ROTATION ALONG ORAVA STRIKE-SLIP FAULT: GEOPHYSICAL AND PALEOMAGNETIC DATA 219
GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 55, 3, BRATISLAVA, JUNE 2004
ROTATION ALONG THE TRANSVERSE TRANSFORMING ORAVA
STRIKE-SLIP FAULT: BASED ON GEOMORPHOLOGICAL,
GEOPHYSICAL AND PALEOMAGNETIC DATA
, HENRYK MARCAK
and EMÖ MÁRTON
Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of
Geomorphology and Hydrology, w. Jana 22, 31-018 Kraków, Poland; email@example.com
Institute of Geophysics, University of Mining and Metallurgy, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków,
Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute of Hungary, Paleomagnetic Laboratory, Columbus 17-23,
H-1145 Budapest, Hungary; firstname.lastname@example.org
(Manuscript received December 12, 2002; accepted in revised form March 16, 2004)
Abstract: Morphostructure pattern suggests rotation of the Orava block along the Orava transforming transversal fault.
The shortening of the Western Carpathians during their shift to the north in a NS direction is well known, but the press
in between the Bohemian Massif and the European Platform also caused substantial shortening in a WE direction. The
crucial role for such tectonic processes was played by the transversal Orava Fault and Orava block rotation. Paleomag-
netic preliminary results and geophysical data seem to confirm such a hypothesis.
Key words: Neogene, Tatra Mts, Orava Basin, paleomagnetism, transforming fault, horizontal rotation, magnetotelluric
profile, Bouguer gravity anomalies.
There are commonly accepted geological models of the Polish
Western Carpathians based on the relationship of this unit to
northern geological paleostructures and structures. They are in
most cases supported by deep geophysical measurements.
This concerns mainly the relationship of the Carpathian Mi-
ocene foredeep with the Outer Flysch Carpathian units both
underlain by crystalline rock with Paleozoic and Mesozoic
rock sequences (Oszczypko 1997; ¯ytko 1999a,b; Ry³ko &
Toma 1999, 2001; Nemèok et al. 2000).
A new attitude to the tectonic structure of the Carpathians is
presented in investigations of the Inner Western Carpathians.
The geodynamic development of the regional structure is
treated there as a result of tectonic escape from the Alps to the
east of the ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) micro-
plate, and its collision with the Bohemian Massif and the Eu-
ropean Platform plate (Kováè et al. 1998; Vass 1998; Kováè
2000). As a result, subduction of this plate is accepted. Palins-
pastic reconstruction of the Carpathian-Pannonian Basin re-
gion includes the results of outward thrusting of nappe piles of
accretional prism and formation of flexural foredeep.
There are a few elements, which seem to be important for
reconstruction of the geological history of the Carpathians, es-
pecially close to the boundary of the Inner and Outer Western
Carpathians, west of the Tatra massif and even on the northern
boundary of the accretional prism between Bia³a and Skawa
Valleys (section Bielsko-Bia³a and Wadowice towns):
The movement of megablocks is associated with uplift-
ing of the asthenosphere (Vass 1998; Kováè 2000).
As a consequence of continuing upwelling horizontal ro-
tation of megablocks can be expected as a result of shear stress
relaxation induced by heating and crust stretching of the as-
thenosphere (Vass et al. 1996).
The horizontal rotation of blocks is analogous to strike-
slip deformations, a sinistral fault is accompanied by Counter
Clockwise Rotation, a dextral by Clockwise Rotation.
Uplifting of lithospheric mass causes plastic mantle flow
outside of uplifting formation. Due to this phenomena thick-
ness of lithosphere decreases. Viscosity decreases in lithos-
phere in result of heat convection. This process causes increas-
es of mobility of blocks and formation of crustal volcanism
and magma eruptions (Lexa & Koneèný 1998).
The inhomogeneity in structure of the upper mantle can
be interpreted as a partially melted state as a result of geody-
namic processes and re-arrangements of deep lithological bor-
ders. In particular it is related to the Moho discontinuity (Bie-
lik et al. 1998; efara et al. 1998).
The crystalline blocks are lifted upward. According to
fission track analysis the uplift of the crystalline core moun-
tains from a depth of 5 km was evaluated for the last 5310
Ma. The oldest uplift was measured in the Nízke Tatry and
iar Mts (Kováè et al. 1994). Another group of Inner Car-
pathians were uplifted from 2520 Ma (Ve¾ká and Malá Fatra
Mts, Malé Karpaty Mts) and then the youngest mountain up-
lift in the Tatra Mts took place 1510 Ma. The last results on
220 BAUMGART-KOTARBA, MARCAK and MÁRTON
fission track concern the uplift from a depth of 2 km (below
60 °C) and indicate that within the Tatra massif it is possible
to distinguish some parts lifted at a different rate (Baumgart-
Kotarba & Krá¾ 2002).
The aim of this paper is to show that the geodynamic style
of geological formation is also relevant to some units of Polish
Carpathians. The stresses acting in the collision zone causes
fragmentation of megablocks (Bielik et al. 1998) and these mi-
croblocks interact between themselves overriding even Neo-
gene segments. The loss of adherence between the upper and
lower parts of such terrain can also be expected, as well as
their partial melting. The interpretation of profiles 2T and 3T
according to efara et al. (1998) suggests such a possibility.
The south-west part of the Polish Carpathians is the area of
consideration in this paper. The thickness of lithosphere under
the European Platform and the Outer Western Carpathians
varies from about 110120 km in the western part to 150 km
in the central and eastern segments (Bielik et al. 1999, 2002).
Due to such variation stresses acting in collision also vary. In
spite of this, the rise of the asthenospheric diapir, which con-
trolled the evolution of the Central Slovak Volcanic Field and
graben and horst formation related to back-arc extension (Tu-
riec Basin, iar Basin) (Lexa & Koneèný 1998; Koneèný &
Lexa 1999; Vass 1998), north to the Central Slovak Volcanic
Field, has produced inhomogeneity in stress distribution be-
tween the southward sloping subducted European Platform
plate in the Polish section of the Carpathians and the NNE
shifted Central Western Carpathian block. It is shown in this
paper, that in this zone a structural microblock was formed,
having the above described properties, rotated and deformed.
The geological, morphostructural, paleomagnetic and geo-
physical data were used to prove this model. The border be-
tween this part of geological unit, which is based on extension
of older, northern paleostructures and the rotating microblock
is also proposed. The authors proposition is to name this ro-
tated block the Orava microblock.
The Orava transforming fault
The Orava transverse fault seems to be very important tec-
tonic zone of the Western Carpathians. It is rather young fault
transforming during the last 15 Ma the main morphostructures
from the western side, the Ve¾ká Fatra, Choè, Skoruina Inner
Fig. 1. Paleomagnetic directions on the structural map of the Western Carpathians according to Grabowski (2000) and Márton et al. (1999)
with new paleomagnetic data from Neogene sediments giving evidence of opposite rotations along the Orava Fault. 1 crystalline rock;
2 Krína Unit; 3 Choè Unit; 4 Klippen Belt; 5 Podhale and Levoèa Inner Flysch; 6 Neogene sedimentary infill; 7 Neogene
volcanics; 8 Magura Outer Flysch (Mk Krynica Unit, Mr Raèa Unit, Mby Bystrzyca Unit). Paleomagnetic direction: 9 ac-
cording to Grabowski (2000); 10 according to Márton et al. (1999); 11 samples collected by authors; 12 front of thrust; 13 im-
portant faults; 14 strike-slip Orava and Rubachy Faults. OB Orava Basin, TB Turiec Basin, VF Ve¾ká Fatra, KU Dolný
Kubín, K Kra¾ovany, R Ruomberok, NT Nowy Targ, M Miêtustwo, Z Zakopane.
ROTATION ALONG ORAVA STRIKE-SLIP FAULT: GEOPHYSICAL AND PALEOMAGNETIC DATA 221
Flysch Syncline, Orava Basin and Babia Góra range (Magura
Unit Outer Flysch), and from the east, the Nízke Tatry, Lip-
tovská kotlina Depression, Tatra Mts, Podhale Inner Flysch
Syncline and Gorce Mts (Magura Flysch) (Fig. 1). As a result
of this activity the Orava Basin has a pull-apart formation. The
opening of the Orava Basin started ca. 14 Ma ago (Baumgart-
Kotarba 1996, 2001). The uplift from a depth of 5 km of the
Tatra Mts is relatively young, 1015 Ma according fission
track methods in comparison to the Nízke Tatry 52.9 Ma (Bur-
chart 1972; Kováè et al. 1994). It was also a period of thrust-
ing and pushing to the north Subsilesian, Silesian, Fore-Magu-
ra and Magura tectonic units on foredeep marine sediments
Lower Badenian in age documented in the Zawoja borehole
(Oszczypko 1997). Such activity seems to be prolonged into
the Quaternary, because the NE part of the Orava Basin along
the Domañski Wierch oblique fault is infilled with 110128 m
of fluvial/fluvioglacial sediments laying directly on the Magu-
ra units, without Neogene deposits (Baumgart-Kotarba et al.
2001). The authors of this paper would like to prove a rotation
of the so-called Orava block (Baumgart-Kotarba 1996, 2001)
along the central part of this long transversal fault crossing the
Western Carpathians from the Po¾ana strato-volcanic system
(12.513.5 Ma, Dublan et al. 1997) in the south to the Mszana
tectonic window in the north. This transversal fault is com-
bined with the Central Slovak Fault system (Kovaè & Hók
1993). The rotational features have the following locations:
fault extended from Kra¾ovany to Ruomberok (Váh
arch shaped fault bordering from the south the Choè Mts
fault bordering the Tatra Mts from the west passing
through Oravice village and crossing the Inner Flysch between
the Skoruina and Podhale regions,
fault zone of Domañski Wierch (uplifted Pliocene mo-
lasse), near Ludmierz village changing direction from 45°
to NNE along Lepietnica Valley (Magura Outer Flysch)
(Baumgart-Kotarba 1992). The area on the east side of the
Lepietnica Fault is also more uplifted (Gorce Mts).
The probably rotated Orava block is limited to the east by
the fault zone of the Skawa Valley (Figs. 3 and 4).
Morphostructural and geological data
Looking at geological maps, the characteristic pattern of the
Klippen Belt morphostructure (Zázrivá-Párnica sigmoid),
double structure of the Oravská Magura ranges and faults
within the Skoruina Flysch in contact with the Choè Mesozo-
ic rock near Dolný Kubín (Gross et al. 1994) could be inter-
preted as a pattern related to shortening of the tectonic units in
the zone of the hinge due to compression between the NW ro-
tated Orava block and the stopped Malá Fatra block (Baum-
gart-Kotarba 2001). The sigmoid shape is also discernible on
the shape of Choè Mts in its SW part along Váh Valley gorge
from Kra¾ovany to Ruomberok and along the S fault of Choè.
Even north of Zázrivá village the shape of the front of the tec-
tonic Krynica slice (Mk) within the Magura Unit reflects rota-
tion of the Orava block to the NW (Fig. 3). On the boundary
between the Magura and Silesian nappes, the shape of the
¯ywiec tectonic window and the course (shape) of the isoline
1.5 km of depth to the crystalline basement (Geological map
of the substratum of the Tertiary of the Outer Western Car-
pathians and their foreland 1:500,000, Geological atlas 1988-
89) seem to be influenced by the same rotation. The front of
the Magura Nappe changes its course from NE to NEE direc-
tion near ¯ywiec and follows this direction up to the Skawa
Valley fault line.
The Quaternary activity of the Orava Fault is shown not
only by the young infill of the NE part of the Orava depres-
sion, but also by the system of faults crossing the Pliocene
sediments of Domañski Wierch Hill. There are flower struc-
tures significant for strike-slip motions (Baumgart-Kotarba et
al. 2001). The present day earthquakes (Baumgart-Kotarba
2001) manifest recent tectonic activity also.
Further geological data seems to confirm rotation of the
Orava block. On the north limit of the rotated Orava block, be-
tween Bielsko and Andrychów towns the youngest Roczyny-
Andrychów tectonic unit with folded and thrusted young Mi-
ocene Sarmatian and Panonian deposits was documented
(Wójcik et al. 1999) on the front of Subsilesian and Silesian
tectonic units. It means that the youngest parts of the Car-
pathian accretionary prism were formed and pushed to the
north after the Pannonian period. The system of transversal
faults crossing all tectonic units (Silesian, Subsilesian, Skole
and Roczyny) near the northern limit of the Carpathians could
be interpreted as tectonic shortening along the northern mar-
gin of the Carpathians conditioned by compression related to
rotation of the Orava block. It is the North East corner of the
NW rotated Orava block.
The new paleomagnetic data were obtained in framework of
the scientific project KBN No. 6P04E 01620. Samples
were taken from 5 localities. For 3 localities (Miêtustwo, Lip-
nica and Hladovka villages), the mean declinations were cal-
culated from individual paleomagnetic vectors according to
methods worked out by E. Márton in the Paleomagnetic Labo-
ratory in Budapest.
The first results of the paleomagnetic study carried out by
Márton (Baumgart-Kotarba et al. 2002) seem to confirm the
activity of the Orava Fault during the Sarmatian and Upper
Pliocene time. South of the Domañski Wierch Ridge, at Miê-
tustwo village, Sarmatian (Birkenmajer 1978) fluvial sedi-
ments gently sloping to the north were sampled. The results of
the mean paleomagnetic direction Dc = 28° and Ic = 53° indi-
cate clockwise rotation in the south-east of Orava transform-
ing oblique fault during the last 10 Ma. It is interesting that
Grabowskis (2000) paleomagnetic results from the Middle
Triassic to Lower Cretaceous strata from the Tatra Mts also in-
dicate clockwise rotation.
The second set of new samples were collected near Lipnica
village, 20 km to the west of the Orava Fault from young flu-
vial sediments tilted after deposition. These sediments are
Pliocene/Quaternary in age (2.52 Ma) (Baumgart-Kotarba
2001). According to palynological studies by Stuchlik from
the Institute of Botany of the Polish Academy of Sciences in
the framework of grant KBN No. 6P04E02008, these sedi-
ments belong to the Pliocene-Quaternary boundary. Paleo-
222 BAUMGART-KOTARBA, MARCAK and MÁRTON
magnetic results from Young Lipnica sediments indicate
counterclockwise rotation (Dc = 344°, Ic = 64°). This result
seems to indicate the rotation of the Orava block ca. 16° to the
NW during the last 2 Ma. Rotation with a counterclockwise
(CCW) direction started earlier from the Eggenburgian ac-
cording to Kováè et al. (1989) in the western part of Car-
pathian arc (Bánovce Depression). The Váh block situated be-
tween Bratislava and ilina (Baumgart-Kotarba 1996, 2001),
was rotated to the NW as was measured by the paleomagnetic
method in Eggenburgian (42°) and Karpatian (37°) marine de-
posits of piggy-back basins (Kováè et al. 1989). This was in-
terpreted as the stopping role of the rigid Bohemian Massif
during the general shift of the Carpathian to the north (Kováè
et al. 1989; Baumgart-Kotarba 1996). According to new pale-
omagnetic research in the Orava pull-apart basin close to Lip-
nica village it is possible to document young CCW rotation in
fluvial deposits 2 Ma in age.
The third set of samples from Hladovka (13 km SE of
Young Lipnica concern the Pliocene deposits (Oszast &
Stuchlik 1977). The mean declination in Hladovka also con-
firms CCW rotation, but by 38° (Dc = 142°, Ic = 49°).
(Fig. 2)) to the Sucha borehole, low resistivity masses are
push into the space between the maximum resistivity base-
ment and a 55 km deep layer also with high resistivity. In the
third part (III), between the Sucha borehole and Babia Góra
foreland all structural elements in the upper part of the cross-
section are dipping intensively to the south, and a further
15 km to the south, there is a break in the continuity of all the
upper layers in the fourth part of profile (IV). Low resistivity
masses filled all the cross-section. Finally, at the south end of
the profile a high resistivity block appears again (part V).
Close to Chy¿ne village the top of the crystalline block is
sloping to the south.
It seems that the rigidity of masses can influence the resis-
tance of rock masses against their rotation. From this point of
view the border between parts III and IV in the MTS profile is
also a border between rigid and soft masses. The second im-
portant boundary concerning the deep structure is the bound-
ary between parts I and II (Fig. 2).
The results of other geophysical measurements, two gravi-
tational maps, were used for location of this border in the area
of investigations. One of them (Fig. 3) was the original Bou-
Fig. 2. Magnetotelluric profile Chy¿ne-Spytkowice (location on Fig. 4) according to
Królikowski et al. (2000). Resistivity in Ωm. IV parts of profile distinguished by
authors of the paper.
The results from the Tatra Mts (Grabowski
2000): Dc 23°, 34°
(Bobrowiec NW Tatra
Mts) and 40°
(Havran NE Belanské Tatry
Mts) seem to be in opposition to the results
from the Paleogene Inner Flysch of the Podhale
and Levoèa Basins by Márton et al. (1999). The
mean direction from 6 localities from Podhale is
Dc = 298°
and Ic = 53°
(Fig. 1). The data from
the Levoèa Basin and Podhale are in good
agreement. The preliminary opinion is that the
clockwise directions obtained by Grabowski
(2000) from the Tatra Mts are comparable with
the young rotation documented in Miêtustwo.
The explication of such coincidence is not easy.
But it is possible that the young uplift of the
Tatra massif was related to some horizontal
clockwise rotation and this uplift was related to
the whole shift of the Tatra block, together with
the Magura Flysch (Gorce Mts) in compression-
al regime and with the Neogene deposits in the
Nowy S¹cz Basin.
Interpretation of the geophysical data
Two kinds of geophysical measurements are
considered in the paper. The first are results of
magnetotelluric sounding (MTS) along the pro-
file Chy¿ne-Spytkowice (Królikowski et al.
2000). The interpreted results are similar to
those presented in a paper by Bielik et al.
(1998). Five parts were distinguished by the au-
thors of this paper in electrical cross-section ob-
tained from those data. Coming from the north,
the first 15 km (Fig. 2), is not disturbed in deep
structure by Carpathian movements and repre-
sents a style of foredeep. In the second part (II)
from Wadowice (ca. 5 km south from Tomice
ROTATION ALONG ORAVA STRIKE-SLIP FAULT: GEOPHYSICAL AND PALEOMAGNETIC DATA 223
guer gravitational map and second was the result of its trans-
formation. It can be observed, that the intensive trend in the
gravity field, and its decrease towards the south direction have
the result, that the structure of the field cannot be recognized
properly (Fig. 3). In second map (Fig. 4), elimination of the
general trend was calculated by the authors of the paper, by
subtracting from each gravity value in a grid constructed
along the SN and WE directions the mean value calculated
along WE lines. The structure of the map (Fig. 4) can be di-
vided into three parts. The north part of the maps consists of
intensive anomalies, showing NWSE directions, which are
characteristic for stresses in the Bohemian Massif (Jarosiñski
Fig. 3. Bouguer gravitational map based on data from Polish State Geological Institute (1984/85). Geological elements from Geological map
of the substratum of the Tertiary, and map of tectonic elements of the Outer Western Carpathians, Geological atlas 19881989: 1 fault ac-
cording to the map of the Tertiary substratum; 2 fault within Magura Unit; 3 front of thrusts, M Magura Unit, MK Krynica Unit,
S Silesian + Subsilesian + Skole Units; 4 axis of gravitation minimum (mg); 5 Klippen Belt; 6 Orava-Nowy Targ Basin; 7 ro-
tational Orava Fault; 8 magnetotelluric profile Chy¿ne-Spytkowice (IV parts). BG Babia Góra, P.FL Podhale Flysch.
224 BAUMGART-KOTARBA, MARCAK and MÁRTON
1998). The south part consists of anomalies oriented in WE
directions (Tatra direction). The middle part, having in the
Fig. 4 rather low differentiation in gravity data, can be corre-
lated with the III and IV parts in the MTS profile. That corre-
lation allows us to construct a potential border of rotated
masses at a distance of 10 km to the E sub-parallel to the Ska-
wa Valley as it is shown in Fig. 4. Another interesting line
crosses the Outer Carpathians on a prolongation of the Orava
rotational fault from the west side of Mszana tectonic window
to the north to Kraków. Near Kraków this line divides from
the west the system of horst and graben, the so called Brama
Krakowska Unit and from the east the Sandomierz Fore-Car-
The Orava transversal transforming fault is probably related
to very deep geological structures. According to the magneto-
telluric profile (Fig. 2) the rotation could be stimulated by
Fig. 4. Transformed Bouguer gravitational map. BG Babia Góra summit, ¯W ¯ywiec tectonic window, MW Mszana tectonic
window, P.FL Podhale Flysch.
ROTATION ALONG ORAVA STRIKE-SLIP FAULT: GEOPHYSICAL AND PALEOMAGNETIC DATA 225
structures which are deeper than 60 km. The rotation CCW
could be higher than 16° to the NW, because this value was
documented by the paleomagnetic method in relatively young
sediments (22.5 Ma old). The CCW rotation in Hladovka on
Pliocene sediments was determined as 38°. The results from
the older (Sarmatian in age) deposit from Old Lipnica are
not satisfied from the statistical point of view. Such rotation
of the Orava microblock according to surface dimension with
the crucial position of the Zázrivá-Párnica sigmoid and back
thrusted section of Klippen Belt structure (profil IV on Geo-
logical map of the Western Carpathians without Quaternary
formations compiled by K. ¯ytko et al. 1989, [in] Geological
atlas of the Outer Western Carpathians and their foreland
19881989), and profil 2T (Vozár et al. 1998) seems to have
had his geometrical central point (crossing of diagonals) ca.
8 km north of Babia Góra Mt. The value of shortening in the
WE direction can be evaluated as twice (100 km to 40 km).
The length of the rotational fault from Kra¾ovany to the Msza-
na tectonic window is ca. 100 km and the width of the Magura
Unit between the ¯ywiec tectonic window and the hypotheti-
cal east limit of the rotated block close to Sucha village is ca.
40 km. The related size on the northern margin of the Car-
pathians is similar (ca. 35 km).
The data presented in our paper lead to the conclusion that
the rheological weak zone appears at the depth of 5070 km.
The lower lithosphere has differentiated structure under the
Carpathians and under the foredeep. North of Babia Góra Mt,
close to the mentioned crossing of diagonals of the hypotheti-
cally rotated Orava microblock the upper lithosphere seems to
be rifted (at the distance of ca. 18 km) (Fig. 2). Thus probably
here the European Platform is sinking to the south. According
to Bielik et al. (1998), the inclination of the underthrusting
European Platform is very steep 6080°. The first separated
crystalline block on the southern ending of the magnetotellu-
ric profile seems to slope also to the south, when the axis of
gravitational minimum is manifested (Figs. 3 and 4). Such
rifted parts of the European Platform are postulated by efara
et al. (1998) and Bielik et al. (1998). If this interpretation is
good it is possible to suppose, that the Moho in this section of
the Western Carpathians is situated at the depth of ca. 30
35 km. The value of depth of Moho position is comparable
with Ry³ko & Toma (1999) data from their western profile
with the Moho generally at the depth of 3540 km.
A difficult problem is interpretation of the position of the
rotated Orava microblock. The lithosphere/asthenosphere
boundary beneath the Orava microblock changes from 100-
140 km according to Kováè (2000, fig. 15 map summariz-
ing data of Babuka (1987) and Horváth (1993)). The model
of lithosphere evolution along the profiles 2T and 3T worked
out by efara et al. (1998) presents very thin asthenosphere
masses going up from the lower part of the lower lithosphere
close to the Klippen Belt. The zone of the transversal trans-
forming Orava faults directed to the N from the Po¾ana volca-
no (Central Slovak Volcanic Field) may be interpreted as such
a narrow ductile zone responsible for structural rebuilding
during the last 15 Ma.
It is interesting that ca. 30 km to the west from Chy¿ne vil-
lage, close to the state boundary in ¯ywiec Beskid Mts, ac-
cording to Ry³ko & Toma (2001) interpretation, the as-
thenosphere is dipping to the north from 60 to 80 km. Thus
another interpretation of this rheological weak zone may also
be assumed the occurrence of some discontinuity within
the lower lithosphere.
Some possibility to check the hypothetical rotation of the
Orava microblock creates the comparison with the map of the
depth of the crystalline basement of the Polish Carpathians.
Such maps with presumed faults were worked out indepen-
dently by ¯ytko (1999a) and Ry³ko & Toma (1999) on the
basis of magnetotelluric records. These maps differ much, es-
pecially in interpretation of the main faults. The zone of the
transversal Orava Fault is clearly visible on ¯ytkos (1999a)
map as the PodczerwienneMszana Dolna Fault with four
sub-parallel faults on their west side. ¯ytko (1999a) named
the line RuomberokPodczerwienneMszana Dolna the
most important in the western zone (p. 193) of the Polish
Carpathians. The comparison with Ry³ko & Toma (1999,
2001) maps seems to be more difficult. The authors mark the
line Babia GóraRzeszotary (close to Kraków), but according
to their map with depth isolines there are two independent
lines; one from Babia Góra to north, to the northern margin of
the Carpathians and a second similar to ¯ytkos (1999a) fault-
line PodczerwienneMszana Dolna. The second one was in-
correctly named by Ry³ko & Toma (1999, 2001) the Babia
GóraRzeszotary line. Ry³ko & Toma (1999, 2001) mark the
big transverse dislocation ZázriváBabia GóraRzeszotary
but the transverse Orava Fault follows the line Ruomberok
Acknowledgment: This work was made with financial sup-
port from the Polish State Committee for Scientific Research
(KBN), Grant No. 6P04E 01620. The authors wish to express
their thanks to dr. J. Hók, and two other unknown Reviewers
for their suggestions which improved this manuscript.
This paper was presented at the XVIIth Congress of Car-
pathian-Balkan Geological Association held in Bratislava,
SR, in September 2002.
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