METAMORPHOSED CARBONATES AND PALEOZOIC EVOLUTION (NE BOHEMIA) 281
GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 54, 5, BRATISLAVA, OCTOBER 2003
METAMORPHOSED CARBONATES OF KRKONOE MOUNTAINS
AND PALEOZOIC EVOLUTION OF SUDETIC TERRANES
(NE BOHEMIA, CZECH REPUBLIC)
, FRANTIEK PATOÈKA
, VÁCLAV KACHLÍK
and MARTIN HUBAÈÍK
Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences of the CR, Rozvojová 135, 165 02 Praha 6, Czech Republic; firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2, Czech Republic
Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotláøská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
(Manuscript received August 28, 2002; accepted in revised form March 11, 2003)
Abstract: The metamorphosed carbonate bodies structurally embedded in the East and South Krkonoe Complexes
(ESKC N Bohemian Massif, Krkonoe Mountains, Czech Republic) have principally two types of sedimentary pre-
cursors. The first precursor corresponds to Early Cambrian dolomitized oolites and microbialites (Dolní Albeøice) and
provides practically the same fauna and geochemical features on residues as observed in Lusatia (Doberlug-Torgau
Syncline). The Cadomian calc-alkaline meta-igneous rock sources, geochemically observed on this Early Cambrian,
were also found in the Early Devonian of the Barrandian. The second precursor consists of open-sea calcitic wackestones/
packstones and dolomitized packstones/grainstones (Poniklá and Horní Lánov, part) and yields fossil remnants, which
are widely comparable with N Gondwanan carbonate sediments of the Bohemian type. The MiddleLate Devonian
sedimentary continuation in the ESKC was likely absent (or restricted), and this was preceded by increased geochemical
variation of insoluble residues in the marble precursors. Successively diversified compositions of trapped weathering
products (regional to inter-regional background sediment, close to Post-Archean Average Australian Sedimentary distri-
bution in REE, with a significant proportion of atmospheric depositions) suggest, that area precursors of the ESKC,
Lusatia, Barrandian and Polish Central Sudetes were well separated and expanded to a great extent. The residues from
carbonate rocks of the Sudetes correspond to a complex paleotectonic evolution from Cambrian intracontinental
rifting to Devonian arcs. However, there is a trend toward the East and with time toward the Middle Devonian, that
Sudetic carbonatic residues indicate a variety of sources posing a wide spectrum of tectonic setting types.
Key words: Early Paleozoic, Gondwana, Bohemian Massif, Sudetes, recrystallization, rare earth elements, archaeocyaths,
trilobites, dacryoconarids, oolites, microbialites.
Metamorphosed NeoproterozoicPaleozoic sediments, pluto-
nites and volcanites in the southern and eastern parts of the
Krkonoe Mountains constitute parts of the Krkonoe-Jizera
Unit (Kachlík & Patoèka 1998b; formerly the Krkonoe Meta-
morphic Complex, Chaloupský 1958). Narêbski (1994) de-
fined it as a part of the West Sudetic Terrane Assemblage. In
the following text, it is accordingly referred to the Krkonoe-
Jizera Terrane (KJT Kachlík & Patoèka 2001). The defini-
tion of this terrane is still rudimentary. It is difficult to state
whether the KJT is a suspected microterrane or composed
structure that originated on the contact between the Saxothur-
ingian and Central Sudetic Terranes (Cymerman et al. 1997).
Most generally, it is also considered to be an eastern projec-
tion of the Saxothuringian Terrane (Franke 2000). Three char-
acteristics of the KJT are significant: (1) The initial Cambrian-
Ordovician granitoid magmatism and protracted Early
Paleozoic rift-related bimodal volcanism (Furnes et al. 1994;
Patoèka & Smulikowski 2000; Dostal et al. 2001), (2) the
Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous subduction and HP-LT
metamorphism followed by rapid uplift with equilibration of
the HP-LT rocks in greenschist-facies conditions (Maluski &
Patoèka 1997; Collins et al. 2000; Marheine et al. in print)
and, (3) the base of flysch sedimentation stratigraphically on-
lapping toward the West (Hladil et al. 1999; Kachlík & Patoè-
ka 2001). The complicated architecture of the West Sudetes
with uncertain positions of repeatedly dismembered and amal-
gamated sutures offers a number of open questions about the
dating of tectonometamorphic events (Bederke 1924; Franke
et al. 1993; Oliver et al. 1993; Aleksandrowski et al. 1997;
¯elaniewicz 1997; Crowley et al. 2001; Winchester et al. in
print). The reason is in successive assembling of East Avalo-
nian and Armorican crustal chips and structural reorganiza-
tion by movements on the TESZ-parallel (Trans-European Su-
ture Zone) faults (Cymerman et al. 1997; Mazur & Kryza
1999; Pharaoh 1999; Winchester et al. in print).
Kachlík & Patoèka (2001) characterized the KJT as a
Variscan NW-directed orogenic wedge. Its lower part (au-
tochthonous unit) is composed of the Cadomian granitoids
(~540587 Ma, Kröner et al. 1994) with their end-Proterozoic
country rocks (Chaloupský et al. 1989; Gehmlich et al. 1997)
that are unconformably overlain with Paleozoic rocks. This
autochthonous part is exposed in the westernmost part of the
KJT (at the Lusatian Terrane) and in the Jetìd Mountain
Range, close to the South (Fig. 1). The very complex alloch-
thonous parts are exposed mostly in the Krkonoe Mountains,
farther to the E in the KJT (Kachlík & Patoèka 1998b;
282 HLADIL et al.
Fig. 1. A simplified geological map of the Krkonoe-Jizera Crystalline Unit (NE Bohemia, Czech Republic) with sampled sites in the South
and East Krkonoe Complexes (numbered labels). Based on the previous map views (Kachlík & Kozdroj 2001; Kozdroj et al. 2001; position
of sites by M. Hubaèík). Autochthonous to para-autochthonous units (Neoproterozoic basement with Paleozoic cover): 1 Late Proterozoic
Machnín Group (metagraywackes, metapelites); 2 Cadomian Zawidow Granodiorite; 3 micaschists to gneisses in the Jizera Orthog-
neiss; 4 Jizera Orthogneiss (~510480 Ma); 5 Rumburk Granite (510 Ma); 6 Lower Paleozoic phyllites, graphite phyllites (with me-
tabasite, quartzite and marble intercalations Silurian Ockerkalk facies and SilurianDevonian(?) microfossils in non-carbonate
metasediments; 7 Lower Paleozoic (Ordovician?) phyllites with quartzite intercalations thrust over Late Devonian sequence; 8 quartz-
ites; 9 phyllites with intercalations of Middle to Upper Devonian marbles (evidence for the uppermost part of Givetian); 10 Upper De-
vonian to Lower Carboniferous flysch deposits with intercalations of metabasalts, acid volcanics and marbles with fauna indicating the prox-
imity of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. Allochthonous units: 11 CambrianOrdovician volcano-sedimentary unit (metatuffites,
roofing phyllites with Ordovician? ichnofauna, sills and dykes of metadiabase, rare metagabbros and picrites, and also phyllonitized gran-
ites); 12 elezný Brod Volcanic Complex (metabasaltic pillow lavas, metatuffs and acid metavolcanics in the upper part with intercala-
tions of marbles and mixed volcanogenic quartzites); 13 sericite phyllites with intercalations of marbles and quartzites, basic volcanic
products (volcanism waning towards top of the sequence); 14 phyllonitized granites and orthogneisses. Upper Variscan granites: 15
Krkonoe-Jizera Granite (310 Ma). Platform sediments: 16 Permian-Carboniferous deposits of the Krkonoe Piedmont Basin; 17 de-
posits of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Neovolcanics: 18 Tertiary volcanic rocks, namely basanites and olivine basalts (Pliocene).
Sampled sections: Field-work places marked with numbered yellow labels (compare the list in appendix of the paper).
Kachlík & Kozdroj 2001; Kachlík et al. 2002). In these areas,
the tectonometamorphic successions of Paleozoic rocks form
a large antiform. The largely outcropped eastern and southern
flanks of the antiform are represented by the East and South
Krkonoe Complexes (ESKC Chlupáè 1993; Kachlík &
Patoèka 1998a; Patoèka et al. 2000; Dostal et al. 2001). The
tectonically interlayered bodies of Cambro-Ordovician (and
also younger?) porphyritic metagranites occur in inner parts
of the flanks (Kachlík et al. 1999; Crowley et al. 2001).
Two ESKC subunits were defined, both with typically
varying rock composition and metamorphic grade (Kachlík &
Patoèka 1998a). The lower unit consists of sericite-chlorite
phyllites, roofing phyllites and two metavolcanic suites. The
upper unit is made up of mainly sericite and graphite phyllites
with quartzite and marble intercalations (volcanic products are
subordinate). The radiometric datings of the ESKC rocks range
from the Cambrian to Devonian (Oliver et al. 1993; Bendl &
Patoèka 1995; Maluski & Patoèka 1997; Timmermann et al.
1999; Marheine et al. 2000 in print), whereas the paleontologi-
cal indicators of age concerns mostly possible Ordovician and
Silurian (Horný 1964; Chlupáè 1993, 1997). The uppermost
allochthonous slices are typically marked with occurrences of
blueschist metamorphism. The blueschist end-datum ~360 Ma
is the latest Famennian, close to the Devonian-Carboniferous
boundary (Maluski & Patoèka 1997). The widespread green-
schist facies overpress (~345340 Ma) changed into shearing/
thrusting that was expressed with NW-SE linear fabrics
(~320340 Ma; Marheine et al. in print) and terminated by in-
METAMORPHOSED CARBONATES AND PALEOZOIC EVOLUTION (NE BOHEMIA) 283
trusion of the Krkonoe-Jizera pluton (~328313 Ma; Pin et
al. 1987; Marheine et al. in print).
Assessment of previous data
The solid biostratigraphic dating concerns only the Jetìd
para-autochthon, where metacarbonates associated with bimo-
dal volcanics provided Devonian faunas (Koliha 1929;
Chlupáè & Hladil 1992; Chlupáè 1993; Kachlík et al. 2002).
Marbles occurring in structurally higher (allochthonous) parts
of the KJT unit have not been directly dated yet, because the
primary structures were intensely obliterated during the tec-
tonometamorphic development. The absence of biostrati-
graphic and physical stratigraphic data is in contrast with
abundance of the ESKC metacarbonates as well as their highly
variable mineral composition, major element geochemistry,
rock-fabric and variability of alteration effects (Svoboda
1955). Practically, only one record in the literature about the
ESKC carbonates concerns finding of a real fossil (Silesicaris
nasuta Gürich 1929; Silurian phyllocarid; Chlupáè 1997: p. 75).
The main importance was originally seen in collateral data
from neighbouring slates. The classical locality is the Jizera
River bed in Poniklá village. The fauna from concretions
present in micaceous black slates was first collected by Perner
(1919), who reported the Didymograptus sp. (= Clima-
cograptus of Ordovician? age; Chlupáè 1953: p. 213). Rein-
vestigation by Horný (1964) provided graptolite branches of
Pristiograptus dubius (Suess), Monograptus priodon (Bronn)
and Monograptus flexuosus? Tullberg or Mediograptus koli-
hai? Bouèek. The original assignment of this fauna to the
Wenlockian must now be extended to Llandoverian-Wenlock-
ian (consulting by P. torch). The pyritized stripes regarded as
graptolites, inorganic metamorphic structures compared with
the ichnotaxa, and other dubious fossil relics described by
Prantl (1948) were problematic and the material does not exist
any more. Other rejected possible graptolites were reported
from the mid-south part of the ESKC (Chlupáè 1953 vs.
1998). The younger than mid-Silurian ages are based on mi-
crofossils (mazuelloids). Konzalová & Hrabal (1998) reported
the SilurianDevonian mazuelloids from Vysoké nad Jizerou,
but assemblages described by Walter (2000), from Poniklá,
correspond to the wide OrdovicianDevonian range. The
same uncertain range provided the ichnofossil assemblages
from neighbourhood of elezný Brod (Chlupáè 1997 Bi-
fungites, Planolites, Spirophycus, Taphrhelmintopsis, etc.,
and large star-shaped Teichichnus stellatus; originally deep
water Ordovician, or Silurian? shales with relationships to fly-
sch ichnofacies). However, a direct application of these slate
ages to the marbles is in question since the slates and marbles
may be separated by an unknown number of ductile fault
It is remarkable that the ESKC does not show any indicators
of the Middle or Upper Devonian sediments (Kachlík & Pa-
toèka 1998b). In contrast, the para-autochthonous Jetìd rocks
yielded not only evidence for the SilurianDevonian transi-
tions (scyphocrinitids in Ockerkalk Chlupáè 1993; or
monograptids in silica slates Watznauer 1934), but also
clear late Givetian ages (Chlupáè & Hladil 1992), and further
to the W also Frasnian (Galle & Chlupáè 1976) and Famenni-
an (Koliha 1929; Zikmundová 1964 the Cheiloceras
Wocklumeria zones). Possible FrasnianTournaisian sequenc-
es were also reported by Kachlík et al. (2002). On the N
Krkonoe (Polish Karkonosze) slope, Skowronek & Steffahn
(2000) reinvestigated the Cambrian Wojcieszów Limestone.
They found advanced foraminifers with Silurian, Devonian
(?) or even younger traits. Even the relatively distant Sudetic
terranes usually have Middle and/or Late Devonian sedi-
ments, for example the findings in K³odzko area (early
Givetian Hladil et al. 1999).
Several attempts have also been made to classify the ESKC
marbles according to overall geological criteria (such as com-
position, shape, thickness and arrangement of bodies). The
classification of carbonate stripes developed since 2½-stripe
concept by Krutský (1968), through 3 stripes by Hoth (2000),
including a thick Cambrian belt, to 4 stripes by Kachlík et
al. (2002). The last concept of assembled stripes, with 4 struc-
tural levels is as follows: (1) Minor lenses and layers of dark
grey coloured (graphite) marbles occur in transitional levels
between the lower and upper part of the ESKC; any accumula-
tions >5 m are very rare, the calcite >> dolomite; associated
with sericite phyllites. (2) The ~100200 m bodies of whitish-
grey poorly foliated dolomitic marbles (the Jesenný or Lánov
types) are typically embedded in the higher ESKC parts. Dark
sericite-graphite phyllites or sericite phyllites prevail in some
places. (3) The calc-silicate rock- and quartzite-associated
grey to blue-grey coloured marbles form several bodies NW
of Jánské Láznì and further to the Krkonoe high ranges. (4)
Thick bodies of variegated dolostones represent a unique type
of the ESKC marbles with white to ochre-umber-hued oolites
intercalated within the former. Close spatial relations to acid
volcanics, mostly porphyroids, were observed near Dolní Al-
beøice, where the Rb-Sr dating (~505 Ma Bendl & Patoèka
1995) indicates Middle Cambrian volcanism (compare the
Cambrian ages in Encarnación et al. 1999). With very rough
speculation only, the possible precursors of graphite marbles
have been seen in the WenlockianLudlowian facies, whereas
the thickest and light-grey-coloured types occur in the Pøído-
lianPragian (Emsian?) facies, both on examples from the
Barrandian or Saxothuringian regions (Svoboda 1955;
Chlupáè 1997). Rocks with relicts of oolites and early diage-
netic dolomites indicate precursors of shallow-water Cam-
Concepts, methods and techniques
Several phases of metamorphism in the ESKC (Kachlík &
Patoèka 1998b; Marheine et al. 2000; Marheine et al. in print)
correspond to strong effects upon preservation of the original
fabrics and compositions of carbonate rocks. Because of these
strong but selective alterations, only a few of the carbonate
samples could reasonably be analysed as sediments. The in-
vestigation of overprinting had to find constraints for which
these samples are still usable. Stage of metamorphic overprint-
ing was assessed mainly according to relict-structure succes-
sions (thin-section optical and cathodoluminescence (CL) mi-
croscopy techniques), because the structured ghosts consist
284 HLADIL et al.
of bands of inclusions and lattice defects, which copy the past
shapes of crystal aggregates. They constitute a discrete mem-
ory of the carbonate rock. Using a simple rule that young
structures usually cut (or mask) the old, up to 3 or 4 recrystal-
lization stages have been ordered within a single rock speci-
men. The lateral comparisons of these short successions
(using the overlaps among differently timed successions) re-
sulted in hypothesis about the ideal recrystallization path.
Such an elimination of strongly metamorphosed rocks was the
An extensive investigation on fossil relics was based on
of slabs (using a quarry cutter), 120 thin sections (½ are
polished sections) and 60 insoluble residues (in 5% acetic
acid and formic acid, alternatively). Another set of 40 thin-
sections (¼ polished) is related to the Dolní Albeøice dolos-
tones. The composition of thin-sectioned or extracted fossils
has been characterized using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), en-
ergy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and electron mi-
croprobe analysis (EMP). This mineralogical and structural
material inspection was very important, because an alteration
grade of extracted fossils must be in agreement with the
stage of overprinting (elimination of contaminants, artifacts,
etc.). As concerns the preparation of insoluble residues for
geochemistry, 5% formic acid was used for three weeks (car-
bonates from the ESKC, Lusatia, Polish Central Sudetes and
Barrandian). The residues were analysed using the X-ray fluo-
rescence (XRF) and instrumental neutron activation analysis
(INAA) methods for selected trace elements and the REE.
Specific effects of mineral carriers and element fractionation
(e.g. phosphate), or dilution (e.g. quartz or relic carbonate)
were checked using a combination of the EDX and XRD
methods. The dissolution was always imperfect, because
the strong dissolution might cause a serious geochemical
damage on minute aggregates and subcrystalline flocs. The
data about non-carbonate components serve as proxies to tec-
tonic settings of eroded rocks, as well as climates or large-re-
gional to global features.
Succession of metamorphic recrystallization stages and se-
lection of the best preserved rocks
The youngest fabrics cut all other ghost fabrics and are
post-metamorphic. Sub-rectangular networks of cracks with
dissolution can exemplify these fabrics in the ESKC carbon-
ates and another typical feature is the occurrence of rims with
small carbonate crystals (Fig. 2H). It corresponds to brittle de-
formation and recrystallization in a relatively cold part of the
deep phreatic zone. The calcite fossils and cements in the Dol-
ní Albeøice dolostones were replaced by optically clear,
young calcite crystal aggregates (bright yellow in CL). These
small calcite cavities developed after the retrograde degrada-
tion of crystal size (including the origin of tectomicrites/mylo-
nites). An epigenetic silicification on Dolní Albeøice dolos-
tones developed in rims of quartz-carbonate hydrothermal
veins. The timing of this process is between post-metamor-
phic alterations and intense shearing. The evident retrograde
changes were observed on 80 % of samples (e.g. Fig. 2F). The
early retrograde disruptions of the peak P-T crystal fabrics are
expressed on calcites by healing of originally strong lamellae,
as well as by the origin of new twin lamellae and gliding
along microfractures. Rimming (satellite) calcite crystals of
small size are typically early retrograde feature (e.g. Fig. 2D).
Although ~80 % of the ESKC marbles was changed in
metamorphic retrograde conditions, the boudinaged marbles
also provide undamaged relicts of the prograde fabrics. These
prograde structures are very inhomogeneous (Fig. 2B). How-
ever, many of the large and elongated calcite crystals are
relicts, not the growing porphyroblasts (corroded or recrystal-
lized peripheries; typically dull in CL). The large calcite crys-
tals that have sharp, dense and complex-banded twin lamellae
correspond to peak metamorphic stages. The mosaics of mid-
size but growing crystals pertain to diagenetic/early-metamor-
phic stages. Crystals in these mosaics cannibalize both the
Fig. 2. Diversified structures of metamorphic limestones and dolomites. Sites (localities) see Fig. 1 and Appendix in the text. A Progres-
sively recrystallized carbonate rock where calcite prevails over relics of diagenetic dolomite. Twinned lamellae and sliding defects are
slightly developed. Relics of dolomite are brown-coloured due to the presence of iron-oxidic mixtures. These brown-coloured ghost struc-
tures are considered a possible archaeocyath bioclast; note the central opening and radial structures (major part of this image). Possible oo-
lite ghosts border this structure (left). ESKC Site 10; polished section No. 862; W of Jesenný (Kamenice, Za Papírnou lower part of hill
slope). B Coarse, basically progressively recrystallized carbonate rock. Large calcite crystals display strong lamellae, where subordinate
dolomite interleaves calcite; sliding dislocations are superimposed on this structure. Degradation of crystal size is located in nests and irreg-
ular zones; it corresponds to metamorphic retrogression. Quartz is corroded. Site 4; polished section No. 868; W of Jesenný (U Staré Vody).
C Large-size neomorphic calcite crystals replaced a dolomite precursor. Prevailing thin lamellae are densely spaced. Polished section No.
856; Horní Marov (Water Tank). D Crystal-size reduction on margins of neomorphic calcite crystals retrogressive origin of small
crystals in collar-shaped structures mantling larger crystalline relics. Site 5; polished section No. 867; NNE of Bozkov (Brook Junction).
E A specific metamorphic dolomite characterized by numerous spot-shaped crystal defects with absence of visible zonal growth. Con-
tacts of crystals are linear, with calcite interstitial fills (white lines). Site 21B; polished section No. 864; Horní Lánov (base of the Active
Quarry). F Mylonitic dolomite rock with dispersed small calcite crystals of young generation. Site 15; polished section No. 868; Marov
(2.2 km S of the Horní Marov Cave). G Relics of old (early diagenetic) dolomite rim; the inherited stylolite locations are preserved from
pre-metamorphic times. Site 10; polished section No. 863; W of Jesenný (Kamenice, Za Papírnou upper part of hill slope). H The ef-
fect of young brittle deformation is expressed as a cube-shaped system of dislocations, accompanied by grinding and dissolution of carbon-
ate and formation of a new generation of small crystals of quartz and dolomite. Site 13; polished section No. 853; NW of Bozkov (Pod
Domání). White polarized transmitted light, crossed nicols, horizontal edge of each photograph 5.5 mm.
METAMORPHOSED CARBONATES AND PALEOZOIC EVOLUTION (NE BOHEMIA) 285
286 HLADIL et al.
allochems and cements of the sedimentary precursor. With
rapid recrystallization, the centrifugal movement of inclusions
(toward interstitial spaces) caused bluring (or damaging) of
the original rock fabric (e.g. Fig. 2A, marble with Fe-oxidic
ghosts after fossils; or G, where medium-sized crystal mosaics
were consumed by large calcite specimens). It is characteristic
that many prograde crystal mosaics observed in the ESKC
marbles were imperfectly purified (blurred with a number
of mineral and fluid inclusions, including carbonate crystal-
lites Fig. 2C).
Two processes differ from simple prograde-retrograde suc-
cessions. The first involved the massive fabrics of low-perme-
able dolomites from Dolní Albeøice, which survived until the
strong greenschist overpress, when the boudinaged oolitic/mi-
critic rocks were partly changed into completely rebuilt calcit-
ic marbles subjected to highly ductile deformation (CL-imag-
ing shows nebular bands of alternating, moderately dull to
moderately bright calcite streaks). These contrastive rock
types closely abut to thin envelopes of boudins, where maxi-
mum shear movements were localized on slip surfaces
(minute banding of carbonate cataclasites and silicates). The
calcitization above must be a fluid-induced process (Erickson
1994; Fisler & Cygan 1999) rather than a solid-state change
(Matthews et al. 1999), particularly if we consider the ex-
tremely rapid growth of low-magnesium calcite mass. The
second highly different rock types represent coarse-mosaic
dolomites, where interstitial seams among crystals are sharp
(occasionally with thread of CL-bright yellow calcite). The
dolomite crystals are homogeneously filled with a dense spray
of tiny inclusions (not zoned, not lamelled, no centrifugal
movement of inclusions, and dull in CL). To obtain such a
fabric, very slow crystallization is demanded for a long time
and with only a little chemical difference from the hypotheti-
Owing to the results of this analysis, the reliable material
(relevant to paleontological and geochemical features of rock
precursors) was practically reduced only to calcite marbles
with visible diagenetic/early-metamorphic prograde crystalli-
zation stages or, alternatively, to these blocked dolostones
sheltered from transformation to neoplasmic calcite mar-
Relics of sedimentary and biotic objects
An archaeocyath fragment, which was found during a joint
field trip by Ch. Pin in the Dolní Albeøice quarry (the speci-
men is housed in the Inst. Geol. AS CR; coll. J. Hladil), is in
the best state of preservation from all of the sectioned fossil
material. Comparative morphology studies made on the Lusa-
tian material and Lower Cambrian of the world (TU Freiberg
Collections) clearly confirmed the determination of this fossil
as an archaeocyath, which is similar to Erismacoscinus De-
brenne (possible E. tainius Elicki & Debrenne in comparison
with thin-sectioned material from Lusatia and also photo-
graphs and descriptions by Elicki & Debrenne 1993). Com-
monly associated archaeocyaths Afiacyathus Voronin also
form small cups of elongated shape, but their porous septa are
interconnected with synapticulae and an inner wall containing
numerous canals. It is not so compact as the simply pored wall
of Erismacoscinus. The stratigraphic range of the genus Eris-
macoscinus Debrenne 1958 is TommotianBotoman. An ex-
pertreport by F. Debrenne from the Museum of Natural Histo-
ry in Paris was fundamental for the confirmation of the
archaeocyathan nature of this fossil (Fig. 3A) and its Early
Cambrian age. Another candidate to be recognized as a relic
of an archaeocyath was found in a thin section W of Jesenný
A small skeletal fossil found by V. Kachlík in the Dolní Al-
beøice quarry has well-preserved trilobite microstructure (Fig.
3C,E). The oval to sub-rectangular shape (about 12 mm
across, Fig. 3D) is very characteristic, because the exactly su-
perposable trilobite sections are common in Lower Cambrian
of Lusatia (TU Freiberg collections). Both correspond to box-
shaped trilobite glabellae. They can be compared with Bon-
nia Walcott (2 or 3 genera?, presently revised by trilobite
specialists). In Bonnia, the anterior ends of glabellae are
blunt, anterolateral corners expanded and glabellar furrows
are extremely shallow (Palmer 1964). Small but sturdy Bon-
nia-trilobites seem to be typical inhabitants of carbonate seas
(in BonniaOlennelus Biozone), being widely reported from
different facies of North America (California, Colorado, N
Greenland Blaker & Peel 1997), but also Central Asia or
other places (e.g. Kazkhstan L.B. McCollum pers. comm.
Fig. 3. Relics of the Lower Cambrian fossils and ooids in polished sections and their comparison with unmetamorphosed rocks from the Do-
berlug-Torgau area of Lusatia. A A fragment of an archaeocyath skeleton, possible Erismacoscinus in oolite. The ooids and the bioclast
are dolomitized. Very young transparent calcite crystals replace the rock matrix and cement. Quarry at Dolní Albeøice. Polished section, hor-
izontal edge 6.8 mm. B Analogous fragments of archaeocyaths in dolomitized microbial packstone with microbial structures of Renalcis-
type. Doberlug-Torgau P8/1706, 98. Thin section, horizontal edge 16.0 mm. C A section across a small box-shaped cephalon of trilobite,
possible Bonnia, in dolomitized ooidal carbonate rock. The quartz-carbonate veinlets are white; the trilobite skeleton is pink with a glassy
appearance (marked with arrows). Quarry at Dolní Albeøice. Polished section, horizontal edge 15.3 mm. D The same object; the shell is
traced using the image analysis techniques (artificial colours, black on green background). E The same object; microstructure of skeleton
(blue light from lower and oblique upper illuminations). F An analogous section across a box-shaped cephalon. Strongly dolomitized oo-
idal packstone. Doberlug-Torgau P18(B)/1630, 88. Thin section, horizontal edge 12.0 mm. G Relic structures after dolomitized ooids
form dark grey coloured rings in neomorphic carbonate structure of the rock. Doberlug-Torgau P2/1614, 103. Thin section, horizontal edge
12.0 mm. H Coated grains with quartz silt and large ooids. Doberlug-Torgau P2/1706, 95. Thin section, horizontal edge 5.5 mm. The
ESKC-related specimens coll. J. Hladil (Prague); Lusatian specimens drilled rock cores, coll. B. Buschmann & O. Elicki (Freiberg).
METAMORPHOSED CARBONATES AND PALEOZOIC EVOLUTION (NE BOHEMIA) 287
288 HLADIL et al.
2002). Such sudden island hopping migrations of trilobites
from Laurentian to Gondwanan carbonate shelves are general-
ly possible (late Early Cambrian breakdown of provincial bar-
riers Geyer & Landing 2001). Other small trilobite chips
resemble, with some uncertainty, the Kingaspis debris from
Jordan (TU Freiberg collections; Elicki & Shinaq 2000). The
Kingaspis trilobites have strictly domed dorsal exoskeleton
(N African complete specimens); they were spiny and formed
cephalic and pleural doublures. Although suggestions about
Bonnia or Kingaspis from Dolní Albeøice have separately
rather a speculative than a conclusive character, a general Ear-
ly Cambrian trilobite indication is worth mentioning. The Ser-
rodiscusLusatiops faunulae have not been indicated yet (Lu-
satian silty shale facies Geyer & Elicki 1995).
The archaeocyathan and trilobite remnants were embedded
mostly in oolites (Fig. 3A,C), rarely in micrites. The sedimen-
tary fabrics have largely been based on exceptionally pre-
served boudins from the Dolní Albeøice quarry (the eastern-
most ESKC), but ghosts of relic oolites in prograde
metamorphic fabrics (Fig. 2A) are also found at other places
in the ESKC. The ooids are usually well-sorted, ¼ to 2 mm
large; the maximum thickness of oolites goes over 30 m. As is
generally known, the formation of oolites requires gentle or
periodic wave actions in warm marine-waters which allow
carbonate precipitation on all sides of a grain of sand or shell
fragment. Favourable conditions are high aragonite satura-
tions in seawater by low binding capability of benthic organ-
isms. Not all periods were associated with thick accumula-
tions of oolites. A really massive oolitic production dates to
the Late ProterozoicEarly Cambrian stages, whereas the Or-
dovician to Devonian periods provided only a limited chance
for expansions of oolitic facies. This simple fact is used as a
supporting argument in favour of biostratigraphically deduced
Early Cambrian ages. In addition, the Dolní Albeøice oolites
and microbialites are nearly identical to the Lower Cambrian
carbonates of Lusatia (Doberlug-Torgau Syncline, Zwethau
Formation Elicki 1999; Fig. 3FH herein). The next world-
wide expansion of oolitic facies occurred with the Early Car-
boniferous aragonite-facilitating episodes (Sandberg 1983,
or Mistiaen 1984), but this alternative seems to be implausible
in the question relating to the ESKC. The 90%-prevalence of
early diagenetic dolomite, which formed even before the early
dissolution of aragonite chips, corresponds to evaporitic ma-
The microfossil assemblage from calcitic marbles of Poni-
klá differs from the above mentioned summary. The
maghemite-chlorite-siderite cast of a strictly conical shell
bears rings and longitudinal ribs (Fig. 4A,B). This shape is
more comparable with dacryoconarids than with the distinc-
tive forms of small Early Cambrian molluscs (collections in
Prague and Freiberg, respectively). The shell morphology
corresponds to Nowakia Gürich, possibly N. acuaria (Rich-
ter), because all other Nowakia species have much larger di-
m) by rather imperfect ornamentation in this
early stage of dacryoconarid shell formation (Bouèek 1964).
The accompanying microremains are attributable to small
planktonic brachiopods Acrotreta Kutorga (Fig. 4C,D). Fe-
oxidic and carbonatic mixtures with chlorite replaced the orig-
inal shell of phosphatic-carbonatic composition. Although the
Acrotreta-brachiopods occurred from Cambrian to Ho-
locene, they started to be really abundant during the Pragian
(as related to the ArmoricanE Avalonian Terrane Assem-
blages). Other microremains extracted from residues are very
unclear, for example of possible brachiopod or crinoid spines
(Fig. 4E,F). Although the Nowakia and Acrotreta casts
are not perfectly preserved (Fig. 4AD), they allow reasoning
about Pragian age (N. acuaria is a zonal index fossil bios-
Specific fossil microremains were also found in the upper
levels of an active quarry at Horní Lánov (Fig. 4G,H). These
skeletal fragments are dark grey and honey-brown-hued and
consist of francolite (phosphate) with perfoliated tiny crystals
of mica and dolomite. These microremains are abraded blades
and spines of V-shaped cross-sections and most probably be-
long to phyllocarids, possible Ceratiocaris Salter, or similar
primitive malacostracan crustaceans (consulting by I.
Chlupáè). The Ceratiocaris-type arthropods are traceable
from Cambrian to Permian, but comparable microremains are
particularly abundant in the WenlockianPøídolian interval
(mid- to end-Silurian times). The calcite marbles (only slight-
ly dolomitic) have ghosts after bioclastic lime-mud-supported
sedimentary fabrics (possibly packstones and calcisiltites).
Related carbonate rampslope facies are typical for the Late
SilurianEarly Devonian oceanic sediments of warm climates
Fig. 4. Examples of the best preserved fossil relics from insoluble residues after dissolution of marbles. A and B A maghemite-chlorite-
siderite cast of a dacryoconarid shell, possible Nowakia. Note extremely narrow early part of the shell (d = 120
m); longitudinal ribs are
partly preserved. C and D A maghemite-chlorite-siderite cast of Acrotreta valve (small planktonic brachiopod), size < 300
m; a general
view (C) and detail of coarse crystal aggregates in broken cast (D), which shows elongated crystal shapes of siderite > maghemite (with oth-
er Fe-oxides) and obliquely oriented platelets of chlorite (with traces of mica). Small amounts of chalcedony quartz are present (small
bulbs). E and F A pseudomorph of small rod-shaped bioclast consisting of pyrite-goethite-mica aggregates with phosphate and dolomite
admixtures. G and H Phosphatic bioclasts. The V-shaped rod (G) consists of francolite phosphatic mass with subordinate contents of do-
lomite and dispersed mica; parts of phyllocarid carapaces, possible Ceratiocaris (opinion of I. Chlupáè). Abraded blades of laminated phos-
phatic bioprecipitates are most likely also disarticulated parts of arthropods. The photographs A to F were taken on the material from the lo-
cality of Poniklá, Dolský potok; G and H from Horní Lánov, base of the Active Quarry. All in SEM, with the exception of G (light
microscopy). The insoluble residues were obtained by the buffered formic acid dissolution process. Mineralogy was interpreted from the
EDAX and XRD data. The ESKC-related specimens come from the collections of M. Hubaèík (Brno and Semily).
METAMORPHOSED CARBONATES AND PALEOZOIC EVOLUTION (NE BOHEMIA) 289
290 HLADIL et al.
(anywhere, from the Appalachians, through the Barrandian to
S China, for instance).
Rare-earth and trace elements in insoluble residues
of marbles and compared carbonate rocks
The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns of the
insoluble residues from the ESKC metacarbonates show a dis-
tinct enrichment in light REE (LREE), small negative Eu
anomaly, and rather unfractionated and almost flat distribu-
tion of heavy REE (HREE) (Fig. 5A). The ESKC metacarbon-
ate residues are quite similar to Post-Archean Average Austra-
lian Sedimentary (PAAS) rock (Nance & Taylor 1976), as
well as to the other typical post-Archean sediments (e.g. Tay-
lor & McLennan 1985; McLennan & Taylor 1991; McLennan
2001) according to the lanthanide distribution patterns
nevertheless, compared to these standards, they are depleted
in REE abundances by the factor of 5 to 10 due to the general-
ly low lanthanide concentrations in carbonates (Bowen 1979)
which survived in finely crystalline mineral mixtures of the
residues. Examples of the other carbonate insoluble residues
of the Bohemian Massif from the Barrandian (Early Devo-
nian), Lusatia (Early Cambrian) and Polish Central Sudetes
(problematic Cambrian, Middle Devonian, and Late Devo-
nian) generally display the same features of chondrite-normal-
ized REE distribution patterns (Fig. 5BD). However, the de-
pletion in lanthanide concentrations similar to that of the
ESKC marble insoluble residues was revealed only in some
Fig. 5. Distribution patterns of REE concentrations in insoluble residues normalized by chondrite composition (Anders & Grevesse
1989). A ESKC marbles (Cambrian and SilurianDevonian); B Barrandian (Early Devonian) limestones; C Lusatian (Early
Cambrian) dolomites; D Polish Central Sudetes (Cambrian?, Middle Devonian, and Late Devonian) carbonate rocks.
samples from the Polish Central Sudetes (Middle Devonian,
Ma³y Bo¿ków locality) (Fig. 5D); the only REE-depleted and
Ca-rich sample from the Konìprusy reef (Early Devonian, the
Barrandian) seems to be an exception, too (Fig. 5B, Table 1).
The data on REE concentrations in insoluble residues ob-
tained from representative samples of carbonate rocks from
the ESKC, Barrandian, Lusatia and Polish Central Sudetes
were double-normalized by PAAS values (Nance & Taylor
1976) and by Lu
(i.e., Lu values of every individual sample
normalized by PAAS). The purpose was to minimize the ef-
fect of dilution of lanthanide concentrations in the rock resi-
dues by abundant undiluted carbonates and detrital-to-silicifi-
cation quartz (Fig. 6). The double-normalized REE-dis-
tribution patterns of the residue samples of the ESKC Early
Cambrian marbles (e.g. from Dolní Albeøice and Horní
Lánov, part of which may be Silurian) as well as of the Lusa-
tian Early Cambrian dolomites reflect slight deviations from
the normalizing REE profile, which can be interpreted as an
influx of calc-alkaline igneous-rock products from the sur-
rounding region (not from atmospheric deposits see Dis-
cussion). If simply compared with igneous rocks, it may sug-
gest continental arc to active margin sources CAAM
(Bhatia 1985; Bhatia & Crook 1986; Girty et al. 1993;
McLennan et al. 1993; and Fig. 6A,B herein). As mentioned
by one of the reviewers, Ch. Pin, the mixing effect of local
and global sources of the background sedimentation have not
been completely understood yet and a simple inference to be
made on geodynamic setting is may be difficult to ascertain.
METAMORPHOSED CARBONATES AND PALEOZOIC EVOLUTION (NE BOHEMIA) 291
However, the patterns similar to above Cambrian patterns are
still traceable on Lower Devonian samples from Barrandian,
and a slightly similar pattern can also be seen on a single spec-
imen from the Polish Central Sudetes (Ma³y Bo¿ków locali-
ty Middle Devonian) however, in the latter area, source
rocks with conspicuously fractionated LREE/HREE were
substantially involved (Fig. 6D). In the ESKC SilurianDevo-
nian (e.g. Poniklá area), these continental features also oc-
cur but to a lesser extent. The majority of the ESKC and Su-
detes samples, with an exception for the Cambrian, reveal
either oceanic island-arc or passive continental margin influ-
Slight arch-shaped deviations seen in several normalized
REE diagrams are caused by the presence of organogenic/di-
agenetic phosphate. This bias is demonstrated by Barrandian
samples (chips of conodont-teeth elements) and partly also
with the ESKC samples (Silurian? Ceratiocaris-microre-
mains; Horní Lánov, part of which may be Cambrian).
The diagram of Hf/Yb vs. La/Th (employing representative
elements of REE, HFSE high-field strength elements, and
the least mobile LILE large ion lithophile elements) can
be alternatively used for evaluation of the predominance of ei-
ther mafic or felsic rocks in clastic sediment source an ap-
proximate boundary between mafic and felsic sources was
constructed on the basis of data following authors such as
Floyd (1989), Floyd et al. (1991) and Wilson (1993). The Hf/Yb
vs. La/Th discrimination on the ESKC and Polish Central Su-
detes metacarbonatic residues are conspicuously scattered,
Table 1: Abundances of rare earth elements and selected trace elements; selected macroelements and Th/U ratio round mean values. Re-
sults of the INNAXRF analyses of residues, i.e., the formerly dispersed weathering products trapped in carbonates were moderaltely (and
up to various stage cf. abundance of Ca) concentrated by means of three-weeks dissolution in 5% formic acid. Abbreviations of sites:
K = Krkonoe-Jizera area: K-1 Dolní Albeøice Quarry; K-2 Poniklá, Dolský Brook, Middle, sample No. 2; K-3 Poniklá, Dolský
Brook, South, sample No. 3; K-4 Poniklá, Poniklá Cave, sample No. 6; K-5 Horní Lánov Active Quarry, Crusher, sample No. 9;
K-6 Horní Lánov Active Quarry, 2nd level, sample No. 12. B = Barrandian area: B-1 Velká Chuchle Quarry, conodont point No. 7 of
L. Slavík Lochkovian; B-2 Na Cikánce Quarry, conodont point No. 7 of L. Slavík Lochkovian; B-3 Konìprusy Quarry West, L.
Slavíks conodont point 2 Lochkovian; B-4 Konìprusy Quarry West, conodont point No. 6 of L. Slavík Pragian; B-5 Mramorka
Quarry, Chýnice/Zbuzany, bed interval No. 6 Pragian; B-6 Stydlé Vody Quarry, bed interval No. 7 Pragian; B-7 Mramorka Quar-
ry Chýnice/Zbuzany, bed interval No. 13 Zlíchovian. L = Lusatia-Doberlug Syncline: L-1 northern flank of Doberlug Syncline WBW
1612, 277.5 m Early Cambrian; L-2 N Doberlug Syncline WBW 1612, 280.0 m Early Cambrian; L-3 N Doberlug Syncline
WBW 1612, 389.0 m Early Cambrian; L-4 N Doberlug Syncline WBW 1612, 396.5 m Early Cambrian. S = Polish Central Sudetes:
S-1 Dzikowiec, Playground Quarry Famennian; S-2 Ma³y Bo¿ków, Coral Quarry Givetian; S-3 Ma³y Bo¿ków, Malaysia
Quarry unknown Paleozoic age.
U Ta Nb Zr Hf Th/U Fe
Ca Na K
Sm Eu Tb Ho Yb Lu Y
- 0.1 0.1
- 0.1 0.1
7.4 0.7 0.5
7 177 4.7
1.8 0.1 4.9 27.1 51.7
2.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 1.0 0.2
2.9 2.5 0.5
0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.1 11
0.5 0.5 0.1
- 0.1 0.1
0.9 0.8 0.6
6.4 15.6 2.3 10.3
1.8 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3
4.2 10.0 2.2 0.7 11 112 2.8
4.4 0.2 2.1 34.5 61.0
9.0 2.2 1.1 1.5 1.8 0.3 28 11.2 127.5
6.6 4.6 0.6 16 126 2.3
- 2.3 35.5 63.3
- 58.7 10.5 2.7 1.4 1.4 2.2 0.3 66
4.8 2.1 0.6 22 153 3.3
5.7 0.8 2.2 20.9 27.4
2.6 0.7 0.3 0.3 1.3 0.2 26
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2
873 11.2 12.7 2.8 1.1 26 252 4.5
1.6 0.1 3.8 50.1 74.3
7.1 1.8 0.8 1.4 2.0 0.3 52 11.9
B-6 2,197 145.3
9.4 14.8 2.3 1.3 42 236 6.0
2.0 0.1 3.7 49.2 76.3 8.6
7.1 1.6 0.8 0.8 2.4 0.4 68 13.2
9.0 6.2 1.1 34 250 3.9
4.0 0.1 0.9 42.8 71.7 9.3 54.1
8.5 2.4 1.2 1.5 3.1 0.4 96
8.4 1.6 0.6 12 176 2.9
3.4 14.1 1.0 2.4 41.2 89.7
6.1 1.5 0.8 0.9 2.7 0.4 46 12.5
7.4 1.2 0.5 11 160 2.4
3.2 16.1 0.8 2.2 36.1 85.4
5.6 1.4 0.7 0.7 2.1 0.3 40 10.0
5.6 1.1 0.5
1.4 22.4 1.0 1.2 23.4 49.2
3.8 1.0 0.4 0.4 1.3 0.2 22
6.4 1.5 0.4
6 125 2.3
1.8 13.3 1.3 1.8 24.4 44.7
3.2 0.8 0.4 0.4 1.3 0.2 20 10.5
1.8 0.9 0.2
6 107 1.3
1.5 30.4 0.4 0.5 17.1 30.2
3.2 1.0 0.5 0.4 1.6 0.3 30
4.8 3.9 0.2
1.5 33.9 0.2 0.8 13.9 26.4
1.8 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.1 11
0.7 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3
compared to the closely spaced data for the Barrandian and
Lusatian samples (Fig. 7). A considerable diversity of source
rocks can therefore be presumed for the former groups of
An analogous difference between the ESKCPolish Central
Sudetes and Barrandian-Lusatian assemblages is visualized
using the Hf/Sc vs. La/Th plot (Fig. 8). Although these char-
acteristics for sediments have bias from incompletely known
fractionation pathways (e.g. concentration of Sc in lateritic
crusts Ni, Co, Al affinites), it provides, according to first
experiences, an interesting discrimination capability that is re-
lated to maficfelsic depletion of Sc in igneous source rocks.
The Barrandian-Lusatian assemblage displays the data scatter,
which is strongly focused to CAAM field. Application of
these proxies to the Polish Central Sudetes indicates the influ-
ence of oceanic igneous sources (from oceanic island-arc to
oceanic within-plate environments).
Altogether, these ratios Hf/Yb, Hf/Sc and La/Th com-
bined and plotted for the ESKC specimens show large vari-
ability (usually with little shifts toward passive continental
margin compositions). The possible PCM influences (com-
pare: Taylor & McLennan 1985; Floyd et al. 1991; McLennan
et al. 1993) are best exemplified by a sequestered point, which
stands for one of the SilurianDevonian samples from the
Poniklá area (Fig. 8, upper right).
The Th/U ratio based on insoluble residues from marbles
strongly fluctuates (0.4 and 9.9; Table 1). Expected metamor-
phic mobility of uranium complexes practically precludes any
292 HLADIL et al.
Fig. 7. Diagram (Hf/Yb)
10 vs. La/Th employing representative elements of REE, HFSE, and the least mobile LILE with an approximate boundary
between mafic and felsic sources. Data after Floyd (1989), Floyd et al. (1991), Wilson (1993), a.o. The data on insoluble residues from the ESKC
metacarbonates and Polish Central Sudetes carbonates display a wide scatter compared to the data on the Barrandian and Lusatian samples.
Fig. 6. Distribution patterns of REE concentrations in the insoluble residues double-normalized by Post-Archean Average Australian Sedi-
mentary (PAAS) rock values (Nance & Taylor 1976) and by Lu
(i.e., Lu values already normalized by PAAS) to minimize the effect of di-
lution of lanthanide concentrations by carbonates and quartz. A1 ESKC Early Cambrian marbles (from Dolní Albeøice and Horní Lánov);
A2 ESKC marbles of suspected Late Silurian to Early Devonian age (Poniklá area); B Barrandian (Early Devonian) limestones from
Velká Chuchle and Mramorka; C Lusatian unmetamorphosed Early Cambrian dolomites (WisBaw borehole); D Middle Devonian
limestone sample from the Polish Central Sudetes (Ma³y Bo¿ków area).
METAMORPHOSED CARBONATES AND PALEOZOIC EVOLUTION (NE BOHEMIA) 293
utilization of this ratio for estimating the original sedimentary
conditions or paleogeographical magnafacies.
The strong obliteration of primary sedimentary fabrics and
alteration of weathering products trapped in carbonates con-
siderably reduce the number of interpretable samples in the
ESKC. The exact classification of rock precursors in each of
these ESKC carbonate bodies is therefore practically impossi-
ble. The analyses of the ESKC marbles provide inspirational
jumping-off points for new and more accurate ways of under-
standing the physical nature of the tectonometamorphically
stacked slices and stripes of rocks rather than all-inclusive
classification of all samples.
The trace-element geochemistry of dispersed weathering
products trapped in carbonates is practically new and connect-
ed with many problems. One of the principal problems is the
separation of regional influx of real CAAM-related material
(aquatic suspension from river deltas >> atmospheric depos-
its) from the false CAAM-image of largely averaged back-
ground deposits (eolian atmospheric deposits >> aquatic sus-
pensions from river deltas). There is a widespread myth
among the geological public, that atmospheric depositions are
negligible. This myth is based on present (interglacial) aver-
age values for the entire Earth surface area, which are approxi-
(i.e., ~5 kilograms per square
meter and million years). However, it can be easy demonstrat-
ed, using the present reviews about deposition of eolian dust
and mineral aerosols (Harrison et al. 2001; Mahowald et al.
1999; Tegen & Fung 1995; Duce & Tindale 1991), that areas
with carbonate production have a great supply of these atmo-
spheric deposits, which fluctuates in long-term averages from
(i.e., ~5 to 50 tons per square
meter and million of years). It corresponds, by 20 m/Ma accu-
mulation rate of pure carbonate, for instance, to a maximum
possible proportion of this substance (trapped in carbonate),
which is equal to 1050 %. However, this amount is common-
ly reduced (washed and dissolved) to ½¼ of the original
mass, that is ~2.55 to 12.525 % of the rock mass.
Accepting that both types of non-carbonate admixtures can
represent geochemical traits of source areas, it makes sense to
study the deviations from the average clastic sedimentary ma-
terial of post-Archean age (McLennan 2001). Anyhow it will
be impossible to find unchanged igneous compositions in this
material (fractionations related to weathering, transport, depo-
sition and diagenesis), at least part of geochemical signatures
can be transferred with these weathering products (e.g. Ohr et
In this direction of interpretation, the Lower Cambrian
ESKC marbles (Dolní Albeøice and partly also Horní Lánov)
and Lusatian oolites (Doberlug-Torgau Syncline) have visible
local components, which probably correspond to calc-alkaline
(meta)igneous rocks of end-Proterozoic ages. The CAAM
character of this material (compare with Bhatia 1985; Bhatia
& Crook 1986; Floyd et al. 1991; McLennan et al. 1993)
seems to be involved in the double-normalized REE distribu-
tion patterns (by PAAS values and by relevant value of Lu
Fig. 6AC). The possible ratio of the local to widely regional
and global dispersions (L/G) may fluctuate from 0.25 to 4. A
single sample from Polish Central Sudetes (Ma³y Bo¿ków
Givetian; Fig. 6D) is typical for prevalence of local material.
The patterns based on Lochkovian-Emsian limestones of the
Barrandian area (Fig. 6B) have extra phosphate-related de-
flection but, in general, again correspond to CAAM. Howev-
er, the typically decreasing values of Ce and Yb (and especial-
ly the absence of micro-lithoclasts and low concentrations of
clastic heavy minerals) suggest, that this CAAM character is
rather an effect of wide regional averaging, which makes a
Fig. 8. Insoluble residues from carbonate rocks of the ESKC, Barrandian, Lusatia and Polish Central Sudetes in Hf/Sc vs. La/Th plot. Repre-
sentative compositions of clastic sediments from various tectonic settings: OWP oceanic within-plate, OIA oceanic island-arc, CAAM
continental arc to active continental margin, and PCM passive continental margin (after Floyd et al. 1991), and UCC upper conti-
nental crust (after Taylor & McLennan 1985).
294 HLADIL et al.
false semblance that is only similar to CAAM. The possible L/G
ratio is only 0.05 to 0.1.
Summarizing all indications, the ESKC SilurianDevonian
insoluble residues differ from their Barrandian counterparts
by higher amounts and higher variation of the proximal silici-
clastic admixture, where the L/G can increase to values >0.3.
The source rocks were of considerable diversity (Poniklá area,
for instance Fig. 6A2). The Poniklá area marbles (ESKC),
but particularly the carbonates of the Ma³y Bo¿ków and Dz-
ikowiec localities (Polish Central Sudetes), reflect a wide ar-
ray of sources involving mafic to felsic rocks. This may be
considered as a direct evidence of synsedimentary (not only
late Variscan) unevenness of crustal segment composition.
The K³odzko area also provides evidence about pre-Late De-
vonian unconformity (Kryza et al. 1999). Practically, the
whole possible scale of both inactive (old and exhumed) and
synsedimentary settings occur in the Sudetic Terrane Assem-
blage (from OWP and OIA to continental CAAM and PCM
see Figs. 6 to 8).
The geochemical and lithological characteristics of the car-
bonate rocks of the ESKC, Lusatia, Polish Central Sudetes
and Barrandian despite many similarities point to sedi-
ment origin in adequately geographically separated basins.
The traits observed in the ESKC and Lusatian Cambrian seem
to have indirect geodynamic continuation in the Devonian of
the Barrandian area. These basins were subsiding on a partly
eroded Cadomian CAAM rock suite of northern Gondwanan
relevance (Nance & Murphy 1994; Edel & Weber 1995;
Kachlík & Patoèka 1998b; Keppie & Dostal 1998); the age is
Late Vendian, about ~570 Ma (Buschmann et al. 2001). The
Cambrian carbonates had to be evolutionarily linked to atten-
uation and rifting of the West Sudetic Cadomian crust
(Kachlík & Patoèka 1998b; Dostal et al. 2001). The Silurian-
Devonian basins (particularly in Barrandian) attained an ad-
vanced stage of basement extension (Patoèka et al. 1993; Pa-
toèka 2001). On the other hand, the Devonian sedimentary
precursors of the ESKC as well as the Polish Central Sudetes
differ from any other neighbouring regions with their ex-
tremely varying spectrum of sources.
The trace elementREE geochemistry of residues from the
West and Central Sudetic limestones and dolomites seems to
confirm the significant role of N-Gondwana-pervasive Cam-
brian-Ordovician intracontinental rifting, which continued
with strong Silurian sea-floor spreading (Crowley et al. 2000,
or Dostal et al. 2000, 2001). The oceanization culminated,
during the Devonian, with ocean-floor subduction and amal-
gamation of the Variscan terrane mosaic (Cymerman et al.
1997; Maluski & Patoèka 1997; Pharaoh 1999; Franke et al.
2000; Marheine et al. 2000 in print; Winchester et al. in print).
The marbles in the East and South Krkonoe Complexes
(ESKC, N Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic) originated ba-
sically from two sedimentary precursors Cambrian dolo-
mites and SilurianEarly Devonian limestones. The Early
Cambrian age (Dolní Albeøice) is shown by an archaeocyath
Erismacoscinus and probably also by the trilobites Bonnia
and Kingaspis. Abundance of early diagenetically dolo-
mitized oolites and microbialites has lithostratigraphic corre-
lation significance. The occurrence of CyrtograptusTest-
ograptus graptolite assemblage in slates near Poniklá implies
the WenlockianLudlowian age. Possible Ceratiocaris and
Nowakia, both seen with comparative details, suggest that at
least part of the marbles between Horní Lánov and Poniklá are
of SilurianDevonian age. The dacryoconarid from Poniklá
has apparent similarity to Nowakia acuaria and it makes
sense to take into consideration the Pragian stratigraphic
stage, as the presently youngest biostratigraphic datum in the
ESKC. The SilurianDevonian precursors can be character-
ized as open-sea calcitic wackestones/packstones and dolo-
The insoluble residues from the ESKC have REE distribu-
tions comparable to PAAS, with decreased abundances (main-
ly the carbonatic character of residues, but possibly also natu-
ral depletion). The analyses of the background sediment
trapped in carbonates revealed differences of regional to inter-
regional significance. It implies extensive development of the
related N Gondwanan rifting branches with EarlyMiddle Pa-
leozoic geographical separation of the ESKC, Lusatia, Polish
Central Sudetes and Barrandian areas. In a parallel to litholo-
gy and fauna, the geochemical features of the Early Cambrian
ESKC are apparently similar to Lusatian. These features re-
flect the Cadomian orogenic (calc-alkaline igneous/metaig-
neous) source rocks, which are traceable even in the Lower
Devonian carbonate sediments of the Barrandian area. On the
other hand, the Silurian-Devonian features related to the
ESKC provide only imperfect links to the Barrandian, the
variation of compositions seems to increase toward the Early
Devonian and, the MiddleLate Devonian continuation is
absent. In contrast to this, the Polish Central Sudetes (prob-
lematic Cambrian, Middle Devonian, Late Devonian) reflect
extremely diversified and dynamically developing sources
(OWP/OIACAAM/UCCPCM types). Rarely observed lan-
thanide depletions were found only in the Barrandian, or
within variation, also in Polish Central Sudetes.
The information resulting from studies on the ESKC car-
bonates basically supports the existing opinions about the
Cambrian-Ordovician intracontinental rifting (breakup of the
N Gondwanan margin) with rapidly developed sea-floor
spreading during the SilurianDevonian times. The ESKC
Lusatian-type of the Early Cambrian dolostones and Bar-
randian-type of the Silurian-Devonian limestones (by possi-
ble absence of MiddleLate Devonian sediments) are addi-
tional distinctive characteristics of the Krkonoe-Jizera
Acknowledgments: The authors are thankful for two Aca-
demic Grants IAA3013209 Weathering products and
IAA3111102 Prevariscan development, with assistance of
research frameworks Z3-013-912 (Acad. Sci. Cz.R.), J07/
98:143100004 (Masaryk Univ.) and J13/98:113100005
(Charles Univ.). Special thanks are due to O. Elicki and B.
Buschmann (Freiberg); S. Mazur, R. Kryza and J. Don (Wro-
claw); Ch. Pin (Clermont-Ferrand); F. Debrenne (Paris); W.
Franke (Giessen) and P. Kraft, I. Chlupáè, L. Slavík, P. torch
and R. Mikulá (Prague) for consulting. Analytical services:
METAMORPHOSED CARBONATES AND PALEOZOIC EVOLUTION (NE BOHEMIA) 295
K. MelkaXRD, A. LangrováEDX and EMP (Inst. Geol.,
Acad. Sci. Cz.R., Praha), J. FránaINAA (Inst. Nucl. Phys.,
Acad. Sci. Cz.R., Øe u Prahy), A. MandaXRF (Gematest
List of sites investigated by means of structural, thin-section and chemi-
cal analyses to select reliable places for determination of rock precur-
sors (Fig. 1): ESKC-1 SSW of Jesenný, Vratilov; 2 Jesenný, Old
Quarry in village; 3 Bozkov, Small Quarry at the entrance of the
Bozkov Cave; 4 W of Jesenný, U Staré Vody; 5 NNE of Bozkov,
Brook Junction; 6 SSW of Jesenný; 7 SSE of Jesenný; 8 S of
Jesenný; 9 S of Jesenný, NNW of point 8; 10 W of Jesenný, Ka-
menice, Za Papírnou; 11 the same location, but upper part of the sec-
tion; 12 W of Bozkov, Cottage of Kamenice; 13 NW of Bozkov,
Pod Domání; 14 Horní Marov, Horní Marov Cave; 15 Marov,
2.2 km S of Horní Marov Cave; 16 2 km NE of Bozkov, U Vá-
clavíkù; 17A Poniklá, Poniklá Cave; 17B Bílá Skála Rock 3 km
from Benecko, 3.5 km E of No. 17A; 18 Køílice, U Brádlerù, 1.5 km
E of Benecko; 19 tìpanická Lhota, Old Quarry, 2 km S of Benecko;
20 tìpanická Lhota, Water Tank, 2.5 km S of Benecko; 21A
Horní Lánov, Horní Lánov Quarry, Crusher; 21B Horní Lánov,
Horní Lánov Quarry, centre of lower bench; 22 N of Svoboda nad
Úpou, Janské Láznì junction; 23 Horní Marov, Water Tank, 0.4 km
E of No. 14; 24 Horní Albeøice, Horní Albeøice Cave close to CZ/PL
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