HYDROTHERMAL Sb-Au MINERALIZATION (WESTERN CARPATHIANS) 207
GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 54, 4, BRATISLAVA, AUGUST 2003
HYDROTHERMAL Sb-Au MINERALIZATION
IN THE STRÁOVSKÉ VRCHY MOUNTAINS (MALÁ MAGURA,
and MARTIN CHOVAN
Geological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Severná 5, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovak Republic; firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina G, 842 15 Bratislava,
Slovak Republic; email@example.com
(Manuscript received February 18, 2002; accepted in revised form March 11, 2003)
Abstract: Sb-Au mineralization in the Malá Magura mountain group of the Stráovské vrchy Mts was found in the
vicinity of the Chvojnica village. Mineralization occurs in quartz-carbonate veins and disseminated zones in the Variscan
granitoids and highly-metamorphosed rocks. Paragenetic associations of Sb-Au mineralization are close to other depos-
its of this type in the Tatric Superunit (Malé Karpaty Mts, Nízke Tatry Mts etc.). The mineralization was formed during
three stages. The pyrite-arsenopyrite-gold mineral stage is the oldest one. The arsenopyrite geothermometer gives a
temperature range of 385465 °C. Younger stages are the sphalerite-galena-tetrahedrite (2nd) and stibnite-sphalerite-
sulphosalts (3rd) mineral stages. A substantial part of the sphalerite of the 2nd mineralization stage shows chalcopyrite
disease. Common association of pyrrhotite and native antimony observed in the 3rd mineralization stage indicates low
values of the ore-forming fluid. Furthermore, the 3rd mineralization stage comprises Fe-bearing minerals
(jamesonite, pyrrhotite and berthierite), which indicate Fe-rich environment. Primary gold occurs in two generations
differring in Ag content.
Key words: Western Carpathians, Variscan basement, Sb (Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) sulphides and sulphosalts, gold.
Sb-Au mineralization in the Tatric Superunit (Western Car-
pathians) is known mainly from numerous occurrences in the
Ïumbierske Tatry Mts (Chovan et al. 1996 a.o.). Deposits
such as Magurka, Dúbrava, Medzibrod, Lom, Dve Vody and
Boca were important sources of gold and later on antimony.
Localities in the past in the Malé Karpaty Mts Kolársky
vrch, Limbach (Au), Pernek and Kuchyòa (Cambel 1959;
Chovan et al. 1992) were of economic importance. Gold was
also extracted from the small Sb-Au mineralization deposit on
Kriváò in the High Tatra Mts (Bakos 2000). Occurrences in
the Malá Fatra Mts (Bystrièka and Trebostovo) were without
economic importance and have been insufficiently studied
(Varèek 1963). The geochemical indices of Sb mineralization
in the crystalline basement in the Povaský Inovec and Tribeè
Mts were noted by Polák & Rak (1980).
A rich gold-field was known and mined in the Malá Magura
mountain group of the Stráovské vrchy Mts, in the vicinity
of Chvojnica and Malinová villages from the 14th century.
The mining continued in the 16th and 17th century, (e.g., in
the year 1614, 700 g Au), (Janczy 1973). However the prima-
ry sources of the gold remain unknown (Böhmer & Hvoïara
1980). Up to now, occurrences of ore mineralization in the vi-
cinity of Chvojnica village were ascribed to base metal hydro-
thermal mineralization in the Tatric Superunit (Zelný & Uher
1988; Mikolá et al. 1993 a.o.).
During our research in the past few years, we have identified
primary mineralization in the Chvojnica Partizánska dolina
Valley. This mineralization shows similarities with Sb-Au min-
eralization in other mountains of the Tatric Superunit.
Geological setting and mineralization
The Western Carpathians belong to a collisional Alpine
Orogen, which arose from the closure of the Tethys Ocean.
The Western Carpathians can be subdivided into the Outer-,
Central- and Inner Western Carpathians (Plaienka et al.
1997). The Tatric Superunit is an extensive thick-skinned
crustal sheet composed of a pre-Alpine (generally Variscan)
crystalline basement and its sedimentary cover. The Tatric
basement generally shows well-preserved Variscan structures
without a significant Alpine overprint.
The Tatric basement is built up of large Variscan granitoid
plutons located within medium to high-grade metamorphic
rocks such as gneisses, anatectic migmatites and amphibolites.
Low to medium-grade shales and mafic rocks of Devonian to
Early Carboniferous age are less abundant (Malé Karpaty
Mts). The Tatric cover comprises the following lithological
units: Upper Carboniferous and Permian molasse sediments,
bimodal volcanics and Lower Triassic-mid-Cretaceous sedi-
mentary rocks. A few Mesozoic nappes were thrust from the S
and overlie the Tatric basement and cover series.
The formation of the most important Sb-Au hydrothermal
mineralizations is believed to be linked either to Variscan
208 MIKU and CHOVAN
granitoids or metamorphism. Particular results about mineralogy
and fluid inclusions study in the Sb-Au mineralization in the Tat-
ric Superunit are reported by many authors (e.g., Chovan et al.
1992, 1995, 1996, 1999; Majzlan et al. 2001; Hurai 1988 a.o.).
The Suchý and Malá Magura mountain groups
The crystalline complexes of Suchý and Malá Magura
mountain groups of the southernmost part of Stráovské
vrchy Mts are situated in two areas separated by the Paleo-
gene Diviaky fault. They are similar with respect to their
magmatic, metamorphic and tectonic evolution. Both com-
plexes are composed mainly of granitoid rocks and parag-
neisses. Migmatites become dominant towards the periphery
of the core areas. The crystalline basement is rather homoge-
neous without any remnants of Mesozoic and younger Tertia-
In the Malá Magura mountain group the metamorphic
rocks are mainly high-temperature paragneisses and quartz-
rich paragneisses. Granitic rocks (tonalites, granodiorites,
granites) belong to common differentiation series. They be-
long to peraluminous S-type granite suite (Hovorka & Fejdi
1983). The radiogenic
Pb zircon age of 356±9 Ma
from a granite and coexisting diorite at the Kamenistá dolina
Valley (Malá Magura mountain group) indicates the granite
intrusion close to the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary (Krá¾
et al. 1997). The core of the Malá Magura mountain group dis-
plays a reduced amount of cover rocks, due probably to a more
important uplift. The pre-Alpine, Variscan tectonics is domi-
nant in both cores. The Alpine restructuring of the crystalline
basement is relatively poor and did not substantially change
the older tectonic pattern (Mahe¾ 1985).
The P-T-X parameters of metamorphic processes within
crystalline cores of the Suchý and Malá Magura indicate differ-
ences in their progressive and retrograde metamorphic evolu-
tion. The metamorphic temperatures and pressures of these
particular crystalline complexes are as follows: Suchý moun-
tain group: 540560°/45 kbar, XH
O = 0.60.8 and Malá
Magura mountain group: 620640°/4.55.5 kbar, XH
0.81.0 (Dyda 1994).
The P-T-X uplift trajectories in the Suchý paragneisses indi-
cate their isothermal decompression and display several uni-
form trajectories influenced by decompression during cooling
of the Malá Magura paragneisses (Dyda 1994).
Fig. 1. Schematic geological map of crystalline of Suchý and Malá Magura mountain groups (according to Mahe¾ 1985) with localization of
various types mineralization. 1 Krína Nappe, 2 Mesozoic sedimentary cover, 3 graphitic black-shales, 4 biotitic micaschists,
5 amphibolites, 6 ribbed migmatites and migmatized micaschists, 7 leucocratic granites and biotite-bearing granites, 8 medium-
grained granites and granodiorites, 9 faults, 10 old mines (1,2 Partizánska dolina Valley, 3 Trausementz dolina Valley, 4
Kòaia tôlòa adit, 5 synsedimentary pyrite-pyrrhotite mineralization).
HYDROTHERMAL Sb-Au MINERALIZATION (WESTERN CARPATHIANS) 209
Two types of mineralization were described N and NW
from the village of Chvojnica (Fig. 1):
1. syngenetic primary exhalation-sedimentary pyrite-pyr-
rhotite mineralization (Fig. 1, locality 5) located in an amphib-
olite body (Böhmer & Hvoïara 1980),
2. base metal mineralization (Fig. 1, locality 4) considered
as continuation of veins from Èavoj (Mikolá et al. 1993).
The investigated hydrothermal Sb-Au mineralization occur-
rences (Fig. 1, localities 13) in the Malá Magura mountain
group are situated 2 km W and NW from the village of Chvoj-
nica in the Partizánska and Trausementz dolina Valleys within
the crystalline complex of the Malá Magura mountain group.
These occurrences of generally SWNE direction are located
in fine-grained biotitic granodiorites, granites, ribbed migma-
tites and migmatitic paragneisses.
Methods of study
Samples for mineralogical study were collected at old mine
dumps in the Partizánska dolina Valley. Sulphides, sulphos-
alts and native elements were analysed by wave-dispersion
(WDS) analysis and photographed in back-scattered electrons
(SEMBEI) at Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius Univer-
sity in Bratislava; a JEOL JXA 840A probe was used with op-
erating conditions: 20kV, 15nA, beam diameter 25
dards pyrite, galena, cinnabarite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite,
arsenopyrite, Fe, Ag, Cu, Bi, Sb, Au, Cd, MnO, GaAs, Ni, Co.
Carbonates were analysed by an energy-dispersion system
(EDS) KEVEX in the Geological Survey of the Slovak Re-
The results of mineralogical research
Jamesonite, sphalerite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, quartz, carbon-
ates, boulangerite are the most abundant in the Partizánska do-
lina Valley. Berthierite, bournonite, galena, gold and tetrahe-
drite are less abundant. Pyrrhotite, native antimony, stibnite
and chalcopyrite were found only sporadically. In the Trause-
mentz dolina Valley, only berthierite and gold were identified.
Arsenopyrite is abundant; associated with quartz I and py-
rite, and in silicified hydrothermal wall-rock alteration zones.
Euhedral grains, anhedral aggregates and several mm thick
veinlets occur in quartz. Aggregates are often crushed. The re-
lationship between arsenopyrite and Pb-Sb, Fe-Sb sulphosalts
was not observed. Arsenopyrite is not Au-bearing (Mikolá et
al. 1993). The arsenopyrite geothermometer (Kretschmar &
Scott 1976) was applied to calculate the crystallization tem-
perature from equilibrium arsenopyrite+pyrite association,
taking into account all limiting conditions (Fig. 2) (Table 2).
The temperature of arsenopyrite precipitation ranges from 385
to 465 °C, and log aS
= 5.9 to 6.9 (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Log aS versus crystallization temperature (°C) of arse-
nopyrite as determined according to As content (in at. %) in arse-
nopyrite (Kretschmar & Scott 1976). Symbols: asp arsenopy-
rite, py pyrite, po pyrrhotite, lo löllingite.
Table 1: Selected WDS analyses of sulphides and sulphosalts from the Partizánska dolina Valley.
Stb - stibnite, Brt berthierite, Blg boulangerite, Bnt bournonite, Ant antimony, Jms jamesonite, Po pyrrhotite;
* average of 2 analyses,
* - average of 4 analyses
210 MIKU and CHOVAN
Berthierite forms needle-shaped and stalk-like crystals up
to 0.2 cm in size or anhedral aggregates in quartz and carbon-
ates. Berthierite is one of the youngest minerals associated
with stibnite, jamesonite (Fig. 3) and boulangerite. It replaces
quartz of the arsenopyrite stage. Identification of berthierite
was confirmed by WDS analysis (Table 1).
Boulangerite is commonly associated with galena, bourno-
nite and jamesonite in quartz and carbonate, forming needle-
shaped crystals and anhedral grains up to 0.1 cm in size. Two
different forms of boulangerite can be distinguished: 1) nee-
dle-shaped crystals and grains (max. 100 µm) enclosed in ga-
lena and 2) anhedral and needle-shaped grains associated with
jamesonite (Fig. 4) and bournonite (Fig. 5) in cleavage planes
and cavities of ankerite. Boulangerite replaces carbonates,
bournonite and galena. WDS analyses of boulangerite are giv-
en in Table 1, (Fig. 6).
Bournonite occurs with tetrahedrite, chalcopyrite, galena
and boulangerite (Fig. 5). It is one of the oldest sulphosalts,
forming anhedral grains up to 5 mm in size. It is replaced by
galena and boulangerite, and replaces tetrahedrite, chalcopy-
Fig. 5. Boulangerite (white) associated with bournonite (grey);
Fig. 4. Boulangerite (white) associated with jamesonite (grey);
Fig. 3. Berthierite (dark-grey) associated with jamesonite (white)
and stibnite (light-grey) inclusion within the jamesonite grain.
Back-scattered electrons (SEM-BEI).
Table 2: Selected WDS analyses of arsenopyrite from the Partizánska dolina Valley.
weight % atomic %
HYDROTHERMAL Sb-Au MINERALIZATION (WESTERN CARPATHIANS) 211
rite and sphalerite I. WDS analyses of bournonite are given in
Table 1 and depicted in Fig. 6.
Galena forms irregular aggregates and grains as big as
5 mm in quartz and in younger Fe-bearing carbonate. It usual-
ly fills cavities and fissures in quartz belonging to the older ar-
senopyrite stage. It is most commonly associated with
sphalerite I, tetrahedrite, bournonite and chalcopyrite.
Gold was observed in two generations at the Partizánska
dolina Valley locality: 1) anhedral grains in the arsenopyrite
stage quartz, up to 10 µm in size. Gold is younger than rutile.
Its relationship with other ore minerals was not observed. This
type of gold is characterized by higher purity (14.27 wt. % Ag
in average). We presume this is the 1st generation gold
(Fig. 7). 2) anhedral grains (inclusions) up to 10 µm enclosed
in sphalerite belonging to the 2nd mineral stage. The relation-
ship of gold with sphalerite is unclear. The average silver con-
tent is 23.12 wt. %. We propose that it is the younger gold
(2nd generation) (Fig. 7).
Colluvial gold from exploratory pits in the Trausementz do-
lina Valley occurs in the form of grains overgrown with
quartz. The size of gold particles is up to 1.5 mm.
Some gold grains exhibit a gold-rich rim (Fig. 8) with char-
acteristic spongy structure. The thickness of rims ranges from
10 to 20 µm; silver contents does not exceed 2 wt. %. High
purity gold veinlets penetrate the core of gold grains, whose
composition ranges from 10.31 to 28.37 wt. % Ag (Table 3).
Fig. 7. Au/Ag plot in different types of gold from the vicinity of
the Chvojnica village.
Fig. 6. Ternary plot of electron probe microanalyses of Pb-Sb-
(Cu) sulphosalts from Chvojnica.
Fig. 8. Gold-rich ream (white) on a gold grain (grey). The phase with
high Ag content (dark-grey) is in the down-left corner; (SEM-BEI).
Table 3: Selected WDS analyses of gold from the Partizánska and Trausementz dolina Valley.
Colluvial primary gold from the Trausementz dolina Valley, analyses number: 1,2 gold-rich rim, 3,4,5,6 core,
7,8 admixtures and inclusions; Primary gold
from Partizánska Valley, analyses number: 9,10 generation I (gold with quartz), 11,12 generation II (gold with sphalerite)
An inclusion rich in Ag was observed (up to 42 wt. % Ag)
(Fig. 8). This gold could be a result of a late mobilization pro-
cess. In the quartz-gold overgrowth thin gold veinlets (up to
1 µm) were observed in quartz interstices. Sporadically, gold
is enclosed in grains of arsenopyrite. In total, 27 WDS analy-
ses of gold were carried out (Table 3).
Chalcopyrite forms anhedral grains in two different associ-
ations and generations:
212 MIKU and CHOVAN
1) as inclusions in sphalerite (up to 100 µm) forming blebs,
dots, minute particles and vermicular structures in intimate
chalcopyrite-sphalerite intergrowth (Fig. 9).
2) in association with tetrahedrite and bournonite. Chal-
copyrite replaces tetrahedrite and bournonite.
Jamesonite is usually medium to fine-grained, sometimes
forming needle-shaped crystals in quartz and carbonates up to
several cm in size. Needle-shaped crystals of jamesonite ce-
ment carbonates and quartz of the 3rd mineralization stage.
Furthermore, jamesonite fills fissures in carbonates. Its anhe-
dral grains are often overgrown with other Pb-Sb sulphosalts
and berthierite. Quartz relicts belonging to the arsenopyrite
mineralization stage are common. Jamesonite is replacing
bournonite and boulangerite (Fig. 4) and is replaced by ber-
thierite (Fig. 3). Moreover, jamesonite is associated with pyr-
rhotite, native antimony and sphalerite II, replacing these min-
erals. WDS analyses of jamesonite are in Table 1 and Fig. 6.
Native antimony occurs together with jamesonite, pyrrhotite
and sphalerite II. Fine isometric grains of antimony are up to
0.01 mm in size, forming anhedral aggregates up to 1
in size. It is replaced by pyrrhotite and jamesonite. It is chemi-
cally pure without any distinct impurities (Table 1).
Pyrite is very abundant in silicified hydrothermal alteration
wall-rock zones and also in hydrothermal veins. It occurs in
several generations. Pyrite I forms massive irregular aggre-
gates and crystals of euhedral shape, forming up to 2 cm thick
veins in quartz of the arsenopyrite stage. Pyrite I is mostly as-
sociated with arsenopyrite and is often cataclastically de-
formed. Rarely, it is replaced by sphalerite and Fe-oxyhydrox-
ides. Pyrite II forms crystals up to 0.05 mm in size enclosed in
galena and bournonite. It impregnates the oldest quartz. Pyrite
III occurs with ankerite and it is enclosed in Pb-Sb sulphosalts.
Pyrrhotite is found in paragenetic association with jameso-
nite and native antimony. It forms irregular aggregates evolv-
ing into veinlets several mm thick. Lamellar crystals up to
0.05 mm in size are commonly present. They cement aggre-
gates of native antimony and are replaced by jamesonite.
Identification of pyrrhotite was confirmed by WDS analysis
Sphalerite forms aggregates composed of anhedral grains
mainly located in quartz (up to 2 cm), more rarely in carbon-
ates. It has a black or brown-black colour and occurs in two
generations: Sphalerite I (the most frequent) contains numer-
ous chalcopyrite inclusions (chalcopyrite disease) (Fig. 9).
It is enriched in Fe (3.41 wt. %), whereas sphalerite without
chalcopyrite disease contains only up to 1.95 wt. % Fe (Ta-
ble 4) and (Fig. 10). Sphalerite I also occurs associated with
galena and tetrahedrite and is intensively replaced from rims
by the latter. Sphalerite I encloses gold grains up to 10 µm in
size. The gold grains are probably younger than sphalerite I.
Fig. 10. The relationship between Fe and Zn content in sphalerite
with and without chalcopyrite disease.
Fig. 9. Chalcopyrite inclusions in sphalerite (texture chalcopyrite
disease). Reflected light.
Table 4: Selected WDS analyses of sphalerite from the Partizáns-
ka dolina Valley.
*The analyses 4 and 5 are from sphalerite with chalcopyrite disease
Sphalerite II occurs together with stibnite, jamesonite, native
antimony and pyrrhotite.
Stibnite occurs as anhedral grains in quartz or in jamesonite
(up to 0.04 mm), associated with berthierite (Fig. 3). Stibnite
is replaced by berthierite. Identification of stibnite was con-
firmed by WDS analyses (Table 1).
Tetrahedrite occurs with sphalerite I, bournonite, chalcopy-
rite and galena. It is older than sulphosalts, replacing sphaler-
ite and quartz belonging to the arsenopyrite stage. It rarely en-
closes and replaces pyrite I.
Carbonates are abundant in Sb-Au veins. The oldest is sid-
erite occurring with quartz, arsenopyrite, pyrite. Its grains are
inhomogeneous in chemical composition and its position
HYDROTHERMAL Sb-Au MINERALIZATION (WESTERN CARPATHIANS) 213
within the succession scheme is uncertain. Calcite (Fig. 12) is
enclosed by dolomite and ankerite. The chemical composition
of calcite is homogeneous but its position in the succession of
crystallization remains unclear. Dolomite is often brecciated.
Fissures in dolomite are filled by ankerite (Fig. 12), showing a
compositional zoning with some zones corresponding to Fe-
dolomite. Dolomite and ankerite occur together with quartz II
and III. Furthermore, dolomite is associated with sphalerite,
chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, bournonite and galena. Ankerite oc-
curs with pyrite III, stibnite, native antimony, pyrrhotite,
jamesonite and berthierite. Sulphosalts often fill cavities and
fissures in ankerite. Both ankerite and dolomite are affected
by overprinting tectonic processes. The chemical composit-
ion of carbonates is given in Table 5 and in Fig. 11.
Quartz appears in 3 generations:
Quartz I occurs in association with arsenopyrite, pyrite I
and gold. Quartz I is replaced by carbonates, quartz II with
younger mineralization (quartz III, ankerite etc.) and is fine-
grained. It sporadically occurs in quartz I gold grains. Quartz
II is coarse-grained to massive. It occurs associated with dolo-
mite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, bournonite, galena
and intensively replaces quartz I. Quartz III occurs with
ankerite, stibnite, native antimony, pyrrhotite, jamesonite and
berthierite. Quartz II (the sphalerite-galena-tetrahedrite stage
of Sb-Au mineralization) and quartz III (the stibnite-sphaler-
ite-sulphosalts stage of Sb-Au mineralization) are devoid of
Fig. 12. Grain of calcite (Cal) enclosed in ankerite (Ank) display-
ing compositional zoning. Younger ankerite veins replace older
dolomite (Dol) veins.
Fig. 11. Ternary diagram of carbonates from the vicinity of the
Table 5: Selected EDS analyses of carbonates from the Partizánska dolina Valley.
Analyses number: 1,2,3,4,5,6 ankerite, 7,8,9 dolomite, 10 calcite, 11 siderite
Development of mineralization
Paragenetic associations were distinguished by mineralogi-
cal study and are also supported by analogy with previously
investigated Variscan Sb-Au deposits in the Western Car-
pathians (Chovan 1990; Chovan et al. (Eds.) 1994). In the
Malá Magura mountain group, at localities with Sb-Au min-
eralization in the vicinity of the Chvojnica village the follow-
ing mineralization stages were distinguished:
I. quartz Ipyrite, arsenopyritegold I
II. quartz IIdolomitesphalerite I, (chalcopyrite I), gold II
tetrahedritebournonitechalcopyrite II, galena, bou-
langerite, pyrite II
III. quartz IIIankeritepyrite IIIstibnitesphalerite II, pyr-
rhotite, antimony, jamesonite, berthierite
The Sb-Au type of mineralization, reported in the Tatric
by Chovan et al. (1996) was found in the vicinity of the
214 MIKU and CHOVAN
Chvojnica village, in the Partizánska and Trausementz dolina
The mineralization in the vicinity of Chvojnica, including
occurrences in the Partizánska dolina Valley was identified by
Zelný & Uher (1988) as a low- to moderate-temperature poly-
metallic association (Cu, As, Pb, Zn, Sb) with crystallization
of sulphosalts at the end of the hydrothermal process.
The oldest paragenesis of Sb-Au mineralization is quartz
pyritearsenopyrite with frequent occurrence of native gold.
The temperature of arsenopyritepyrite association (Chvojni-
ca) ranges from 385 to 465 °C according to the arsenopyrite
geothermometer of Kretschmar & Scott (1976). This tempera-
ture corresponds to that calculated for other localities in the
Tatric Superunit of the Western Carpathians for equilibrium
assemblage arsenopyrite+pyrite (Fig. 2): the Dúbrava depos-
it 395430 °C (Sachan & Chovan 1991); Mlynná dolina
Valley 393 °C (Majzlan & Chovan 1997); the Niná Boca
deposit 445 °C (Smirnov 2000) and the Pezinok-Kolársky
vrch deposit in the Malé Karpaty Mts 320410 °C (Andrá
et al. 1999).
The presence of primary gold is described for the first time
in the Partizánska dolina and Trausementz dolina Valleys.
The gold occurs in two generations: I) 1st generation gold
has higher Ag content in comparison with the 1st generation
gold from Magurka (Bakos & Chovan 1999) and II) 2nd gen-
eration gold with high Ag content, which occurs together with
Sb, Pb, Cu sulphides; this association is also known from oth-
er Sb-Au mineralization localities in the Ïumbierske Tatry
Mts, such as Magurka and Niná Boca (Chovan et al. 1995;
Bakos & Chovan 1999; Smirnov 2000).
Colluvial gold from the Trausementz dolina Valley exhibits
three different chemical compositions: the core of gold grains
is formed by gold of the 1st and the 2nd generation. Gold with
high Ag content (Fig. 8) forms admixtures and inclusions
within the core. The 3rd composition corresponds to the gold-
rich rim, which can be produced by a combination of self-
electrorefining and cementation processes in streams, or
stream sediments where the Ag-dissolution process and sub-
sequent Ag-complexation can take place (Groen et al. 1990).
The presence of Au in the Partizánska dolina Valley and
Chvojnica occurrences, was suggested by Mikolá et al.
(1993). It was detected by quantitative spectral analyses of
quartz veins with pyrite and arsenopyrite. The Au content
ranges from 0.1 g/t to 13.10 g/t. Mikolá et al. (1993) suggest
that gold occurs in pyrite, mainly because analyses of arse-
nopyrite were not shown to be Au-bearing and free native
gold grains were not observed.
The occurrence of primary gold at the Partizánska dolina
and Trausementz dolina Valleys was expected because a) the
primary Sb-Au mineralization is located in the drainage area
of rivers flowing through these valleys, and b) the existence of
an important alluvial gold deposit located between the villag-
es of Chvojnica and Malinová.
Several opinions exist regarding the formation of chalcopy-
rite inclusions in sphalerite, known as the chalcopyrite dis-
ease (Barton 1978 in Barton & Bethke 1987). Until the last
two decades, all these textures were thought to be formed by
exsolution from solid solution. Barton & Bethke (1987) inter-
preted the formation of chalcopyrite blebs by a replacement
processes. These authors supported their argument by the fact,
that chalcopyrite inclusions mostly result from replacement of
a Fe-rich sphalerite. Chalcopyrite inclusions were formed by a
reaction of iron from the sphalerite with copper ions transport-
ed in hydrothermal solutions. The studies of Bortnikov et al.
(1991) showed that chalcopyrite inclusions were found in
sphalerite with different iron content: both Fe-poor varieties
(0.5 to 2 wt. %) and Fe-rich (8 to 14 wt. %). They suggested
that chalcopyrite inclusions are produced by a replacement
process resulting from the interaction of sphalerite with fluids,
which transport both Cu and Fe. A co-precipitation of sphaler-
ite and chalcopyrite was suggested as an alternative mecha-
Sphalerite from the Partizánska dolina Valley (Chvojnica)
contains 3.41 wt. % Fe. It is questionable in this case, if chal-
copyrite inclusions in sphalerite (Fig. 9) resulted from co-pre-
cipitation or replacement processes. Chalcopyrite inclusions
in sphalerite occur at moderate temperatures (between 200
and 400 °C). The metamorphism homogenizes the sphalerite
banding, re-crystallizes both chalcopyrite and its host sphaler-
ite and coarsens the textures thereby masking its heritage
(Barton & Bethke 1987). This investigation supports Variscan
age for the Sb mineralization, knowing that the Variscan
metamorphosis reached the amphibolite grade. The Alpine
metamorphosis of the crystalline basement was not recog-
nized in these areas (Dyda 1994).
The prevailing sulphosalts in the investigated mineraliza-
tion are jamesonite and boulangerite. Jamesonite occurs in the
Sb-assemblage, representing sulphosalts with low Pb/Sb ratio
and Fe content. In many occurrences, zinckenite is abundant
and the presence of jamesonite is restricted to local environ-
ments with increased Fe content (e.g., Dúbrava) (Chovan
1990). A high Pb/Sb ratio and occurrence of boulangerite is
typical for the association with galena. It is characteristic for
the K¾aèianka and Magurka (Chovan et al. 1995) or the Jase-
nie-Soviansko deposit (Luptáková 1999). Bournonite is typi-
cal for the tetrahedrite-bearing mineral assemblage of Sb-Au
mineralization in the Nízke Tatry Mts and occurs at most lo-
calities: Mlynná dolina Valley (Majzlan & Chovan 1997),
Ve¾ké Oruné, K¾aèianka, Krámec (Bakos et al. 2000), Dúbra-
va (Chovan et al. 1998), Magurka (Chovan et al. 1995), Ri-
ianka, Malé elezné (Majzlan et al. 1998) a.o. Berthierite is a
major representative of Fe-Sb sulphosalts. It occurs in associ-
ation with stibnite and gudmundite at Hviezda in the Mlynná
dolina Valley in the Nízke Tatry Mts (Majzlan & Chovan
1997), and is abundant associated with stibnite, gudmundite,
native antimony and kermesite in Sb mineralizations of the
Malé Karpaty Mts (Chovan et al. 1992).
Studied assemblage of native antimony, pyrrhotite, ber-
thierite and stibnite can be compared with the experimental
data of Williams-Jones & Normand (1997). The crystalliza-
tion of native antimony is limited by aS
. The stabili-
ty field of native antimony is defined by low fO
Therefore, in nature, stibnite occurs more frequently as a re-
sult of a wider stability field.
The common association of pyrrhotite and native antimony
observed in studied deposits indicates low aS
Resulting from increase in aS
during crystallization, berthier-
ite is also present, compared to gudmundite-pyrrhotite associ-
HYDROTHERMAL Sb-Au MINERALIZATION (WESTERN CARPATHIANS) 215
olite metamorphic grade (620640 °C/4.55.5 kbar, XH
0.81.0 (Dyda 1994).
Sb-Au mineralization was discovered in the Malá Magura
mountain group, at the Chvojnica Partizánska and Trause-
mentz dolina Valley localities (Fig. 1B). This discovery in-
creased the number of known Sb-Au mineralization occur-
rences in the Tatric Superunit (Western Carpathians).
Furthermore, the origin of geochemical anomalies and the ex-
istence of Au placer deposits between the Chvojnica and Ma-
linová villages, were explained. The occurrence of primary
gold is reported for the first time in the Chvojnica Partizán-
ska dolina Valley.
The oldest high-temperature mineral paragenesis is repre-
sented by quartzpyritearsenopyrite with frequent occur-
rence of gold. The younger sulphide mineralization was
formed at considerably lower temperatures. Two stages of
mineralization were distinguished: sphalerite-galena-tetrahe-
drite and stibnite-sphalerite-sulphosalts, consistent with other
Sb-Au occurrences in the Tatric Superunit (Western Car-
Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank T. lep-
ecky from Progeo Ltd. for providing rock samples. We also
thank D. Ozdín from Dionýz túr Geological Institute and
J. Kritín & J. Stankoviè from the Faculty of Natural Sciences
for EDS and WDS analyses. This research was supported by a
VEGA No. 1/8318/01 Grant.
Bakos F. & Chovan M. 1999: Genetic types of gold from the
Magurka deposit (Nizke Tatry Mts). Miner. Slovaca 34, 31,
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deposit, Nízke Tatry Mts. Miner. Slovaca 5, 32, 497507 (in
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Bratislava, 1156 (in Slovak).
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sphalerite: Pathology and epidemiology. Amer. Mineralogist
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ation in the Malé Karpaty Mts. With increasing fO
tite appears and with increasing aS
, kermesite and stibnite as-
sociated with pyrite are stable.
At higher aS
the characteristic paragenesis is stib-
nitesenarmontite and (pyrite) observed at the Dúbrava de-
posit. By increasing aS
an association with native
antimony and pyrrhotite appears, occasionally with gudmun-
dite (Malé Karpaty Mts a.o.). Seinäjokite and magnetite which
could have formed, were not discovered in the Western Car-
Dolomite is a characteristic gangue mineral of the sphaler-
itegalena(Cu)-Pb-Sb sulphosalts assemblage with ankerite
being a common carbonate of stibnite-bearing assemblage, in
which also Fe-bearing sulphides are present.
As in other localities with Sb-Au mineralization in the Tat-
ric Superunit of the Western Carpathians, an older, higher
temperature mineral assemblage was found at Chvojnica. It
consists of quartz, arsenopyrite, pyrite and gold. The tempera-
ture of arsenopyrite crystallization (385465 °C) corresponds
to the temperatures determined for this mineral assemblage in
other localities within the Tatric Superunit.
Younger sulphide mineralization developed at lower tem-
peratures (about 200 °C). Two stages can be distinguished:
The common mineralization stages in the Sb-Au mineral-
ization of the Tatric Superunit are: stibnite Sb-Pb(Zn, Fe) and
tetrahedrite-bournonite Cu-Sb(Pb, Zn, Fe). Independent of lo-
cal conditions, the stibnite mineralization stage can comprise
abundant Fe-bearing minerals: berthierite, gudmundite, pyr-
rhotite (Malé Karpaty Mts) or with Pb content zinckenite
(Dúbrava). Galena and sphalerite are abundant in the tetrahe-
dritebournonite assemblage (Chvojnica, Jasenie-Sovians-
ko?) or sulphosalts Pb-Sb-Bi (tintinaite) at the Dúbrava de-
The succession relations of sulphide assemblages in various
localities are different. At the Dúbrava deposit (Chovan 1990)
the stibnite mineralization stage is considered older than the
tetrahedrite, and the stibnite assemblage is younger than the
sphaleritezinckenite. However, at: K¾aèianka, Krámec,
Ve¾ké Oruné (Bakos et al. 2000) and Niná Boca (Smirnov
2000) the stibnite-bearing assemblage is older than the sul-
phosaltszinckenite assemblage. At the Pezinok deposit, the
stibnite assemblage with native antimony is younger than the
sphaleritesulphosalts assemblage (Andrá 1983 in Chovan et
The Sb-Au mineralization hosted in crystalline basement of
the Malá Magura mountain group was generated during the
Variscan tectonometamorphic events, characterized by am-
phibolite metamorphic grade. The Alpine remodelling of the
crystalline basement is relatively poor (Mahe¾ 1985). Ore
veins did not interact with Mesozoic sedimentary cover and
the Krína Nappe. The presence of chalcopyrite inclusions in
sphalerite indicates that the temperature of Alpine overprint
did not exceed ~200 °C; otherwise these two usual phases
would form a homogeneous solid solution. The last known
tectonometamorphic event recognized in the crystalline base-
ment of the Malá Magura mountain group reached about
200 °C, being of the Variscan age, which attained the amphib-
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