/2001. The
arrow shows the marly interlayers in the Konradsheim Limestone,
which were sampled.
240 HÖCK, L¥CZKA, GASIÑSKI and B¥K
Stangl to Kohlgraben (Fig. 8). Other samples were col-
lected in the area near the locality Arthofer from a big ex-
posure on a prominent bend of the road near the locality
Dichlberger (Fig. 9). There is a complex of conglomeratic
Konradsheim Limestone above the folded Scheibbsbach Beds.
Samples were collected from the clasts of the conglomerates.
In the PechgrabenMaria Neustift area the Gresten sequence
containing the Konradsheim Limestone forms huge separated
blocks surrounded by the variegated marls of the Buntmer-
gelserie (Widder 1988).
Micropaleontological analysis and results
Standard processing methods (Glaubers salt, multiple heat-
ing and freezing) have been applied to isolate the Forami-
nifera. The dried residuum was sieved, with a final sieve size
of 0.063 mm. Some samples have been analysed only in thin
sections due to their hardness. The taxa were identified by us-
ing both, a stereoscope microscope and a SEM. In general,
samples contain a scarce, badly preserved microfauna. How-
ever, the samples from the Konradsheim locality contain a rel-
atively abundant and well-preserved microfauna.
Konradsheim locality: Foraminifera assemblages were
identified in four samples. They are relatively abundant in
sample 3A/2000 and contain taxa such as: Ammodiscus/Glo-
mospira sp. sp. (about 90 % of the whole assemblage),
Neoflabellina sp. (fragments), Caudammina (Hormosina)
ovulum (Grzybowski) (Fig. 10.2,3), Hormosina sp., Dorothia
cf. oxycona Reuss, Rhabdammina sp. (pyritized) and Lenticu-
lina sp. Sample 4A/2000 contains a less rich assemblage than
sample 3A with Lenticulina sp. (smooth-walled, unidentified,
large specimens), Marssonella (Dorothia) trochus (Marsson)
(Fig. 10.1), Astacolus/Marginulina sp. sp., Caudammina (H.)
ovulum, Hormosina sp., Pseudonodosinella troyeri (Tapp-
man) (Fig. 10.4), Dentalina sp., Arenobulimina indet., Pleuro-
stomella sp., Nodellum sp., Reophax sp. Sample 1A/2001 and
sample 2A/2001 contain an assemblage with Lenticulina sp.
and a scarce macrofauna Inoceramus prisms and redeposit-
ed shallow water elements such as corals and Bryozoa.
In this locality all Foraminifera assemblages are dominated
by agglutinated taxa. For their biostratigraphical evaluation
the standard zonation of agglutinated Foraminifera after
Geroch & Nowak (1984) has been used. This zonation is
widely applied, not only for the Polish part of the Outer Car-
pathians but also for the other areas (cf. Gradstein et al. 1994).
Some taxa, such as Caudammina ovulum, Marssonella tro-
chus and Pseudonodosinella troyeri are index species for the
Cretaceous (Fig. 11). All three species are very characteristic,
in particular C. ovulum. Its internal structure excludes any
similarities with Jurassic taxa. However, the assemblages do
not contain index calcareous benthic and planktonic Foramin-
ifera, which would allow to determine the zones within the
Cretaceous more precisely. The presence of P. troyeri gives a
lower limit for the sedimentation of that part of the Konrad-
sheim Limestone as Barremian. This is in agreement with the
occurrence of C. ovulum, whose lower stratigraphic limit is
Hauterivian. The upper limit is difficult to assess but the oc-
currences of P. troyeri implies that the sedimentation, not
withstanding redeposition, cannot be younger than Turonian.
Finkengraben creek: sample 5A/2001 from white lime-
stone contains: Orbulina sp., Globotruncana sp., Tritaxia sp.,
Pleurostomella sp., Dorothia sp., and prisms of Inoceramus
sp. indicate a Late Cretaceous age.
Quarry Kohlgraben: samples 19A/2000 and 6A/2001
from marls within the Konradsheim Limestone contain Fora-
minifera assemblages with Ammodiscus/Glomospira sp. sp.,
Caudammina (H.) ovulum and also fragments of thick-walled
Inoceramus sp. The age can be estimated as Cretaceous, not
older than Barremian.
Road to Arthof: along the road, within the Konradsheim
Limestone, sample 10A/2000 (thin section only) taken from a
grey-black micrite pebble contains only fragments of foramin-
iferids tests: Dorothia sp., Hedbergella sp. (Cretaceous plank-
tonic; Fig. 12.16) and rich Radiolaria (Spumellaria and Nas-
Fig. 9. Exposure along the road to Arthof. In the lower part, folded
Scheibbsbach Beds (S) covered by the conglomerate of Konrad-
sheim Limestones (K). The erosive contact between the conglom-
erate layer (Konradsheim Limestone) and Scheibbsbach Beds is
clearly visible. Arrow sampled site of pebbles within the con-
glomerate, sample 10A/2000.
Fig. 8. Kohlgraben Quarry. At the left side medium bedded Arthof
Limestone (A) according to Widder (1988) and on the right side
thick bedded conglomerates of the Konradsheim Limestone (K). Ar-
row sampled site: sample 19A/2000 and 6A/2001.
KONRADSHEIM LIMESTONE OF THE GRESTEN KLIPPEN ZONE (AUSTRIA) 241
Fig. 10. Benthic Foraminifera: 1 Marssonella (D.) trochus, 4A/2000; 2, 3 Caudammina (H.) ovulum, 3A/2000, 4A/2000;
4 Pseudonodosinella troyeri, 4A/2000. Lower Cretaceous Radiolaria: 5, 6 Tethysetta mashitaensis Mizutani, 10A/2000; 7
Stichomitra aff. asymbatos Foreman, 10A/2000; 8 Paronaella sp., 10A/2000; 9 Crucella sp., 10A/2000; 10 Sethocapsa leiost-
raca Foreman, 10A/2000; 11 Podobursa triacantha (Fischli), 10A/2000; 12 Triactoma luciae Jud, 10A/2000; 13
Pseudoaulophacus (?) florealis Jud, 10A/2000; 14 Alievium helenae Schaaf, 10A/2000. Scale bars = 100 µm.
242 HÖCK, L¥CZKA, GASIÑSKI and B¥K
sellaria: see below) as well as echinoid spines. The age has
been estimated as Cretaceous. A similar microfacies was
found in other pebbles from this locality, but only poorly pre-
A Radiolaria microfauna is very abundant in grey, siliceous
limestone pebbles (road to Arthof, Konradsheim Limestone).
Fig. 11. Foraminifera zonation after Geroch & Nowak 1984 (up-
dated) and approximate ranges of index and important (bold lines)
For the biostratigraphic age determination the best preserved
assemblages found in sample 10A/2000 were used. Assem-
blages of Radiolaria have been analysed, both in thin sections
and after the extraction of skeletons from rock samples. Stan-
dard preparation methods have been used, including the treat-
ment with diluted HF and sieving with a 0.063 mm sieve. Sep-
arated specimens are abundant, but generally poorly preserved
with only a small amount of moderately to well preserved
ones. In some cases a relatively intense recrystallization oc-
curs. However, well preserved inner structures of the skele-
tons are visible in thin sections. The poor preservation does
not allow a statistical evaluation of the microfauna, because
the composition of the assemblages and their differences re-
flect the preservation rather than the primary faunal composi-
tion. Nevertheless, several specimens are sufficiently pre-
served for biostratigraphic analysis. The main component of
the Radiolaria assemblage are spumellarians (about 60 % of
all specimens) and nassellarians belonging to the family Set-
hocapsidae (Fig. 10.513). Multisegmented forms from the
families such as: Archaeodictyomitridae, Theoperidae, Am-
phipyndacidae and Parvicingulidae are also present.
The composition of the radiolarian fauna in the deposits
studied, and co-occurrence of Pseudoaulophacus (?) florealis
Jud, Triactoma luciae Jud, Pseudoeucyrtis (?) fusus Jud, Set-
hocapsa leiostraca Foreman, Podobursa triacantha (Fischli)
and Tethysetta mashitaensis Mizutani supports Early Valang-
inian age (Fig. 13), using age ranges determined from the
Tethys (Baumgartner et al. 1995; Jud 1994) and North Pacific
(Foreman 1975). The presence of Tethysetta mashitaensis Mi-
zutani gives an upper age limit of Early Valanginian. Another
taxon, Pseudoaulophacus (?) florealis Jud occurs in the
Tethys for the first time in Early Valanginian and provides a
lower age limit. It has to be emphasized that the described ra-
diolarian assemblage represents a low latitude Tethyan fauna.
Discussion and conclusion
Biostratigraphic investigations of the pelitic intercalations
within the Konradsheim Limestone in the areas of Konrad-
sheim and Kohlgraben, explicitly show that those sediments
are Cretaceous in age, not older than Barremian (Fig. 11).
Fig. 12. Planktonic Foraminifera in thin sections: 16 Hedber-
gella sp., 10A/2000. Scale bars = 100 µm.
KONRADSHEIM LIMESTONE OF THE GRESTEN KLIPPEN ZONE (AUSTRIA) 243
Near Arthof the occurrence of Hedbergella and Radiolaria in
pebbles indicate that the age of the Konradsheim Limestone is
younger than Early Valanginian. It should be stressed that al-
ready Schnabel (1970) mentioned the existence of a Foramin-
ifera assemblage with Caudammina (Hormosina) ovulum ob-
viously connected with the Konradsheim Limestone. The
Cretaceous age of at least a part of the Konradsheim Lime-
stones, younger than previously accepted is also supported by
the occurrence of a Radiolaria assemblage of Early Cretaceous
age in some of the conglomerate pebbles. The age of already
rounded clasts is naturally older than the age of the host rocks.
A similar co-existence of the Upper Jurassic and younger peb-
bles was described from conglomerates of the Gresten Unit
near Scheibbs (Faupl & Schnabel 1987). The sedimentary
structures of the conglomerates from the Konradsheim Lime-
stone indicate deposits of high concentration turbidity currents
and debris flows, that infilled submarine channels (Decker
1987). The occurrence of Konradsheim Limestones, and relat-
ed blocks within CretaceousPaleogene marly deposits imply
that, in some cases, they may represent resedimented bodies
such as olistoliths. The provenance of the material is open to
discussion, however the source area for at least a part of the
pebbles of the Radiolaria-bearing limestones was most likely
connected with the Tethyan realm to the South, which contra-
dicts the paleogeographic picture accepted up to now. The simi-
larity of the conglomerates of the Konradsheim Limestone from
the Gresten Unit and a part of a sedimentary breccia with
mainly limestone clasts from the Gruber quarry, which is a
part of the Fusch Facies according to Frasl & Frank (1966); in
the north-eastern part of the Tauern Window near Unterberg in
the Grossarl Valley (Central Eastern Alps Peer & Zimmer
1980; Slaczka & Höck 2000; Hoeck & l¹czka 2001) implies a
possibility of a connection between both units.
The Cretaceous age of a part of the Konradsheim Limestone
also creates some geotectonic questions namely: The question
of the history and original position of the basin of the Gresten
Unit and the position of the source area of the clastic material.
It is generally accepted that this basin was situated on the
southern margin of the Bohemian Massif, north of the Rheno-
Danubian Flysch Zone and connected with Gresten Beds
known from the basement of the Molasse Zone in the eastern
part of Lower Austria (Janoschek & Matura 1980; Brix &
Schulz (Eds.) 1993). However, at first their age is generally
Fig. 13. Stratigraphic ranges of important Radiolaria after Baumgartner at al. (1995), Jud (1994) and Foreman (1975).
younger, Middle Jurassic (Wessely pers. com.). Secondly, in
the late Middle Jurassic and in the Late Jurassic there is a sig-
nificant difference between the sedimentary cover sequences
of the Gresten Beds beneath the Molasse Zone and within the
Gresten Unit. In the latter they are characterized by Oxfordian
radiolarites, Late Jurassic red nodular and Saccocoma-bearing
limestones as well as Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Apty-
chus limestones, which are lacking in the former area. On the
other hand these Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous facies are
widespread in the Alps and in the Pieniny Klippen Belt of the
Outer Carpathians. Therefore, it appears that younger deposits
of the Gresten Unit and a part of the redeposited material
shows more affiliation to the Tethyan realm rather than to the
platform of the Bohemian Massif (see also Birkenmajer 1961).
These changes of affinities with time imply that the Gresten
realm was originally a part of the European Platform. During
the Middle Jurassic the southern parts split off the platform
and were later incorporated into the Tethyan realm as can be
inferred from the appearance of the sediments from the Oxfor-
dian radiolarites (Lampelsberg Beds) and Late Jurassic to Ear-
ly Cretaceous calcareous deposits.
It needs to be stressed here that the occurrence of Gresten
Beds are not only restricted to the European Platform. They
are known also from the Inner Carpathians realm. Similar de-
posits were noted from Hungary (Mecsek Unit Haas 2001)
and from the Bihor Unit (Northern Apuseni Mts Ianovici et
al. 1976). However, it is not clear if they represent fragments
split off the European Platform (Haas 2001) or represent a
more local lithofacies.
The occurrence of coarse clastic deposits in the Early Creta-
ceous sequences of the Gresten Unit is in accordance with the
Early Cretaceous appearance of similar deposits in other areas
such as the north-eastern Tauern Window (Peer & Zimmer
1980; Hoeck & l¹czka 2001), the Haunsberg Wildflysch, N
of Salzburg (Frasl 1987 with a contribution by E. Flügel) and
the Lower Austroalpine nappes in the Hochfeind area
(Schwarzeck breccia Clar 1937; Tollmann 1977). It shows
that uplifting movements during that time were more wide-
spread within the outer part of the Tethys than was previously
assumed. The position of the source rock-forming the breccias
and conglomerates of the Konradsheim Limestone is not
known yet. However, the facies of the pebbles point to an ori-
gin within the Tethyan realm. The source area was probably
244 HÖCK, L¥CZKA, GASIÑSKI and B¥K
situated on a uplifted platform between the margin of the Eu-
ropean Platform and the Gresten Sedimentary Basin. The occur-
rence of olistholiths of Gresten Beds and their cover within the
Late CretaceousPaleogene variegated marls (Buntmergelserie)
shows that the uplifting movements prolonged to the Paleogene
and also involved a part of the former Gresten Basin.
Acknowledgments: The authors are grateful to Dr. Ewa Mal-
ata for her helpful assistance in preparation of the Foramin-
ifera part and to Prof. Dr. C. Ionescu for her valuable coopera-
tion. Careful reviews by W. Schnabel, Sp. Gorièan and an
anonymous reviewer improved the manuscript considerably.
The present work was partly supported by the Lanckoronski
Foundation and by Projects 4/99 and 6/01 of the Scientific and
Technological Cooperation AustriaPoland. One of the authors,
V. Höck also gratefully acknowledges Grant Nr: 7574 awarded
by the Jubiläums-Fonds of the Austrian National Bank.
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