QUATERNARY MALACOFAUNA (NE SERBIA) 273
GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 55, 3, BRATISLAVA, JUNE 2004
QUATERNARY MALACOFAUNA OF THE SMEDEREVO VICINITY
Natural History Museum, Njegoeva 51, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia; email@example.com
(Manuscript received December 11, 2002; accepted in revised form October 2, 2003)
Abstract: A short description of gastropod fauna from loess sediments from the Smederevo vicinity is presented. The
material was collected from four localities in 2002. Due to the terrain coverage observation of loess sediments was not
possible on some occasions, while on the other hand, the correlation between our profiles and neighbouring boreholes
were possible in some instances. Further studies will include other analyses from sediments, deposited in freshwater
environments during the Early and middle Pleistocene and they will also include sedimentological analyses.
Key words: Quaternary, Smederevo, gastropods, loess, fossil soil, paleoecology.
The study was conducted in the Danube area near Pozarevac
in North-Eastern Serbia on a study area that spreads over
about 15 km
. These profiles are described as land loess and
they are underlain by the sediments of middle and Late Pleis-
tocene and Pontian age (ujoviæ 1893; Lukoviæ 1951; Ste-
vanoviæ 1951, 1992; Rudolf 1958; Aleksandroviæ 1959; Obra-
doviæ 1960; Pavloviæ 1974, 1980; Rakiæ 1977, 1990;
Markoviæ-Marjanoviæ 1978a,b; Maroviæ 1984).
The 169 specimens were collected at four localities: 1. Sme-
derevo, 2. Radinac, 3. Vrbovac, and 4. Vranovo (Fig. 1).
The material is kept in the collections of the Natural History
Museum in Belgrade.
The methods of collection
The results of paleontological investigation are influenced
by the way of getting the material. In this study Füköhs tech-
nique of collecting samples is followed (Füköh 1995). The pa-
leontological material, including Quaternary malacological
material can be collected in two basically different ways: with
singling and with en-mass collection. In the case of singling
the molluscan shells visible to the naked eye are collected
from the sediments. The material for the malacological exami-
nation is extracted from the samples by washing the sediments
through the mesh. The rocks used for the extraction of the
samples must be soaked before processing (until they become
pulpy). The specimens are further processed by sieving and
rinsing with hydrogen peroxide. The fauna was generally well
preserved, which allowed the identification of the species and
the assessment of the sediment age. Determination of fossil
material and paleoecological analyses followed the methods
described by Loek (1964) (Table 1). The explanation of sym-
bols is according to Brohmer (1933), Soós (1943), Grossu
(1956, 1993), Loek (1964), Kerney (1983, 1999), Cianger-
herotti (2000) and Pfleger (2000).
27 species of Pleistocene age were identified (Table 2). Pro-
files in the suburb of Smederevo yield the most diverse fauna
represented by 80 examples. From the lithological point of
Fig. 1. The geographical location of all four sites (from the geological
map, page Smederevo L 34126 (Pavloviæ 1980)). 1. a alluvium;
2. p proluvium; 3. dpr proluvium-deluvium; 4. d deluvium;
lower river terrace; 6. t
higher river terrace; 7. lw
land loess (Würm); 8. b-r/w variegated sandy and pebbly clays
and argillaceous sand (RissWürm); 9. Pl
(FROM LOEK 1964)
Forest associated species
Species living mainly in woods
Species living mainly in woods, but also in mesophilous
places and both damp and dry biotopes
Open areas (steppe) in forest biotope
Forestal hygrophilous species
Steppe dry sunny places
Species living in open places without arboreous
Dry and warm habitats
Mesophilous species which sometimes can live in damp
or dry places
Mesic rupestral and scree-forest species
Humidity requiring, cold resistant species
Strongly hygrophilous species living in marshes or in
similar very damp to wet places, generally very close to
Table 1: List of the ecological groups mentioned in the text and ex-
planation of symbols according to Loek (1964).
view, this profile has the best developed dry land loess with-
out any visible stratification and with a rich content of carbon-
Profile I: the brickyard Nikola Krga in downtown
The analysis of the profile from the brickyard Nikola
Krga in downtown Smederevo is performed in the combina-
tion with data from the core B-3/74 (Pavloviæ et al. 1974,
1980). The oldest sediments from the Lower Pontian are rep-
resented by 10 m of grey fine-grained sand. Sediments from
the Lower Pleistocene lay transgressively above Pontian sands
and are represented by 20 m of gravels, detrital silts, and silty
sands (eolian terrace, 85110 m, GünzMindel). Finally, the
upper Pleistocene (RissWürm) is represented by land loess
divided by fossil soils (60 cm in depth) (Fig. 2).
The lower part of the horizon has a diverse fauna with a
high number of warm forms such as: Bradybaena fruticum
(Müller) (5), Arianta arbustorum (Linné) (8), Chondrula
tridens (Müller) (4) (Fig. 3.6), Trichia striolata (Pfeiffer) (2),
Cochlicopa lubricella (Porro) (Fig. 3.2), etc. These species are
known as arianta fauna and is associated with land gastro-
pods characteristic of humid environments (forests, shrubs,
grassland and meadows). They are also indicators of warmer
phases of the late Würm.
According to Loek (1964), Vallonia pulchella (Müller) is a
speies found mostly in grassland and muddy (riverside habi-
tats). During the Quaternary this form is typically found in
warmer periods (interglacial stages) and it suggests that these
areas were not directly influenced by the glaciations. In the
South Morava Valley (Rakiæ 1977) the presence of Vallonia
pulchella (Müller) proves that the effects of colder climate
were present in the form of silt inundation facies and represent
only one kind of change in the framework of persistent dy-
namic phase that happened at the time of climate fluctuations
on the Northern Hemisphere.
Fig. 2. Detailed view of the upper part of the section from Smederevo.
In the upper part of the second (lower) horizon somewhat
colder fauna was determined. This fauna is (Fig. 4) repre-
sented by Pupilla sterri (Voith) (13) (Fig. 3.4), Vallonia tenui-
labris (Braun) (4), Punctum pygmaeum (Draparnaud) (3), Val-
lonia costata (Müller) (1), and others. Xerophilic species
Pupilla sterri (Voith) and Vallonia tenuilabris (Braun) belong
to the group of gastropods that are well adapted to dry condi-
tions and are, therefore, found in arid environments. Xero-
philic gastropods have coarse, and non-permeable shells while
the opening of the mouth can be closed with heavy secretion
that serves as a lid. Adaptation to dry conditions is evident by
the change into the state of hibernation during the periods of
droughts (anabiotic state). Hungarian author Sümegi (1991)
found a strict correlation between the environmental changes
and individual number of the species Pupilla sterri (Voith)
and Vallonia tenuilabris (Braun). It can be used in paleocli-
matic reconstruction as these species prefer a severe continen-
tal climate and are characteristic of steppe populations resis-
tant to dry conditions.
Mesophilic species represent transition between hydrophilic
and xerophilic species and are represented with Trichia hispi-
da (Linné) (3), Punctum pygmaeum (Draparnaud) (3), and
Clausilia dubia Draparnaud (3) (Fig. 3.11) characteristic of
moderately humid environments (forests and meadows).
The presence of hydrophilic species Succinea oblonga
Draparnaud (13) (Fig. 3.10) and Cochlicopa nitens (Gallen-
stein) (1) suggests humid habitats from wet lake, swamp, and
river banks to the soil and detrital material typical of the wet
and dark forests. These species survive only in moist atmo-
spheric conditions and wet soil where the loss of body water is
reduced. Hydrophilic species are very sensitive to the change
in the degree of humidity of their habitats.
QUATERNARY MALACOFAUNA (NE SERBIA) 275
On the basis of faunistic information it is inferred that the
loess at this locality was deposited in the Late Pleistocene dur-
ing the Würm glacial period. The presence of Discus rudera-
tus (Férussac) (2) (Fig. 3.1) in the lower part of the second ho-
rizon where snail assemblage is dominated by Bradybaena
fruticum (Müller), Arianta arbustorum (Linné), Trichia stri-
olata (Pfeiffer), and Chondrula tridens (Müller) indicate the
proximity of RissWürm interglacial stage. Depth of the loess
is approximately 12 m, while the surface layer is represented
by 3 m of anthropogenic deposits.
Profile 2: Novi Kop brickyard Radinac, Radinac
In borehole Radinac B-7/74 and B-82/74 (Pavloviæ 1980)
ostracode fauna was found at the depth of 18.08.5 m suggest-
ing that in this part of the terrain the sediments of middle
Pleistocene age were present. From 15.08.0 m the upper
parts of the middle Pleistocene were present, while from
15.0 m the lower parts of the middle Pleistocene were repre-
sented by freshwater fauna (Fig. 5). Those sediments are rep-
resented with grey-bluish clays, gravelly clays, sands and
gravels. From 8.0 to 2.5 m the younger parts of the middle
Pleistocene could be found and they are represented by the
light brown swamp clays, and clayey sand, with trace amounts
of iron (aquatic facies). The upper two meters consist of dark
yellow land loess made of sand, sandy siltstone, and brown to
yellowish siltstone rich in calcium carbonate. Land gastropod
fauna characteristic of loess habitats are represented by Brady-
baena fruticum (Müller) (8), Trichia striolata (Pfeiffer) (4),
Cochlodina cf. transsylvanica (Bielz) (2) (Fig. 3.12), Discus
ruderatus (Férussac) (1) and others, generally characteristic of
forest habitats and areas with sparse forest and shrub vegeta-
tion (the third stratum) (Fig. 4). This fauna suggests warmer
phases during the colder periods. The great diversity of the
steppe fauna including Chondrula tridens (Müller) (19), Gra-
naria frumentum (Draparnaud) (1), Cepaea vindobonensis
(Férussac) (1) and Helicopsis striata (Müller) (1) (Fig. 3.13)
suggests warmer climate, milder winters and rather dry vege-
tative period (spring, summer, and autumn). The above spe-
cies survived in tree-less environments mostly because herbs
represented by xerophilic and microtherm species adapted to
droughts and frost were abundant. Ch. tridens-fauna accord-
ing to Loek (1964) represents the fauna that is related to the
formation of chernozem, which is a type of very fertile soil
typical of steppe habitats.
Among those the pocket of fossil soil (0.9 m thick) rich in
humus material with relict fine lenticular laminations was ob-
served. This fossil chernozem is degraded and transformed
into the brown clayey soil similar to the clayed loess. In the
upper part the irregular aggregation of humus is observed sug-
gesting solifluction processes. In Austria, the Czech Republic
and Slovakia irregular aggregation of humus inside the loess
formation is called Humus Anreicherung and is usually as-
sociated with the sediments from interstadial phases of the soil
complex PK2 and other equivalents (Rakiæ 1977). In terms of
Vitrea transsylvanica (Clessin)
Discus ruderatus (Férussac)
Cochlodina cf. transsylvanica (Bielz)
Bradybaena fruticum (O.F. Müller)
Arianta arbustorum (Linnaeus)
Vitrea crystallina (Müller)
Trichia striolata (Pfeiffer)
Macrogastra cf. ventricosa (Draparnaud)
Granaria frumentum (Draparnaud)
Pupilla sterri (Voith)
Pupilla triplicata (Studer)
Cepaea vindobonensis (Férussac)
Helicopsis striata (O.F. Müller)
Cecilioides acicula (O.F. Müller)
Chondrula tridens (O.F. Müller)
Catinella arenaria (Bouchard-Chantereaux)
Vallonia pulchella (O.F. Müller)
Vallonia costata (O.F. Müller)
Vallonia tenuilabris (Braun)
Pupilla muscorum (Linnaeus)
Cochlicopa lubricella (Porro)
Clausilia dubia Draparnaud
Punctum pygmaeum (Draparnaud)
Trichia hispida (Linnaeus)
Succinea oblonga Draparnaud
Cochlicopa nitens (Gallenstein)
Succinea putris (Linnaeus)
Table 2: Survey of Quaternary malacofauna of the area Smederevo.
Fig. 3. 1 Discus ruderatus (Férussac), Smederevo. 2 Cochlicopa lubricella (Porro), Smederevo. 3 Pupilla muscorum (Linné), Vra-
novo. 4 Pupilla sterri (Voith), Smederevo. 5a,b Vallonia costata (Müller), Smederevo. 6 Chondrula tridens (Müller), Smederevo.
7 Cecilioides acicula (Müller), Vrbovac. 8 Bradybaena fruticum (Müller), Vrbovac. 9 Trichia hispida (Linné), Vrbovac. 10 Suc-
cinea oblonga Draparnaud, Smederevo. 11 Clausilia dubia Draparnaud, Smederevo. 12 Cochlodina cf. transsylvanica (Bielz), Radi-
nac. 13 Helicopsis striata (Müller), Radinac.
QUATERNARY MALACOFAUNA (NE SERBIA) 277
grain size characteristics and mineral structures, the sandy and
clay siltstones typically have a high siltstone content (60.0
80.0 %) and very irregular quantity of clay (7.018.0 %) and
sand grains (up to 31 %).
Profile 3: Vranovo
The profile was observed in the area of a new brickyard out-
crop in the village of Vranovo. Several parts of land loess are
evident (I, II, III, and IV) and they have been partly extracted,
while on the recently exposed profile fossil soils could be ob-
served (A, B, and C). Land loess is dark yellowish to ochreous
in colour, with a dusty texture coming from its silt compo-
nent, rich in calcium carbonate, and with homogenous content
across large areas. Analysis of calcium carbonates (6.4
37.5 %) was performed, and the results revealed syngenetic
and epigenetic origins. The concretions known as loess nod-
ules are especially important among epigenetic types. They
have a very characteristic shape and can occur in two basic
ways: either irregularly as in the body of whole rock or in the
form of large masses in the lower part of the loess above fossil
soil. Soil complexes A, B, and C, (each sequence is 1 m thick)
indicate the breaks in the eolian accumulation and in the cases
of their multiple succession with loess they are of great strati-
graphic importance (Fig. 4).
If this degraded chernozem is compared with similar in-
stances south-eastern of Iriga on the road to Bankovac, it is
evident that in both cases fossil ground is divided into two or
three humus layers or fossil soils and therefore at certain in-
stances of prolonged profiles, it gives the impression of a larg-
er number of paleopedologic complexes.
Identical two- and three-fold subdivision of other fossil soil
is considered a characteristic of pedologic complex PK2 , and
are recorded from former Czechoslovakia, and fossil soils of
upper Volozian interstage from the former USSR (Rakiæ
1977). Since the brickyard was abandoned it was neither pos-
sible to see the connection with the bedrock nor to infer the re-
lation using the basic geological maps Pozarevac 1:100,000
(Maleseviæ et al. 1980). Low diversity fauna composed of Ch.
tridens (2), P. triplicata (2), and P. muscorum (1) (Fig. 3.3)
and P. sterri (2) suggests that pupilla fauna (Fig. 4) accord-
ing to Loek (1964) was connected with the colder biotopes
during the Würm period, therefore suggesting a colder climate
at the time of the loess dust storms. However, V. Volkov
(Rakiæ 1977) concluded that the percentage of these cold
genera increases with the distance from the north suggesting
that the previous assumption could have a relative effect and
should be used with caution.
Profile 4: Vrbovac
Two uncovered profiles with the length of 20 m each are lo-
cated in the village of Vrbovac. The profiles are vertically cut
and the yellowish loess material could be seen. By structure it
is described as sandy and loamy silt. It is rich in calcium car-
bonate (9.7 %) and occurs in the form of dispersed efflore-
scens and horizons of various depths. In this study, only parts
that were up to 3 m in height were analysed because it was not
possible to assess final parts of the vertical loess profiles. The
relationship with bedrock (the material that is beneath the
loess) was not evident because the profile was greatly covered
with loess. On the basis of fauna (Fig. 4): B. fruticum (3) (Fig.
3.8), Vallonia costata (11) (Fig. 3.5a,b), Ch. tridens (7), Ce-
cilioides acicula (Müller) (1) (Fig. 3.7), Vitrea crystallina (1),
T. hispida (3) (Fig. 3.9) and T. striolata (1) it is evident that
the loess material was formed during an arid phase of the Late
Only one fossil soil (1 m thick, and dark brown in colour)
was recognized from this locality. They are different from
loess and in general they have greater percentages of clay, mi-
crolumpy structure and presence of humus, which is responsi-
ble for the brown colour.
Loess formation in Pannonian Basin started in the middle
and finished at the end of the Pleistocene. Loess was deposit-
Percentage distribution of the terrestrial gastropod fauna on
the basis of ecological groups.
Fig. 5. Graphic logs of boreholes located in the Radinac.
ed during the dry and arid climate, in grasslands (mostly
steppe and cold tundra). Previous conclusions were proved by
histograms and they can be used to deduce that in the profile
Nikola Krga brickyard in Smederevo, and Novi Kop Radi-
nac u Radincu, warm forms such as B. fruticum, A. arbus-
torum, T. striolata and Ch. tridens belonging to the Arianta
fauna occur in relatively warmer phases of the late Würm.
They are succeeded by the colder fauna type: P. sterri, V.
costata, V. tenuilabris, P. pygmaeum etc. The succession of
colder fauna with Ch. tridens and warmer fauna with P.
sterri agrees with the idea of A. Taksiæ (Rakiæ 1977), who be-
lieves that during the deposition of loess in the vicinity of
Vinkovac in the Würm it was characterized by successions of
the cold and warm sequences. Regardless of different opin-
ions this association from the ecological point of view is char-
acteristic of steppe regions. Loess profiles are basically con-
tinuous because the horizons of loess and fossil soil could be
correlated from the relatively distinct localities of Nikola
Krga in downtown Smederevo, Novi kop Radinac in Radi-
nac, Vranovo and Vrbovac. The fact that xerophilic species
succeeded mesophilic species and are in turn succeeded by
hydrophilic species is in agreement with known climate fluc-
tuations. It was inferred that loess was deposited with periods
of hiatus, with the deposition of every loess layer succeeded
by the degradation of crust and the formation of fossil soil.
From the climatological point of view, fossil soil is intergla-
cial or interstadial, therefore suggesting that the loess above
and below it could only be formed during the glacial periods.
More detailed stratigraphic interpretation of loess layers was
not possible at this stage due to lack of fossil material. This
study is an attempt to induce detailed analyses of loess forma-
tions in the vicinity of Smederevo.
Acknowledgments: Work supported by the Ministry of Sci-
ence of Serbia (Assessment of condition and change of bio-
logical and geological variety, modified regions in central
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