PALEOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY OF THE EASTERN TAURIDES (TURKEY) 433
GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 55, 6, BRATISLAVA, DECEMBER 2004
The Tauride Belt in southern Turkey is an Alpine unit com-
prising a pile of nappes, or tectono-stratigraphic units formed
during the closure of Neotethyan oceanic branches in the East-
ern Mediterranean region (ªengör & Yôlmaz 1981; Göncüoûlu
1997, Fig. 1). The nappes include more or less continuous Pa-
leozoic-Mesozoic sequences of varying tectonic settings such
as platforms, slopes and basins, related to the Proto-, Paleo-
and Neo-Tethyan oceans (see Stampfli 2000 for discussion on
the definition of the Tethyan oceans).
A comprehensive tectonic classification of these nappes was
proposed by Özgül (1976) regarding their paleogeographical
origins. Özgül (1984) suggested the presence of a central au-
tochthonous belt (Geyik Daûô Unit), overthrust by northerly
(Bozkôr, Bolkar, and Aladaû Units) and southerly (Alanya and
Antalya Units) derived tectono-stratigraphic units (Fig. 2a).
From these, the most prominent and uninterrupted Paleozoic
successions are mainly observed in the Geyik Daûô Unit
(GDU) in the Eastern Taurides.
The overall stratigraphy of the Paleozoic successions within
the GDU in the Eastern Taurides has been the topic of numer-
ous studies (e.g. Özgül et al. 1972; Özgül & Gedik 1973;
Metin et al. 1986; Dean & Monod 1990; Özgül & Kozlu
2002). A recent review was given by Göncüoûlu & Kozlu
(2000). These studies, however, mostly lack sufficient bios-
tratigraphic data. This shortcoming prevented reliable correla-
tion of Paleozoic events in this critical area for the geodynam-
ic evolution of northwestern Gondwana.
In this work, we report field and conodont data on poorly
known Paleozoic sequences of the GDU in the Eastern Tau-
rides in the Saimbeyli-Tufanbeyli area (Fig. 2) utilizing previ-
ously unpublished conodont data of the second author. We
will focus on the Cambrian to Early Carboniferous rock-units
we sampled in detail for conodont fauna, but also describe
briefly other formations, which were dated by other fossil
groups (e.g. trilobites, graptolites, corals and brachiopods) in
previous studies. The description of the stratigraphy of these
units is based on numerous published and unpublished studies
and our own field observations. The responsibility of the sec-
ond and third authors is limited mainly to the paleontological
determinations. Correlations with the northern Central Tau-
rides, mainly with the Kütahya-Bolkardaû Belt (KBB, Fig. 1)
of Göncüoûlu et al. (1997) are used for regional paleogeo-
graphic interpretations. Our aim is to establish a more reliable
stratigraphic correlation of the Paleozoic successions along
PALEOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY OF THE GEY K DAI UNIT IN THE
EASTERN TAURIDES (TURKEY): NEW AGE DATA AND
IMPLICATIONS FOR GONDWANAN EVOLUTION
M. CEMAL GÖNCÜOLU
, YAKUT GÖNCÜOLU
, HEINZ W. KOZUR
and HÜSEYIN KOZLU
Middle East Technical University, Department of Geological Engineering, TR-06531 Ankara, Turkey; email@example.com
Kafkas Sitesi, 411. Sokak, No. 65, Cayyolu, TR-06530 Ankara, Turkey
Rézsü u. 83, H-1029 Budapest, Hungary
Turkish Petroleum Corporation, Exploration Department, TR-06520 Ankara, Turkey
(Manuscript received June 5, 2003; accepted in revised form December 16, 2003)
Abstract: The stratigraphy of the Geyik Daûô Unit of the Eastern Taurides has been revised on the basis of new field
observations from this critical tectono-stratigraphic unit. The Emirgazi Formation, of Precambrian age, is shown to
occur throughout the whole Tauride Belt. The Çal Tepe Formation probably reaches the Upper Cambrian. The Cam-
brian-Ordovician boundary is close to the base of the Seydiºehir Formation; the latter includes mixed carbonate-siliciclastic
tempestites. Its upper part may be of late Middle Ordovician age. The stratigraphic gap between the Seydiºehir and Sort
Tepe Formations is the result of a thermal event, as recorded in many other places in the peri-Gondwanan terranes of
Europe. The graptolite-bearing black shales of the Puscu Tepe Shale Formation of early Silurian age, overlying the
glacier-related sediments of the Halit Yaylasô Formation is a typical unit in most of the peri-Gondwanan terranes in S
Europe and N Africa. The Orthoceras Limestones of the overlying Yukarô Yayla Formation are of latest Llandovery
to earliest Wenlock and postmiddle Ludlow age. The Lower Devonian basal quartzites of the Ayô Tepesi Formation are
interpreted as overlying an unconformity, which may coincide with the stepwise detachment of some small microcontinents
from Gondwana accompanying the opening of Paleotethys. The conformably overlying Safak Tepe Formation yielded
EifelianGivetian conodonts and is overlain by the Gümüºali Formation of FrasnianFamennian age. The Devonian-
Carboniferous boundary is located within the black shales of the Ziyarettepe Formation. The deposition of these black
shales seems to be related to an anoxic event. Although the available geological data in the Taurides are still too fragmen-
tary to provide a comprehensive picture, the new findings may facilitate the correlation of the Eastern Tauride strati-
graphic units with corresponding strata in the Central and Western Taurides and improve the understanding of Early to
middle Paleozoic events in NE peri-Gondwana.
Key words: Paleozoic, Eastern Taurides, Turkey, Gondwana, paleogeography, stratigraphy, conodonts.
434 M.C. GÖNCÜOLU, Y. GÖNCÜOLU, KOZUR and KOZLU
Fig. 1. Tectonic map of Turkey (modified after Göncüoûlu 1997) and the location of the study area. 1 ùzmirAnkaraErzincan Suture
Belt; 2 Tauride-Anatolide Terrane: a undifferentiated, b Lycian Nappes, c Kütahya-Bolkardaû Belt, d Metamorphic massifs,
e Bozkôr Nappes; 3 Southeast Anatolian Ophiolite Belt and the Kemer Ophiolites (Antalya nappes); 4 Southeast Anatolian Autoch-
thon. NAFZ: North Anatolian Fault Zone, EAFZ: East Anatolian Fault Zone, EFZ: Eskiºehir Fault Zone, TFZ: Tuz Gölü Fault Zone.
the Tauride Belt and hence contribute to a better understand-
ing of the Early Paleozoic paleogeography of the NW peri-
Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Geyik Da
The pre-Early Paleozoic rock units
In previous studies the very thick succession underlying the
Feke Quartzite Formation was considered to be a single for-
mation and named, following Özgül et al. (1972), the Emir-
gazi Formation (see Kozlu & Göncüoûlu 1997). Dean &
Monod (1990) considered this unit to be a synonym of the Za-
buk Formation in SE Anatolia. The Zabuk Formation in its
type locality (Kellog 1960) rests unconformably on ?Precam-
brian andesites and comprises continental to shallow marine
clastics. This succession is completely different in their
stratigraphy from that in the Eastern Taurides, so we therefore
retain the Emirgazi Formation.
The type locality of the Emirgazi Formation was mapped
by Özgül et al. (1972). Our recent fieldwork has shown that
the succession around the Emirgazi village is probably over-
turned and the variegated shales with interbedded nodular
limestones, previously attributed to the Emirgazi Formation,
represent the lower part of the Seydiºehir Formation. Howev-
er, along numerous sections in the Kozan, Feke, Tufanbeyli
and Saimbeyli areas there is a very thick package of low-
grade metamorphic siliciclastic rocks with bands and lenses
of black shales, lydites (Oruclu Member) and stromatolitic,
ankeritic and cherty limestones and dolomites (ùcmetepe
Member). Except for a few badly preserved and undetermined
trace fossils within the ùcmetepe Member no organic remains
have yet been reported.
The illite crystallinity (IC) value of the white micas of the
Emirgazi Formation is <0.25 indicating epimetamorphic con-
ditions prior to the deposition of the overlying Cambrian rocks
(Bozkaya et al. 2002).
In the Western Taurides, a very similar unit has been recog-
nized recently and described as the Sandôklô Basement Com-
plex (Gürsu & Göncüoûlu 2001). This is composed of silici-
clastic rocks with rare black chert and dolomite lenses and
includes conglomerates, dark coloured brecciated limestones,
cherty and laminated limestones interbedded with sandstones.
This low-grade metamorphic unit is intruded by porphyroids,
which in turn are unconformably overlain by variegated con-
glomeratic sandstones and shales with basic to intermediate
lava flows. Upwards, they grade into green, violet and yellow
quartz siltstones, which have yielded Early Cambrian trace fos-
sils (Uchmann et al. 2000). Although some discontinuous con-
glomerate pockets with diabase, quartzite and quartz-porphyry
pebbles occur between the uppermost ùcmetepe lithologies and
the overlying Feke siliciclastics, the distinct angular unconfor-
mity we identified (Gürsu & Göncüoûlu 2001) in the Sandôklô
area has not yet been proven in the Eastern Taurides. However,
based on regional correlation, we ascribe the low-grade meta-
morphic rocks of the Emirgazi Formation in the Eastern Tau-
rides to the Precambrian basement of the Taurides.
This unit was named the Kocyazô Member of the Emirgazi
Formation by Özgül & Kozlu (2002). The Feke Quartzite ?un-
conformably overlies the Emirgazi Formation. The type locali-
PALEOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY OF THE EASTERN TAURIDES (TURKEY) 435
Fig. 2. a Distribution of the tectono-stratigraphic units in the Eastern Taurides (after Özgül 1976): 1 Bolkardaûô Unit, 2 Aladaû
Unit, 3 Bozkôr Unit, 4 Geyik Daûô Unit, 5 Antalya Unit, 6 Alanya Unit, 7 Misis Unit. b Simplified geological map of the
study area (modified from Metin et al. 1986).
ty is to the north of the town of Feke, where the measured
thickness of the unit reaches up to 600 meters. Despite lateral
thickness variations, the Feke Quartzite Formation can be
traced all along the Eastern Tauride Belt.
The formation correlates with the Hüdai Quartzite, and Za-
buk Formation, both synonyms of the Feke Quartzite in the
Western Taurides (Dean & Özgül 1994) and SE Anatolia
(Kellog 1960), respectively.
Çal Tepe Formation
In the Eastern Taurides an almost 110 m-thick carbonate
sequence conformably overlying the Feke Quartzite Forma-
tion was described by Demirtaºlô (1978) as the Deûirmentaº
Formation, the equivalent of the Çal Tepe Formation. The
latter was described by Dean & Monod (1970) at its type lo-
cality at Çal Tepe near Seydiºehir and from the Sandôklô ar-
eas (Dean & Özgül 1994) in the Central Taurides. Following
Dean & Monod (1990), we use the term Çal Tepe Formation
to describe this unit in the entire Tauride Belt. In the Saim-
beyli area, on the road from Armutalan village to Naltaº in
the Babadere Valley (Fig. 3), sample CON-4 from the red
nodular limestones of the uppermost part of Çal Tepe Forma-
tion yielded poorly preserved conodonts (Fig. 4) with a CAI
(Conodont Alteration Index) of 78. These may belong to
Proconodontus. We tentatively ascribe the uppermost part of
the Çal Tepe Formation to the Upper Cambrian (Miller
The grey limestones in the lowermost part of the formation
at its type locality in Seydiºehir area have yielded small shelly
fossils which mark the Lower-Middle Cambrian transition
(Sarmiento et al. 1997). The nodular limestones have been
dated by trilobites and conodonts from different localities in
the Western and Central Taurides (Dean & Monod 1970;
Özgül & Gedik 1973; Gedik 1977, 1989; Dean & Özgül 1994;
Göncüoûlu & Kozur 1999a). The fossil data indicate an early
436 M.C. GÖNCÜOLU, Y. GÖNCÜOLU, KOZUR and KOZLU
Middleearly Late Cambrian depositional age. It is important
to note that the trilobites in this formation display strong affin-
ities with those of southern France and Spain (Dean & Monod
An almost 1300 m-thick sequence, consisting mainly of si-
liciclastic rocks was named the Armutludere Formation by
Demirtaºlô (1978). This name was superseded by Dean &
Monod (1990), as it is identical with the Seydiºehir Forma-
Fig. 3. Generalized columnar section of the Cambrian and Ordovi-
cian units in Eastern Taurides (modified from Metin et al. 1986).
CON-7 Conodont sample horizons.
tion, first described by Blumenthal (1947) in the Central Tau-
rides. Its lower contact with the Çal Tepe Formation in the
Eastern Taurides is conformable.
From bottom to the top (Fig. 3) the unit consists of Baba-
dere Limestone Member (Metin et al. 1986), a middle and un-
named member, represented by an about 1100 m-thick se-
quence of slates and quartzarenites, and Sobova Limestone
Member, which was initially described by Monod (1977) in
the Beyºehir area in the western Central Taurides. The thick-
ness of this member in the Kozan area is about 25 m. The dark
grey bioclastic limestone lenses within grey siltstones/shales
in the lower part of the member are very rich in brachiopods,
trilobite fragments and corals. The middle part consists of a
grey, almost 4 m-thick, medium to thick-bedded, sandy lime-
stone band with abundant Cystoides sp. The bedding-planes
of the limestones are characterized by hardgrounds. The upper
part of the member includes thin bands and lenses of dark
grey sandy limestones interlayered with siltstones and termi-
nates with grey silty shales.
The lithofacies of the Seydiºehir Formation as a whole rep-
resents open-shelf depositional environments. The Babadere
lithofacies may correspond to an upper offshore depositional
environment with carbonate-tempestites (Einsele 1992). The
main body of the formation includes a large number of coars-
ening-upwards sequences. Distinctive depositional features of
the carbonates and associated siliciclastics in the Sobova
Limestone Member are suggestive of a mixed carbonate-si-
liciclastic tempestite-type deposition in a shelf environment.
Sample CON-5 comes from a road-cut on the Armutalan-
Naltaº road in Babadere Valley about 15 m above the top of
the Çal Tepe Formation, from the first nodular limestone band
in the Seydiºehir Formation (Fig. 3). This sample yielded
poorly preserved (CAI = 78) Protopanderodus? sp. and
Scolopodus sp. (Fig. 4), suggesting a Tremadocian age. The
next sample from this section (CON-7) is from a carbonate
band, about 45 m above the previous sample (Fig. 3). It repre-
sents the last limestone band of the lower member of the
Seydiºehir Formation in this location, from where mostly tur-
biditic shales were observed. This sample contains poorly pre-
served (CAI = 78) oistodiform elements, indicating an Early
(to Middle) Ordovician age.
Dean (1972, in Özgül et al. 1972) reported trilobites from
the same layers in Toybuk Yayla to the north of Tufanbeyli
and suggested a Tremadocian age for the lower part of the
Seydiºehir Formation. In the upper parts of the formation to
the south of Saimbeyli, Dean & Monod (1990) found
Taihungshania cf. migueli, which closely resembles an early
Arenig species from southern France.
In previous studies the Sobova Member of the Seydiºehir
Formation was neglected and the Middle Ordovician was pre-
sumed to be a period of non-deposition (e.g. Özgül et al.
1972; Dean & Monod 1990). The bands and lenses of lime-
stones in the Sobova Member in the Kozan area have yielded
a diverse conodont fauna: Ansella jemtlandica (Löfgren), Bal-
toniodus navis (Lindström), Baltoniodus cf. navis, Baltonio-
dus norrlandicus (Löfgren), and was attributed to the Baltonio-
dus norrlandicus Biozone (VolkhovKunda stage boundary)
based on the occurrence of the index species in the investigated
levels (Sarmiento et al. 2003).
PALEOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY OF THE EASTERN TAURIDES (TURKEY) 437
Our findings, together with the trilobite data, indicate that
the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary is within the lowermost
Seydiºehir Formation, between samples CON-4 and CON-5.
Convincing evidence of a disconformity has not been found
during our field observations in this part of the sequence. This
contrasts with Dean & Özgüls (1994) suggestion that Ordovi-
cian strata were deposited after a depositional break. Howev-
er, only a very few and poorly preserved (CAI = 78) con-
odonts were found in the uppermost Çal Tepe and lower
Seydiºehir Formations. In the Western Taurides (ªenel et al.
2000) and western Central Taurides (Alanya region, Göncü-
oûlu & Kozur 1999a) Late Cambrian conodonts were reported
in equivalents of the lower Seydiºehir Formation.
In the Hadim area of the Central Taurides, a red nodular
limestone band, 100 m above the Çal Tepe Formation has
yielded Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician conodonts. Gedik
(1977) determined Oneotodus cf. gallatini Müller and Fur-
nishina furnishi Müller at the same location from a similar
nodular limestone band from the lowermost 50 m of the
Seydiºehir Formation, indicating a Late Cambrian age. The
same author also mentions the presence of Hertzina bisulcata
Müller and O. tenuis Müller in the lower part of the se-
quence, but does not indicate the exact stratigraphic positions.
Gedik (1977, 1988) has described from bands of red nodu-
lar limestones in the lower part of the Seydiºehir Formation
early Arenig conodonts from a sliver of the Antalya Nappe, a
few kilometers north of the Alanya Tectonic Window to the
north of Kaº Yaylasô. The presence of Oepicodus evae (Lind-
ström) and Trapezognathus triangularis (Lindström) in this
locality indicates the upper part of the lower and the middle
Arenig. From 5 km north of the former locality, Gedik (1977)
further reported Cordylodus angulatus of early to middle
Tremadocian age. On the basis of these data, Dean & Monod
(1990) concluded that the depositional age of the Seydiºehir
Formation was Tremadocian to Arenig and may reach up to late
middle Arenig. The new finding of Darriwilian limestones in
the Ovacôk area, Southern Taurides (Kozlu et al. 2002) and in
the Kozan area (Sarmiento et al. 2003) now indicate that its
deposition may reach up to the upper Middle Ordovician.
Sort Tepe Formation
Dean & Monod (1990) recently described a previously un-
recognized unit that overlies the Seydiºehir Formation in the
Deûirmentaº area with an inferred unconformity in the vicini-
ty of Tufanbeyli. On the basis of lithological correlation with
the Sort Tepe Formation in the Zap Valley of Southeast Ana-
tolia, the authors also used this name in the Eastern Taurides.
A very well developed succession of the unit was also ob-
served by the first author in the Halevik Dere area, where it
rests with an angular unconformity on the brown to green
cleaved siltstones of the Seydiºehir Formation. Trilobite find-
ings from this unit (Dean & Monod 1990) in the Deûirmentaº
area (Fig. 2) indicate an early Ashgill age.
The conglomerates, conglomeratic sandstones and sand-
stones unconformably overlying the Sort Tepe Formation
were assigned by Demirtaºlô (1978) to the Halit Yaylasô For-
mation and assumed to represent the basal conglomerates of
transgressive Silurian deposition (e.g. Metin et al. 1986; Dean
& Monod 1990). Özgül et al. (1972) noted that this unit has
also been observed in the northwestern and southwestern
parts of the Eastern Taurides. The total thickness of the forma-
tion in the type locality is about 140 meters (Metin et al.
1986). In the Halevik Dere area the thickness of the formation
does not exceed 80 m. In a recent study, Monod et al. (2003)
have shown that the unit represents glacier-related deposition.
The acritarchs and brachiopods in the upper part of this unit
are of Ashgill and more precisely Hirnantian (Tanuchitina
elongata Zone) age in the Ovacôk area (Monod et al. 2003). In
the Eastern Taurides, the age of the unit can only be bracketed
between early Ashgill (underlying Sort Tepe Formation) and
early Llandovery (overlying Puscu Tepe Shale Formation).
Puscu Tepe Shale Formation
This formation conformably overlies the Halit Yaylasô For-
mation (Fig. 5). It is about 80 m thick. The black shales of this
formation yielded graptolites including M. convolutes, which
is one of the zonal index species of the middle Aeronian (mid-
dle Llandovery, Özgül et al. 1972). The recent sampling of the
black shales in the lower part of the unit by Monod et al. (2003)
provided graptolites indicating the Rhuddanian (acuminatus
Zone) to Telychian Stages.
Time-equivalents of the Puscu Tepe Shale Formation have
so far been described only from a few localities (Tahtalô Unit
in the Western Taurides and the Ovacôk area in the Central
Taurides, Demirtaºlô 1984). Demirtaºlô (1984) distinguished
the Hirmanlô Formation within his Southern and Intermediate
zones in the Ovacôk area, which are parts of the GDU. The
Hirmanlô Formation is composed mainly of very thin-bedded,
pyrite-bearing siliceous black shales alternating with very
finely-laminated black shales yielding early Silurian grapto-
lites. These very finely-laminated shales are assumed to have
been deposited in a deep restricted basin (Demirtaºlô 1984). In
the Antalya Unit in Kemer area in the Western Taurides, Dean
et al. (1999) found conodonts of Pterospathodus celloni Bio-
zone within the nautiloid-limestones in the lower part of the
Sapandere Formation (Marcoux 1979). A rich conodont fauna
of the Pterospathodus eopennatus Biozone of the middle
Telychian (Loydell et al. 2003) was found by Göncüoûlu &
Kozur (2000a) in the overlying greenish-grey limestones.
ô Yayla Formation
The Yukarô Yayla Formation (Demirtaºlô 1978) has a transi-
tional boundary with the underlying Puscu Tepe Shale Forma-
tion (Fig. 5). The limestones in the lower part are rich in nauti-
loids and were named as the Orthoceras Limestone in
previous studies (e.g. Özgül 1976). The lowermost layer of
the lowermost Orthoceras Limestone band on the road be-
tween Armutalan and Naltaº in Deliahmet Dere (sample
CON-9) yielded a deep-water fauna (paleopsychrospheric os-
tracod fauna) with the following conodonts (Fig. 4): Pandero-
dus cf. langkawiensis Igo et Koike, numerous Pterospathodus
amorphognathoides Walliser, P. pennatus procerus Walliser.
438 M.C. GÖNCÜOLU, Y. GÖNCÜOLU, KOZUR and KOZLU
Fig. 4. Representative conodonts from the Saimbeyli-Tufanbeyli area, Eastern Taurides. The position of the samples is indicated in Figs. 3
6. The samples are reposited in the Geology Department of the General Directory of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Ankara. 1
?Proconodontus muelleri Miller, sample CON-4, uppermost Çal Tepe Formation, Upper Cambrian, rep.-no. 2711/II-65. 2 Protopan-
derodus? sp., sample CON-5, lowermost Seydiºehir Formation, Tremadocian, rep.-no. 2711/III-8. 3 Scolopodus sp., sample CON-5,
(see Fig. 2), Tremadocian, rep.-no. 2711/III-9. 45 Panderodus cf. langkawiensis Igo et Koike, sample CON-9, basal part of the Ortho-
ceras limestone of lowermost Yukarô Yayla Formation, P. amorphognathoides Biozone (uppermost Llandovery or lowermost Wenlock);
4 rep.-no. 2711/III-23; 5 rep.-no. 2711/III-24. 6 Juvenile Pterospathodus amorphognathoides Walliser, Pa element, or P. pen-
natus procerus Walliser, Pa element, sample CON-9 (see Figs. 3 and 5), P. amorphognathoides Zone (uppermost Llandovery or lowermost
Wenlock), rep.-no. 2711/III-19. 79, 11, 1314 Pterospathodus amorphognathoides Walliser, sample CON-9, basal part of the Ortho-
ceras limestone of lowermost Yukarô Yayla Formation, (see Figs. 3 and 5), P. amorphognathoides Biozone (uppermost Llandovery or low-
ermost Wenlock); 7 M element, rep.-no. 2711/III-10; 8 Pa element, rep.-no. 2711/III-19; 9 Pb
element, rep.-no. 2711/III-13; 11
element, rep.-no. 2711/III-16; 13 Pa element, rep.-no. 2711/III-18; 14 Pb
element, rep.-no. 2711/III-12. 10, 12 and 15
Ozarkodina sp., sample CON-11, uppermost part of the Orthoceras limestone of lower Yukarô Yayla Formation; 10 Sb element, Lud-
low, rep.-no. 2711/III-33; 12 Sc element, Ludlow, rep.-no. 2711/III-35 (broken into two parts); 15 Sa element, Ludlow, rep.-no. 27
11/III-34. 16 Panderodus sp., sample CON-11 (see Fig. 6), Ludlow, rep.-no. 2711/III-39. 1718 Ozarkodina eladioi Valenzuela-
Rios, Pa element, sample CON-11 (see Fig. 5), Ludlow; 17 lateral view, rep.-no. 2711/III-37; 18 upper view, rep.-no. 2711/III-38.
19 Undetermined conodont, sample CON-37 (see Fig. 5), upper Givetian, rep.-no. 2711/III-47. 20 Polygnathus cf. parawebbi Chat-
terton, Pa element, upper view, sample CON-37, uppermost part of the Safak Tepe Formation, upper Givetian, rep.-no. 2711/III-45. 21
Polygnathus cf. webbi Stauffer, sample CON-37, (see Fig. 6), upper Givetian, rep.-no. 2711/III-48. All scale bars = 100 µm.
PALEOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY OF THE EASTERN TAURIDES (TURKEY) 439
These conodonts indicate the P. amorphognathoides Biozone
of latest Llandovery to earliest Wenlock age (Subcomission
on Silurian Stratigraphy 1995).
Sample CON-10 from the thinner bedded middle part of the
nodular limestone contains some poorly preserved ostracods,
whereas the uppermost layers (sample CON-11) are very rich
in deep-water ostracods with Tricorninidae and conodonts
(Fig. 4) such as Ozarkodina eladioi Valenzuela-Rios, Ozarko-
dina sp., Panderodus unicostatus, suggesting, together with
the ostracods, a late Silurian age (Subcomission on Silurian
Stratigraphy 1995). The limestone bands of the upper member
yielded only poorly preserved ostracods and indeterminable
fragments of conodonts (sample CON-14). All Silurian con-
odonts have CAI = 5.
In the Konya area of the Central Taurides, dark coloured
siltstones and shales alternating with tuffaceous layers and
distal turbiditic black cherts (ribbon cherts) within the low-
Fig. 5. Generalized columnar section of the Silurian units in the
Eastern Taurides (modified from Metin et al. 1986). CON-11 Con-
odont sample horizons.
grade metamorphic Turbidite Unit (Göncüoûlu et al. 2000a)
yielded Muellerispherida of Wenlock age (Kozur 1999).
ô Tepesi Formation
The medium- to thick-bedded, laminated and cross-bedded,
white to pink, well-sorted shallow-marine quartz-arenites
transgressively overlying the Yukarô Yayla Formation were
described first by Özgül et al. (1972). The sandy limestones in
the upper part of the formation are unconformably overlain by
the Safak Tepe Formation (Fig. 6). Except for a few poorly
preserved brachiopods (Strephodonta? sp., Acrosprifer sp.),
which could indicate an Early Devonian age, no fossils has
been found in this unit.
The Lower Devonian rocks in the Silifke-Anamur area,
Demirtaºlô (1984) described a succession of quartzite and
limestone with shaly alternations conformably overlying the
upper SilurianLower Devonian. An Early Devonian age was
suggested for this formation by Demirtaºlô (1984). In the
northern Central Taurides of the Konya area, siliciclastic
rocks of late Ludlowearly Lochkovian age underlie and
grade into massive limestones. The lowermost layers are rep-
resented by nodular limestones with late Lochkovian con-
odonts, followed by Orthoceras Limestones that include
upper LochkovianPragian conodonts (Göncüoûlu et al.
2000a). In the western Central Taurides, Göncüoûlu & Kozur
(2000b) have shown that conglomeratic sandstones and late
lower to mid middle Lochkovian (Lower Devonian) lime-
stones disconformably overlie the upper Silurian (Gedik
1977). A rich conodont fauna in the lowermost limestones in
this locality indicates mid to late early Lochkovian age. As a
result, an early to middle Lochkovian age was assigned to the
Ayô Tepesi Formation, on the basis of the correlation with the
similar units in the Central Taurides.
Safak Tepe Formation
The Safak Tepe Formation unconformably overlies the Ayô
Tepesi Formation. The main body of this formation is com-
posed of dark grey to black, thick bedded, partly dolomitic bio-
genic limestones with abundant corals including Amphipora ra-
mosa Phillips, Thamnophyllum trigemme, Calcaeola sandalina
and Coenites sp. (Özgül et al. 1972; Metin et al. 1986). The
thickness of the formation varies from 1500 m to about 750 m
in the type locality (Fig. 6). There is no agreement on the age of
the formation (Özgül et al. 1972: Givetian; Demirtaºlô 1978:
EmsianGivetian; Metin et al. 1986: Eifelian).
The uppermost layers of the formation on the eastern flank
of Domuz Daû (NW of Tufanbeyli, sample CON-37) are rich
in shallow marine conodonts (Fig. 7), such as Icriodus cf.
brevis Stauffer, Polygnathus cf. webbi Stauffer and P. cf.
parawebbi Chatterton. I. brevis occurs from the middle
Givetian to Frasnian. The occurrence of Calceola sandalina
Lamarck in the Safak Tepe Formation indicates upper? Eife-
lian. Sample CON-37 from the top of the formation indicates
a middle to late Givetian age. Thus, the Safak Tepe Formation
comprises the Eifelian and Givetian.
The Amphipora-limestones of the Safak Tepe Formation are
considered to be one of the key-horizons throughout the Tau-
440 M.C. GÖNCÜOLU, Y. GÖNCÜOLU, KOZUR and KOZLU
rides. They are found in the Silifke-Anamur area (Demirtaºlô
1984), the Konya area (Göncüoûlu & Kozur 1998; Göncüoûlu
et al. 2000a) and in the Central Taurides (Özgül 1984). Howev-
er, there is no control on the exact age of this unit and any long-
distance correlation in the Taurides, based only on the occur-
rence of Amphipora may be misleading.
This formation, about 500 m-thick, consists of alternations
of dolomites, limestones, shales, sandstones, siltstones, cal-
careous sandstones and quartzites (Fig. 6). It conformably
overlies the Safak Tepe Limestone. Özgül et al. (1972) report-
Fig. 6. Generalized columnar section of the Devonian units in
Eastern Taurides (modified from Metin et al. 1986). CON-20 Con-
odont sample horizons.
ed brachiopods from the uppermost limestone levels just be-
neath the Spinatrypa Beds, suggesting a Frasnian age.
Çapkônoûlu (1991) described conodonts from a 6 cm-thick
ostracod-bearing (Cryptophyllus-Beds) grainstone bed about
449 m above the base of the Gümüºali Formation in Cürükler
village NE of Feke in the Saimbeyli-Tufanbeyli Autochthon,
indicating the middle Palmatolepis triangularis Biozone of
the lower Fammenian.
Sample CON-20, from the lower to middle part of the for-
mation (Fig. 6) from black limestone layers contains only a
broken specimen (Fig. 7) of Icriodus brevis, indicating a shal-
low-water environment and a middle Givetian to Frasnian
age. Sample CON-21 from the medium-bedded limestone in
the upper part of the medium to thick-bedded biostromal lime-
stones yielded scolecodonts (indicators of shallow water) and
shallow-water conodonts (Fig. 7), such as Ancyrodella pristi-
na Khalimbadzha et Chernysheva, numerous Icriodus brevis
Stauffer, and Polygnathus stylus Stauffer. The fauna indicates
an early Frasnian age (Ziegler & Sandberg 1990). All Devo-
nian conodonts have a CAI of 23.
The uppermost layers of the iron-rich oolitic sandstones
contain (Özgül et al. 1972) Leptagonia analoga (Phillips) in-
dicating a latest Devonian age.
The Ziyarettepe Formation conformably overlies the
Gümüºali Formation except at a single locality to the north of
Sarôz. In the type section in Naltaº Gedigi (Plodowski &
Salancô 1990) the formation is about 400 m thick (Fig. 8). The
lower part of the sequence is considered to be one of the refer-
ence sections for the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary and
hence was studied in detail by Demirtaºlô (1978) and
Plodowski & Salancô (1990). The former author suggested
that the lower part of the formation with Whidbornella sp. is
of Etroeungtian (= Strunian) age. The latter authors defined
the 100 m-thick lower part of the sequence between the basal
limestone layers and the black shales as the Naltaº Member
and studied the brachiopods, trilobites and sporomorphs in de-
tail. They suggest a typical Strunian-fauna and, therefore,
came to the same stratigraphic conclusion as Demirtaºlô
Sample CON-23 is from the lowermost layers of the sandy
limestones (Fig. 8) following the Leptagonia-Beds and repre-
sents the lowermost part of the Naltaº Member. The sample
yielded the following conodonts (Fig. 7): Bispathodus aculea-
tus (Branson et Mehl) and Pseudopolygnathus vogesi Rhodes,
Austin et Druce, suggesting a latest Devonian to earliest Car-
boniferous (Siphonodella crenulata Biozone, Sandberg et al.
1978) age. Sample CON-23 belongs to the uppermost Devo-
nian taking into consideration that Bispathodus aculeatus
(common in sample CON-23) is more common in the upper-
most Devonian than in the lowermost Carboniferous and that
both Demirtaºlô (1978) and Plodowski & Salancô (1990) found
latest Devonian brachiopods, trilobites and sporomorphs in
these beds. In addition to conodonts this sample is rich in fish
remains (mainly hybodontid teeth). Sample CON-18, from the
Naltaº type section, was taken from the upper marly limestone
layers between the basal sandy limestone level, represented
PALEOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY OF THE EASTERN TAURIDES (TURKEY) 441
Fig. 7. Representative conodonts from the Saimbeyli-Tufanbeyli area, Eastern Taurides. The position of the samples is indicated in Figs. 58.
The samples are reposited in the Geology Department of the General Directory of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Ankara. 1, 4
Icriodus cf. brevis Stauffer, Pa element, upper view, sample CON-37, uppermost part of the Safak Tepe Formation, upper Givetian; 1
rep.-no. 2711/III-46; 4 rep.-no. 2711/III-44. 2 Oulodus? sp., Pb element, sample CON-37 (see Fig. 6), upper Givetian, rep.-no. 27
11/III-50. 3 Ancyrodella pristina Khalimbadza et Chernyseva, Pa element, upper view, sample CON-21, upper reefal limestone member
of lower Gümüºali Formation, lower Frasnian, rep.-no. 2711/III-56. 56 Polygnathus cf. parawebbi Chatterton; Pa element, upper view,
sample CON-37 (see Fig. 6), upper Givetian; 5 rep.-no. 2711/III-43; 6 rep.-no. 2711/III-42. 78 Icriodus brevis Stauffer, sample
CON-20, lower reefal limestone member of lower Gümüºali Formation (see Fig. 8), lower Frasnian; 7 broken Pa element, upper view,
rep.-no. 2711/III-41; 8 Pa element, upper view, rep.-no. 2711/III-54. 911 Polygnathus xylus Stauffer, sample CON-21, upper reefal
limestone of lower Gümüºali Formation, lower Frasnian; 9 Pa element, free blade broken during preparation for SEM, upper view, rep.-
no. 2711/III-57; 10 Pa element, lower view, rep.-no. 2711/III-55; 11 upper view, rep.-no. 2711/III-59. 12 Pseudopolygnathus
vogesi Rhodes, Austin et Druce, Pa element, upper view, sample CON-23, lowermost Naltaº Member of basal Ziyarettepe Formation, upper-
most Famennian, rep.-no. 2711/III-2. 1314 Bispathodus aculeatus aculeatus (Branson et Mehl), Pa element, sample CON-23 (see
Fig. 8), uppermost Famennian; 13 lateral view, rep.-no. 2711/III-1; 14 oblique upper view, rep.-no. 2711/III-4. 15 Polygnathus
cf. communis Branson et Mehl, sample CON-18, uppermost part of Naltaº Member, lower Ziyarettepe Formation, uppermost Famennian,
rep.-no. 2711/III-40. All scale bars = 100 µm.
442 M.C. GÖNCÜOLU, Y. GÖNCÜOLU, KOZUR and KOZLU
by sample CON-23, and the overlying black shales (Fig. 8),
just above sample KF-4 of Özgül et al. (1972), which con-
tained Sinuatella sinuata Dekoninck, Whidbornella caperata
Sowerby, Rhipodomella michelini Leveille and Athyris (com-
posita) cf. ambiqua Sowerby. Sample CON-18 contains
Polygnathus communis Branson et Mehl (Fig. 7) indicating a
latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous age (Sandberg et al.
1978). This age is in good agreement with Plodowski &
Salancô (1990), who suggested that the Devonian-Carbonifer-
ous boundary is within the black shales.
Fig. 8. Generalized columnar section of the Carboniferous and
Permian units in Eastern Taurides (modified from Metin et al.
1986). B.SH Black Shale member, CON-18 Conodont sam-
The equivalent of the Ziyarettepe Formation was described
by Demirtaºlô (1978) from the Silifke area in the Central Tau-
rides (Korucak Formation). The lower part of this unit con-
tains a very similar fauna and is also ascribed a Strunian age
by Plodowski & Salancô (1990). The youngest age obtained
yet from the upper part of the Ziyarettepe Formation in the
Geyik Daûô Unit in Saimbeyli-Tufanbeyli area is Visean
(Özgül et al. 1972; Özgül & Kozlu 2002). However, deposi-
tion of shallow-marine carbonates and clastics in the Aladaû
Unit of the Taurides continued into the early Moscovian
(Özgül 1997) and very probably until the Late Carboniferous
(Gzelian) and Early Permian (Sakmarian) as indicated by the
recent findings of Okuyucu (2002) in the Yahyalô area.
The Ziyarettepe Formation is unconformably overlain by
the Upper Permian Yôgôlô Tepe Formation, which is more than
410 m thick (Fig. 8). Metin et al. (1986) reported that the Up-
per Permian limestones locally overlie Lower Carboniferous
units, which could suggest an important erosional period prior
to its deposition. The limestones are rich in foraminifers indi-
cating an Late Permian (Murghabian) age (Özgül & Kozlu
Remarks on the geological evolution along the
It is commonly agreed that the Taurides represent the north-
ern margin of Gondwana (e.g. Dean et al. 2000; Cocks 2001).
However, there is a wide range of suggestions (e.g. Stampfli
2001) about the detailed paleogeographical position of it in
regard to the peri-Gondwanan terranes (e.g. Avalonia, E Euro-
pean terranes or NE Africa/Arabia). To decipher the succes-
sion of events along the Tauride Belt in the western, central
and eastern parts a correlation chart of the Precambrian to
Lower Carboniferous lithologies is given in Fig. 9.
In the GDU in the Eastern Taurides, the pre-Middle Cam-
brian (?Late Precambrian) basement is represented mainly by
fault-controlled shallow marine sediments with acid and basic
volcanic rocks. Farther west, in the western Central Taurides
(Afyon area), within-plate-type rhyolites and granitoides in-
truded by basic volcanic rocks dominate over sedimentary
rocks (Gürsu & Göncüoûlu 2001). This basement complex is
interpreted as representing the formation of post-Pan-African
extensional basins along the northern margin of peri-Gondwa-
na. The Lower Cambrian rocks in the Afyon area disconform-
ably cover the basement rocks and start with red continental
clastics associated with back-arc-type basaltic-andesitic vol-
canism and grade into siliciclastic rocks with Lower Cam-
brian trace fossils (Gürsu & Göncüoûlu 2001). This succes-
sion is interpreted as representing rift-related deposition in the
western Central Taurides. In the Eastern Taurides, this basal
succession is not observed, but marine siliciclastic rocks of
the Feke Quartzite directly overlie the Emirgazi Formation.
This would imply that the rifting and the marine transgression
on the Precambrian basement commenced in the Afyon area
and then transgressed the Eastern Taurides. Considering the
PALEOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY OF THE EASTERN TAURIDES (TURKEY) 443
paleogeographical position of Gondwana during the Early
Cambrian (e.g. Unrug 1997) this regional transgression is
from the northwest, suggesting a rapid subsidence in the area
to the northwest of the Taurides and hence the opening of a
relatively deep basin. This event is clearly indicated in the
subsidence curve in Fig. 10, where maximum subsidence
rates are attained during the CambrianEarly Ordovician peri-
ods. Göncüoûlu (1997) suggested that this Early Paleozoic
basin was opened by back-arc spreading, generated by south-
ward subduction of the Iapetus oceanic crust, along the north
Gondwanan margin and separated some Gondwana-derived
terranes (e.g. ùstanbul Terrane of Göncüoûlu & Kozur 1998)
from the main continent. In a recent work, Raumer et al.
(2002) proposed a similar scenario and put forward that the
Rheic Ocean, separating Avalonia from Gondwana had a lat-
eral continuation in the eastern peri-Gondwanan terranes, to
which the Taurides belong.
The Lower Ordovician in the Western, Central and Eastern
Tauride units comprising the Tremadocian and Arenig Series
(Seydiºehir Formation) is characterized by monotonous silici-
clastic deposition represented by tempestites. Towards the
end of the early Llanvirn, shallowing-upward sequences de-
veloped. The Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) carbonate
rocks are known in the Geyik Daûô Unit in the Southern Tau-
rides and in the study area. This unit may indicate that the ba-
sin to the north of the Taurides was filled and probably raised
above the sea level (Fig. 10). It is important to note that the
Darriwilian conodont fauna in the southern Central Taurides
includes taxa known from the Baltoscandian region (Sarmien-
to et al. 2003). As a result, it is suggested that the Baltic Ter-
rane was in close proximity to the Gondwana-related terranes
to exchange benthic shelly faunas during the Middle Ordovi-
cian. ?Late Caradoc and Ashgill sandstones, siltstones and
shales (turbidites) with peri-Gondwana cold-water fossil asso-
ciations occur in the Geyik Daûô and Antalya Units. They rest
transgressively on Lower Ordovician strata, indicating an ero-
sional period during the early Late Ordovician (Fig. 9). This
regional unconformity was accompanied by a thermal event
Fig. 9. Correlation chart of the lithological units in the Western, Central and Eastern Taurides (revised after Göncüoûlu & Kozlu 2000).
444 M.C. GÖNCÜOLU, Y. GÖNCÜOLU, KOZUR and KOZLU
(Göncüoûlu & Kozur 1999b), which is accentuated by the
sudden change of the conodont CAI-values in the Cambrian
(CAI=78) to Silurian (CAI=5) rock-units and the differenc-
es in the illite crystallinity index values, b
ic matter maturation and polytypes of K-micas of the
Seydiºehir and the unconformably overlying Sort Tepe For-
mations (Bozkaya et al. 2002). This feature may indicate an
important tectonic event along the peri-Gondwana margin as
recorded in many other places in Europe (see Raumer et al.
2002) and ascribed to the opening of Paleotethys sensu
In the GDU, the uppermost part of the Ordovician is repre-
sented by a glacio-fluvial/glacio-marine succession with
sandstones and dropstones (diamictites) and is conformably
overlain by lower Silurian (Rhuddonian) shales and (Aeron-
ian-Telychian) to upper Silurian Orthoceras Limestones
alternating with black shales, containing a warm-water con-
odont fauna. This has important paleogeographical implica-
tions, as it shows that during the Late Ordovician, the Tau-
rides were at a similar paleo-latitude to the other peri-
Gondwanan terranes such as NW Spain, N Africa and Arabia,
which were also covered by the South Polar ice-sheet. The
following early Silurian transgression and deposition of or-
ganic-rich shales and nautiloid limestones in the Taurides is
also typical for the whole North African region (e.g. Lüning et
al. 2000). During the mid to late Silurian, the GDU in the
Eastern Taurides was probably in an upper-slope tectonic set-
ting, where terrigenous and volcanogenic sediments alternate
with calcareous ones. In contrast to the GDU, the Wenlock
and Ludlow in the KBB are represented by turbiditic shales,
ribbon-cherts, radiolarites, felsic tuffs and include MORB
(Mid-Oceanic Ridge Basalt)-type (Kurt 1994) basic volcanic
rocks. Thus, we can assume that the KBB was in a more inter-
Fig. 10. Subsidence history (with inferred water depths) for the Pa-
leozoic units of the Eastern Taurides. The shaded area indicates the
water depth. MSL Mean Sea Level, C Cambrian, O Or-
dovician, S Silurian, D Devonian, Car Carboniferous, P
nal position (with regard to the Paleotethys sensu Stampfli
2001) than the GDU.
Devonian deposition occurred during the development of a
large carbonate platform on the northern Gondwanan and
peri-Gondwanan terranes (e.g. Gedik 1988). The local uncon-
formities and differences in the stratigraphy of the Devonian
rock-units in the Taurides (Fig. 9), however, can hardly be ex-
plained by lateral facies changes and suggest that this plat-
form may have been the site of smaller carbonate platforms,
separated by intervening extensional basins. The Lower De-
vonian in the Geyik Daûô, Kütahya-Bolkardaû, Antalya and
probably Alanya Units are almost identical and represent
shelf-type carbonate deposition (Fig. 9). The Lower Devonian
basal quartzites in the Eastern Taurides are interpreted to mark
an unconformity. In the Anamur area, the basal quartzites are
underlain by conglomerates. As the uppermost levels of the
Yukarô Yayla Formation could not be precisely dated, it is as
yet uncertain whether this Early Devonian event is accompa-
nied by a non-depositional/erosional period, which may in-
clude the uppermost Silurian (Fig. 8). If this is confirmed by
detailed biostratigraphic work, the Early Devonian unconfor-
mity in the Taurides may indicate a tectonic event, which co-
incided with the stepwise detachment of some small micro-
continents from Gondwana, that triggered the opening of
Paleotethys (e.g. Raumer et al. 2002). The occurrence of Mid-
dle Devonian basaltic volcanism in the Sarôz area, Eastern
Taurides, and the fact that the Middle Devonian carbonates
commence with an unconformity on the Lower Devonian
units may also be considered as indications of this event. On
the other hand, it is important to note that the middle to lower
Upper Devonian rocks in the KBB are very similar to the
Middle-Upper Devonian shallow-water carbonates in the rest
of the Tauride units. Thus, it cannot be clearly resolved
whether the KBB was already detached from the Taurides
during the Early to Middle Devonian interval.
During the Early Carboniferous the depositional features
and succession of events in the GDU of Taurides and the
KBB are completely different. In the former, the Devonian-
Carboniferous transition is marked by continuous deposition
(Fig. 9) of shallow-marine carbonates, sandstones and shales,
followed by neritic limestones of Visean age. In the Catalotu-
ran Nappe of the Aladaû Unit, which is considered to be locat-
ed paleogeographically between the Geyik Daûô and KBB
Units (Özgül 1976), the Tournaisian and lower Visean are
characterized by turbiditic limestones, alternating with radi-
olarian cherts and tuffs, which reflect the basin-slope toe envi-
ronment (Tekeli et al. 1984). In the KBB, on the other hand,
the Visean is represented by an olistostrome with bimodal
volcanic rocks (Kurt 1994). It includes olistoliths of the older
formations and paraconformably overlain by Sepukhovian-
Bashkirian neritic limestones. The formation of this Visean
turbidite-olistostrome unit is ascribed to the opening of a
back-arc basin on top of the Devonian carbonate platform in
the KBB (Göncüoûlu et al. 2000b). This would imply that the
KBB had already approached the SW European Variscan
front and had been in the upper plate setting in front of a south-
ward-subducting Paleotethyan oceanic plate. The closure of the
Paleotethys basin between the KBB and the GDU of the Tau-
rides was very probably realized by oblique collision some-
PALEOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY OF THE EASTERN TAURIDES (TURKEY) 445
where between the Late Carboniferous and Late Permian. The
recent finding of Visean flyschoid deep-water sediments (Ko-
zur et al. 1998) and upper Moscovian-Kasimovian ocean island
basalts (Göncüoûlu et al. 2000a) in the Tavas Nappe of the Ly-
cian Nappes may be the remnants of this ocean.
Our new data is based on recent fieldwork and study of con-
odonts. Important new stratigraphical results have been ob-
tained, which enable fine-tuning of the stratigraphy in the
Eastern Tauride Autochthon:
1. The Emirgazi Formation has been re-evaluated. We em-
phasize the presence of basic and felsic igneous lithologies,
which intrude or are interbedded with the siliciclastic rocks,
black shales, lydites and stromatolitic limestones of the for-
mation. The Emirgazi Formation correlates very well with
corresponding units of the Precambrian Basement Complex of
the Western Taurides (e.g. Sandôklô area).
2. The Early Cambrian rifting and the marine transgression
in the Taurides was very probably from northwest to south-
east, indicating the opening of a basin to the northwest.
3. In the Eastern Taurides, conodonts in the uppermost Çal
Tepe Formation indicate that the deposition probably contin-
ued into the Late Cambrian, and that the Cambrian-Ordovi-
cian boundary is close to the base of the Seydiºehir Forma-
tion. In the Central Taurides the same formation is of Middle
Cambrian age, whereas the Upper Cambrian is represented by
the lower part of the Seydiºehir Formation (Dean & Özgül
1994; Sarmiento et al. 1997). Therefore, it is confirmed that
the boundary between the Çal Tepe and Seydiºehir Formation
is a diachronous facies boundary as indicated by Dean &
4. The pink and green nodular limestone bands alternating
with shales/siltstones (Babadere Limestone) in the lower in-
terval of the Seydiºehir Formation comprise a consistent unit.
These are interpreted as proximal carbonate tempestites and
the alternation of the limestones and siliciclastics is typical for
mixed carbonate-siliciclastic tempestites (Einsele 1992). This
unit can be traced all along the Taurides for more than 400 km
and deserves to be defined as a distinct lithostratigraphic unit.
5. The upper age limit of the Seydiºehir Formation was giv-
en in the previous studies as late middle Arenig (Dean &
Monod 1990). Conodonts from the sandy limestone/dolomite
beds with algae (Cystoides) in the Sobova Member of this for-
mation in the Kozan area (Sarmiento et al. 2003) indicate that
the deposition continued up to the Darriwilian (Volkhov
Kunda stage boundary).
6. The angular unconformity associated with a thermal dis-
continuity between the Seydiºehir and Sort Tepe Formations
may indicate an important event during the Middle Ordovician.
7. One of the main findings of the last few years was the
discovery of glaciation-related deposits in the Halit Yaylasô
Formation of the Eastern Taurides by Monod et al. (2003) as
suggested by earlier studies (e.g. Göncüoûlu 1997). The pa-
leogeographical implications of these new data are that the
Taurides were at a similar paleo-latitude to Sardinia and Iberia
at about the end-Ordovician. Regarding the stratigraphy, it is
important to note that the Halit Yaylasô Formation is not of
early Silurian age and does not represent the basal conglomer-
ates of the early Silurian transgression, as formerly suggested.
8. The Puscu Tepe Shale Formation with its well-developed
black shales correlates with the Sapandere Formation of the
upper Antalya Nappe at Kemer (Western Taurides). In the lat-
ter area, this event was ascribed to an apparently very rapid
warming and sea-level rise after the end-Ordovician glacia-
tion. Deposition of black shales during the early Silurian, was
followed by a sea-level drop in the late Telychian in southern
Turkey (Göncüoûlu & Kozur 2000a). The sea-level fluctua-
tions may have lasted from the deposition of the thick pelagic
Orthoceras limestones of the lower Yukarô Yayla Forma-
tion. According to our conodont data, this occurred close to
the base of Wenlock in the P. amorphognathoides Zone. The
same succession of events can be observed in the Central/
9. Previous views that the Yukarô Yayla Formation is either
of late Silurian to Early Devonian age without an unconformi-
ty at the base of the Devonian (Özgül et al. 1972; Demirtaºlô
1978; Metin et al. 1986) or entirely Llandovery in age with a
long gap before the Early Devonian transgression (Dean &
Monod 1990) could not be confirmed. Sample CON-11 from
the lower Yukarô Yayla Formation is not older than middle
Ludlow. In the 200 m-thick shales, siltstones with few lime-
stones of the middle and upper Yukarô Yayla Formation, large
parts of the lower upper Silurian may be present.
10. Our conodont data confirm the view of Plodowski &
Salancô (1990) that the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary lies
within the black shales (Ziyarettepe Formation), as in many
other places of the world.
11. A possible geodynamic scenario based on the available
data is as follows. During the Infracambrian-earliest Cam-
brian periods, the consolidated Pan-African NW Gondwanan
pericratonic margin was rifted by back-arc extension or tran-
stension. The marine transgression in the late Early-early
Middle Cambrian was followed by deposition of slope-type
siliciclactic rocks and hence the presence of a deep (oceanic?)
basin to the north of the Taurides is assumed. Paleobiogeo-
graphical data indicate that the Taurides were at a similar pa-
leo-latitude to Baltica. The Middle Ordovician hiatus and the
corresponding sudden jump in the conodont CAI values have
been ascribed to a tectonic event, which had been recorded
along the peri-Gondwana margin in many other places in Eu-
rope (Raumer et al. 2002) and ascribed to the opening of Pale-
otethys sensu Stampfli (2000). The latest Ordovician saw the
arrival of glaciers from Gondwana and indicate that Baltica
had already drifted away from the Taurides and that the latter
was in a similar paleogeographic position to Iberian and Ar-
morican Terranes. The early Silurian included rapid climatic
changes in the Central and Southern units. There is no record
of these events in the Konya area, Northern Taurides, where
oceanic deposition continued until the end of the Silurian. The
open shelf to slope deposition of this ocean persisted in the
central and southern parts of the Taurides, until the end of the
Silurian. The Early Devonian unconformity in the Geyik Daûô
and Antalya Units is another important difference. The pre-
Middle Devonian unconformity/volcanism and shallow-ma-
rine limestone deposition in the GDU is not observed in the
446 M.C. GÖNCÜOLU, Y. GÖNCÜOLU, KOZUR and KOZLU
KBB and is indicative of block-faulting within the platform.
The Early Carboniferous bimodal volcanism and proximal
flysch formation in the KBB is ascribed to the opening of a
back-arc basin, related to the closure of a Carboniferous oce-
anic basin to the north of the Taurides.
Acknowledgments: We sincerely thank D.K. Loydell (Ports-
mouth), P. Bultynick (Brussels) and P.A. Èejchan (Prague)
for their valuable suggestions. An earlier and unpublished
version of this paper benefited from the review of G.M.
Stampfli (Lausanne), A.ù. Okay (ùstanbul), A.H.F. Robertson
(Edinburgh), and J.I. Valenzuela-Rios (Valencia). The third
author thanks P. Männik (Tallinn) and J.I. Valenzuela-Rios
(Valencia) and for discussions on the age of some faunas, and
TÜBùTAK for the NATO-CP Grant for his stay in Turkey.
The authors acknowledge the contribution of the Turkish Pe-
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