BRUNOVISTULIAN TERRANE AND ISTANBUL ZONE: TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT 139
GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 54, 3, BRATISLAVA, JUNE 2003
, JAROMÍR LEICHMANN
, ONDØEJ BÁBEK
and ROSTISLAV MELICHAR
Department of Geology and Paleontology, Kotláøská 2, 61137 Brno, Czech Republic; *firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com;
Department of Geology, Tø. Svobody 26, CZ-771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic; firstname.lastname@example.org
(Manuscript received April 9, 2002; accepted in revised form December 12, 2002)
Abstract: There are close similarities between the Brunovistulian Terrane and the Istanbul Zone both in the Neoproterozoic
and Paleozoic. The geological structure, lithology and geochronology of the Cadomian Brunovistulicum show broad fit
with the crystalline basement of the Istanbul Zone. Their Gondwana or Baltica affinity is still poorly constrained and
remains a matter of discussion. The Vendian and Cambrian sequences recognized in the central Ma³opolska, Brunovistulian
and Moesian terranes correlate well with the Scythian Platform. In the Istanbul Zone the presence of the pre-Ordovician
sedimentary sequences has not been confirmed and may only be anticipated. In the Paleozoic the best fit was attained in
the DevonianCarboniferous interval. The sedimentary record in the Zonguldak and Istanbul Terranes closely compares
to the Moravian Karst and Ludmírov facies developments of the Brunovistulian Terrane. The correlation is reinforced by
a good fit of the main Variscan deformation phases attributed both in the Brunovistulian Terrane and the Istanbul Zone
to the late Viseanearly Namurian and WestphalianStephanian intervals. This supports, together with the paleobiogeo-
graphic data, the interpretation that the Istanbul and Zonguldak Terranes can be regarded as counterparts of the
Rhenohercynian and Subvariscan Zone in Central Europe. The Istanbul Zone is juxtaposed against the Sakarya Zone
viewed as a part of the Armorican Terrane Assemblage.
Key words: Paleozoic, late Proterozoic, Brunovistulicum, Istanbul Zone, paleogeography, terranes.
The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) is a collage of vari-
ous crustal blocks which have been derived either from Balti-
ca or Gondwana and accreted to the Precambrian East Europe-
an Craton (EEC) to form the southern margin of Laurussia
during the Variscan Orogeny. It extends from the North Sea, to
the Black Sea, where the geotectonic position of terranes was
significantly modified still during the Cimmerian events. The
collage includes the £ysogóry, Ma³opolska and Brunovistulian
Terranes in Central Europe, the Moesian Terrane in southeast-
ern Europe and the Istanbul Zone in Asia Minor (Pharaoh 1999;
Belka et al. 2000; Kalvoda 2001). Kalvoda (2001) based both
on similar geotectonic position and paleobiogeographic similar-
ities termed these terranes the Brunovistulian group.
In this paper we review and discuss the evidence for the tec-
tonostratigraphic evolution of the Neoproterozoic basement
and Vendian-Paleozoic sedimentary cover as well as for the
paleobiogeographical record of the Brunovistulian Terrane
and the Istanbul Zone. Some comparison will also be made
with other Laurussian terranes in Central and SE Europe in-
cluding the Ma³opolska and Moesian Terranes and Scythian
Platform (see Fig. 1 and 2) which fringes the southern margin
of the EEC.
In Central Europe the Brunovistulian £ysogóry and Ma³o-
polska Terranes (see Fig. 1) are situated between the Variscan
front and the Trans-European Suture Zone forming the SE
promontory of Laurussia (Kalvoda 2001). It is thought that
both the Brunovistulian Terrane and the Ma³opolska Terrane
were detached from the ancestral Crimea-Dobrogea region
(Scythian Platform) and dextrally transferred along the margin
of the Laurussia during the Variscan time (Lewandowski
1993, 1994; Grygar 1998; Belka et al. 2000). Unrug et al.
(1999) and Nawrocki (2000), on the other hand, stressed the
importance of late Silurian Caledonian movements.
The Brunovistulian Terrane (BVT see Fig. 1) is separat-
ed from the Ma³opolska Terrane by a tectonic unit known as
the Kraków-Lubliniec Fault Zone which is a part of the largely
concealed Hamburg-Kraków Fault Zone (HKFZ see Fig. 1)
parallel to the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ).
According to Unrug et al. (1999) the Dobrogean part of the
Moesian Terrane may constitute the prolongation of the
Ma³opolska Terrane to the SE. In the late Triassicearly Jurassic
the Moesian Terrane was sinistrally displaced from the Bruno-
vistulian Terrane along the TESZ during the opening of the pro-
to-Pannonian marginal basin (Banks & Robinson 1997).
According to Pharaoh (1999) the basement of the Moesian
Terrane (see Fig. 2) resembles that of the Ukrainian Shield,
however, the affinity of the terrane is poorly constrained at
present. The Peceneaga-Camena Fault, a NE-vergent Cim-
merian-age thrust juxtaposes Precambrian rocks of the Moe-
sian Platform with Permian-late Jurassic strata of the North
Dobrogea Orogen (Seghedi 1998; Pharaoh 1999).
The Scythian Orogen (Fig. 2) fringes the southern margin of
the East European Craton and was consolidated at the end of
the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian. According to Nikishin
BRUNOVISTULIAN TERRANE (CENTRAL EUROPE) AND ISTANBUL
ZONE (NW TURKEY): LATE PROTEROZOIC AND PALEOZOIC
TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT AND PALEOGEOGRAPHY
140 KALVODA, LEICHMANN, BÁBEK and MELICHAR
et al. (1996) this orogenic belt includes the Scythian, Great
Caucasus (Karpinsky Kryazh fold belt), Moesian and Pon-
tides domains and it is viewed as being the eastern prolonga-
tion of the Variscan Orogen of Western and Central Europe.
The Istanbul Zone of the Pontides in northern Turkey was
originally located along the Odessa shelf between the Moe-
sian Platform and Crimea and drifted southward along the ma-
jor transform faults following an oblique slip on the Teissey-
re-Tornquist Zone (TTZ), to form the western Black Sea
Basin during the development of the western Black Sea be-
tween the Albian and early Eocene (Okay et al. 1994; Pharaoh
1999). Close stratigraphic similarities of the Istanbul Zone to
the Paleozoic rocks of the southern margin of Laurasia are
supposed (Görür et al. 1997) and the Cadomian age of the
basement is reported (Kozur & Göncüoglu 1998).
The Istanbul Zone (see Fig. 2) (Okay 1989) of the Pontides
in northern Turkey is separated from the Sakarya Zone by the
Intra-Pontide suture (Okay et al. 1994). Kozur & Göncüoglu
(1998) divided the Istanbul Zone into the Istanbul Terrane
s.str. affected only by Variscan deformation and the Zongul-
dak Terrane which contains mainly Caledonian deformation.
The former is bounded to the west by Strandja Massif, the lat-
ter to the east by Transcaucasia (Kozur & Göncüoglu 1998;
Okay et al. 1994).
Proterozoic basement, Vendian flysch
and Cambrian molasse
The easternmost margin of the Bohemian Massif approxi-
mately between the Danube and the Odra, is built up of a com-
plex of metamorphic and magmatic rocks called the Bruno-
vistulicum (see Fig. 1 BVT) by Dudek (1980), Finger et al.
(2000) or the Brunovistulian Complex (Jelinek & Dudek
1993). The western parts of the BVT were involved in the
Variscan nappe stacking, while the easternmost parts are rela-
tively autochthonous. The eastern, mostly buried part of the
Brunovistulicum, not reactivated during the Variscan oro-
genesis, acted as a stable foreland massif for both, the Variscan
and the Alpine fold belts.
The Brunovistulicum consists of three independent units.
According to Leichmann (1996) the south-western unit or
Thaya Terrane (Finger et al. 2000), ophiolite unit and eastern
unit or Slavkov Terrane can be distinguished from the West to
the East. The south-western complex including the Thaya Plu-
ton, the western part of the Brno Pluton and burried parts
could be interpreted as a large batholith with a complex inter-
nal fabric and evolution including S-, I- and A-type granites.
The geochronological data indicate that the plutonic activity
occurs here in the period between 580 and 590 Ma (Van Bree-
men et al. 1982; Finger et al. 2000; Dallmeyer et al. 1994).
Petrological observation (Leichmann & Hoeck 2002 in prep.),
as well as the high
Sr ratio (0.7080.710) and low
to 7 (Finger et al. 2000) indicate that the granites originated
in the volcanic arc environment with important contribution of
older crustal rocks. The widespread dark diorites and tonalites
Sr (0.7050.707) and higher
Nd (1 to 2)
probably represent melts, which brought heat required for ex-
tensive crustal melting. Metasediments were found in the roof
of the granites or only as enclaves. The strong negative
to 7 suggest, that the detritus of these sediments derives from
cratonic crust (Finger et al. 2000).
The ophiolite complex consists of two parts plutonic and
volcanic sequences. The plutonic sequence is metamorphosed
up to the lower amphibolite, and the volcanics into the green-
schist facies (Leichmann 1996). The complex chemistry of the
basalts indicates the supra-subduction zone origin of the ophi-
olites. The observed intrusion relations between granites from
both, south-western and eastern units indicate, that the ophio-
lites are the oldest known part of the Brunovistulicum. The
geochronological data obtained from a rhyolite vein cutting
the metabasalts 725±15 (Finger et al. 2000a) fully confirm
the earlier geological observation. The Slavkov Terrane com-
prises the eastern part of the Brno pluton, Desná Gneiss and
buried parts including Vistulicum and the Upper Silesian
Block. The southern half of this unit consists of primitive
Nd 1 to +3, Finger et al. 2000), I-
type, island-arc granodiorites, tonalites and quartz diorites.
The age determination is less well established in comparison
with the south-western complex. An Ar-Ar hornblende age of
596 Ma was reported by Dallmeyer et al. (1994) only. The
Fig. 1. Structural setting of the Brunovistulian, Ma³opolska and
£ysogóry Terranes. Modified according to Bula et al. (1977).
BVT Brunovistulian Terrane, MT Ma³opolska Terrane,
LT £ysogóry Terrane, HKFZ Hamburg-Krakow Fault Zone,
HCF Holy Cross Fault, TESZ Transeuropean Suture Zone,
MSFZ Moravo-Silesian Fault Zone, PPFZ Peri-Pieninian
Fault Zone, VDF Variscan Deformation Front, CDF Cale-
donian Deformation Front, AF Alpine Front.
BRUNOVISTULIAN TERRANE AND ISTANBUL ZONE: TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT 141
granites intrude the metamorphic complex which form the
northern half of the eastern complex.
The metamorphic rocks are known mainly from boreholes.
Variscan overprinted members were reported from the Je-
seníky Mts Desná Gneiss (Finger et al. 2000; Kröner et al.
2000). Most of these rocks are metamorphosed flyschoid
poor greywackes, siltstones and psamites with intracala-
tions of metabasalts and metaandesites (Dudek 1980).
Nd values (0.7040.706
Nd 1 to +2) are similar to
those of the adjoining granites. Both petrological and isotopic
data indicate in this way a relatively primitive, island-arc
source area of the detritus. The metamorphic grades mainly
reach greenschist to upper amphibolite facies.
Vendian flysch and Cambrian molasse
The crystalline basement of the Brunovistulicum is locally
covered by a Vendian flysch and Cambrian molasse (Fig. 4).
The occurrences of unclear extent are restricted to two areas.
One in the N and NE part of Brunovistulicum which may be
correlated with the Slavkov Terrane and one in the SE part
which corresponds to the Thaya Terrane. Thus, they need not
have been deposited in the same geotectonic position, reflect-
ing the not fully clear course of the Cadomian Orogeny (Fin-
ger et al. 2000).
The sequence of phyllites, metapelites, metapsammites and
metaconglomerates in the N and NE part of the Bruno-
vistulicum is regarded as deposits of a Cadomian foreland ba-
sin (Zelazniewicz et al. 2001).
The Cambrian rocks overlie discordantly the crystalline
and anchimetamorphic rocks (Bula & Jachowicz 1999). The
lower Cambrian siliciclastic sequence dated well by acri-
tarchs occurs mainly in the Upper Silesian part of the terrane
(Bula & Jachowicz 1996), where their thickness increases
markedly towards the east (Bula et al. 1997). Further occur-
rences were detected in the SE part of the Brunovistulian Ter-
rane SE of Brno (Jachowicz & Pøichystal 1997; Fatka & Vavr-
Fig. 2. Tectonic map of the Black Sea region showing the position of the Moesian Terrane and the Zonguldak Zone. Modified after Okay et al. (1994).
142 KALVODA, LEICHMANN, BÁBEK and MELICHAR
The transgressive cycle of the Gocza³kowice Formation is
formed by a deepening upward sequence of Scolithos sand-
stones, bioturbated sandstones and trilobite siltstones (Bula &
Fragments of the middle Cambrian were detected only in
the northern part of the Upper Silesia. Middle Cambrian is
represented by the sequence of alternating layers of quartz and
quartzitic sandstones and laminated sandy siltstone.
In the adjoining Ma³opolska Terrane the oldest rocks com-
prise Vendian folded siltstones and greywackes with interca-
lations of volcanic rocks related to turbidites and debris flows
and resembling those on the adjacent EEC (Moczydlowska
1995; Moryc & Jachowicz 2000). Lower Cambrian conglom-
erates, sandstones, and shales locally overlie discordantly
The basement of the Paleozoic sequence in the Istanbul
Zone is exposed in the Armutlu Peninsula, in the Sunnice
Massif and in the Karadere stream valley (Chen et al. 2002
and references therein). Detailed petrological studies of the
last two areas recently done Ustaömer (1999), Satir et al.
(2000) and Chen et al. (2002).
The basement consits of four units: (1) metasediments, (2)
metagranitoids, (3) metasedimentary-volcanic succesion, and
(4) metaophiolites. The metasediments (1) from Karadere
stream valley contain zircon, which indicates that the clastic
material was derived from 900700 Ma old, probably Afro-
Arabian and E-African crust (Chen et al. 2002). The metasedi-
ments were intruded by calc-alkaline granitoids (2) in the pe-
riod of 590560 Ma. Geochemical data (e.g., low
concentration of high field strength elements), together with
isotopical composition (
Nd 2.12.2) indi-
cate that the granitoids originated in the magmatic arc envi-
Sr (0.708) and lower
Nd (5) from
some granite indicate possible role of crustal contamination in
the origin of the whole sequence. Geochemical and petrologi-
cal data on granites (Ustaömer 1999), from the Sunnice Mas-
sif are in good agreement with those from the Karadere stream
valley, indicating that the granites in this area represent the
product of an immature arc too.
The field relations, structural characteristic, and geo-
chemical data obtained from the metaophiolites suggest they
were derived in the suprasubduction environment (Yigitbas et
There are no data on the Vendian flysch and Cambrian mo-
lasse sequences even though some lithologies resemble Cam-
brian sediments of the Brunovistulian or Ma³opolska Terranes.
Scythian Platform and Moesian Terrane
The basement of the Scythian Platform (Fig. 2) comprises
Neoproterozoic granitoid rocks atypical to the East European
Craton (Seghedi 1998; Pharaoh 1999). The Vendian sequence
(Fig. 4) attains 2000 m and contains dominantly coarse ma-
rine deposits which grade upward to continental sequences.
They show some similarities with the Avdarma Group from
the top of the Vendian in the EEC (Seghedi 1998). Lower
Cambrian red-beds are described only in some boreholes.
The affinity of the basement underlying the Moesian Plat-
form (Fig. 2) is poorly constrained at present (Pharaoh 1999).
In south Dobrogea the metamorphic rocks compares to that of
the Ukrainian Shield (Seghedi 1998; Seghedi et al. 2001). In
the northern margin of the platform metabasites and
metapelites of the Altin Tepe Group show a late Proterozoic
metamorphism (696 Ma, K-Ar on biotite) and arc/back-arc af-
finities (Seghedi et al. 2001; Crowley et al. 2000). The low-
grade Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary succession over-
lies the basement in South Dobrogea and was deformed at
547 Ma (K-Ar WR) (Kräutner et al. 1989; Seghedi et al. 2001).
In front of the nappes deep water Neoproterozoic-lower Cam-
brian turbidites (Histria Formation) deposited in a foreland ba-
sin were folded and metamorphosed during the Cadomian
events (570 Ma, K-Ar WR) (Kräutner et al.1989; Seghedi
Ordovician-Permian sedimentary record
In the central European terranes we can distinguish a Ven-
dianSilurian interval during which the terranes are regarded
as independent units and the DevonianPermian interval dur-
ing which the Brunovistulian, Ma³opolska and £ysogóry
blocks were a part of a larger basin at the southern margin of
Laurussia with similar Devonian and Carboniferous lithologi-
cal sequences (Dvoøák et al. 1995; Belka et al. 2000).
Fragments of the Ordovician were detected only in the
northern part of Upper Silesia. Clayey siliceous rocks, light
green interbedded with fine-grained quartz sandstones with
variable degrees of silicification were encountered (Bula &
Jachowicz 1996). Fragmentary record of Silurian sedimentat-
ion is preserved in a tectonic slice in the SW part of the
Brunovistulian Terrane (Kettner & Reme 1936; Chadima &
Melichar 1998), comprising black shales with graptolites and
cephalopods indicating Telychian and Gorstian age.
The rare occurrence of Ordovician and Silurian rocks in the
Brunovistulian Terrane is presumably the result of erosion.
No distinct angular discordance occurs at the Cambrian-De-
vonian contact (Bula et al. 1997).
As already mentioned above, in the DevonianCarboni-
ferous interval the Brunovistulian, Ma³opolska and £ysogóry
Terranes were a part of a larger basin with similar lithological
development. Its key sections are best exposed and studied in
the Brunovistulian Terrane. Devonian to Lower Carboni-
ferous rocks of the Brunovistulian cover provide a complex
record of early Devonian (Pragian) to Tournaisian rifting and
plate extension, Tournaisian to earliest Namurian plate con-
vergence and flysch sedimentation, and Namurian to West-
phalian final plate collision and molasse sedimentation.
Sedimentation in the Devonian to early Carboniferous ex-
tensional regime was associated with a pronounced facies dif-
ferentiation (Chlupáè 1988), a record of which is now pre-
served in the form of three principal facies: the Drahany
(Basinal) Facies, the Ludmírov (Transitional) Facies and the
Moravian Karst (Platform) Facies (Fig. 3). Sometimes the
Vrbno Facies, bearing some similarities with the Drahany
BRUNOVISTULIAN TERRANE AND ISTANBUL ZONE: TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT 143
one, is distinguished (Hladil et al. 1999). Lithologic and strati-
graphic data are based mainly on the papers by Zukalová &
Chlupáè (1982), Hladil (1994) and Kalvoda et al. (1999).
The lithostratigraphic succession of the Ludmírov Facies
starts with terrestrial and marine basal clastics of early Devo-
nian age, which are overlain by deep-water, tentaculite- and
trilobite-bearing shales of early Eifelian age. The siliciclastics
pass upward into a succession of upper Eifelian to lower
Givetian carbonates about 250 m thick indicating deposition
in platform margin to platform foreslope setting. In the early
Givetian the carbonate platform margin was destroyed, giving
way to a thinning and fining upward calciturbidite succession
indicating an overall extensional tectonic regime (Bábek
1999). The deposition of carbonates was replaced by pelagic
shales, radiolarites and distal carbonates in early Famennian
Tournaisian, being presumably related to terminal cessation of
carbonate platform growth in the Ludmírov Facies source
area. In the upper part of the sequence intercalations of silici-
clastic turbidites occur.
The oldest rocks in the Moravian Karst Facies are basal
clastics of Emsian to early Frasnian age, comprising terrestrial
and shallow-marine sandstones and conglomerates. The basal
clastics are overlain by a succession several hundreds to about
1000 m thick of Eifelian to upper Frasnian shallow-water car-
bonate platform deposits (see review in Hladil 1986). In the
interval from the early Frasnian to the early Famennian, the
carbonate platform was gradually destroyed due to (present-
day) eastward advance of extensional tectonics, creating a
system of half-graben basins filled with a succession up to
300 m thick of pelagic, red nodular limestones and carbonate
turbidites and debris-flow deposits of early Frasnian to early
Visean age (Kalvoda et al. 1999). In the distal foreland in the
east, carbonate platform sedimentation continued up to the
late Visean. The calciturbidite carbonate successions interfin-
ger and are capped by pelagic, trilobite- and radiolarian-bear-
ing shales in some parts with calciturbidite and siliciclastic in-
tercalations of late Tournaisianmiddle Visean age.
The Drahany Facies, deposited on top of submarine volca-
nic sea-mounts (Galle et al. 1995), bears some similarities
with the Ludmírov Facies (Fig. 3).
The lower Visean to lowermost Namurian siliciclastic fly-
sch, commonly referred to as the Culm facies, is about 7 to
Fig. 3. Schematic correlation of the Paleozoic sedimentation in central and SE Moravia.
144 KALVODA, LEICHMANN, BÁBEK and MELICHAR
12 km thick. The flysch successions in Moravia were consid-
ered by Franke (1995) and Hartley & Otava (2001) to repre-
sent the easternmost continuation of the system of Variscan
peripheral foreland basins filled with deep-water siliciclastics,
which are well known from outcrops and subsurface in the
northern branch of the Variscan Orogen in Western Europe
(Engel & Franke 1983; Leeder 1984). Basic data on the lithos-
tratigraphy, biostratigraphy and general paleogeographical
constraints of the Moravian Culm Basin were given by
Dvoøák (1994), Grygar & Vavro (1994), Kumpera (1983) and
Kumpera & Martinec (1995).
Deep-marine foreland siliciclastics of the Culm facies pass
gradually upward into the Namurian-Westphalian Carboni-
ferous coal-bearing paralic and lacustrine molasse reaching
about 3800 m of thickness. In the eastern part of the Brunovis-
tulian Terrane, molasse deposits directly overlie the pre-flysch
In the western part of the Brunovistulian Terrane the Permi-
an red siliciclastics of alluvial fan and limnic deposits of the
Boskovice Furrow document the extension connected with
the gravitational collapse of the Variscan Orogen.
In the Ma³opolska Terrane folding, faulting and meta-
morphism to greenschist facies predated the deposition of the
discordant Ordovician-Silurian carbonate/clastic sequence.
Lower Ordovician basal clastics (predominately conglo-
merates) are followed by Ordovician to lower Silurian lime-
stones, Silurian graptolite shales and upper Silurian grey-
wackes with volcanic source rocks (Fig. 4) (Stupnicka 1992;
Unrug et al. 1999). After a period of erosion and faulting,
lower Devonian continental quartzitic sandstones and red
shales were deposited representing the basal clastics, which
start a new deepening upward sequence. They are overlain by
Eifelian to Frasnian carbonates, Famennian shales with lime-
stone intercalations and lower Carboniferous cherty shales
with radiolarites with abundant felsic volcanic detritus. By the
end of the early Carboniferous the deposition of synorogenic
distal flysch started (Dvoøák et al. 1995; Kumpera et al.1995).
The sequence was folded in the late Visean and after a period
of erosion overlain by upper Permian clastics (Stupnicka
In the Istanbul Terrane sensu stricto the Paleozoic is tecton-
ically superimposed on neighbouring units (Okay et al. 1994).
The data on lithological development are based on papers by
Haas (1968), Görür et al. (1997), Göncüoglu (1997) and Ko-
zur & Göncüoglu (1998).
The oldest sequence of 1000 m of conglomerates, arkosic
sandstones and violet to pinkish mudstones is interpreted as of
alluvial fan origin (see Fig. 4). Its precise age is not known,
but on the basis of its position below overlying lower Silurian
sediments, an Ordovician age is considered likely. Neverthe-
less similar lithologies in the above discussed terranes are also
consistent with a Cambrian age.
The shallow marine sequence starts in the Llandovery with
laminated quartz arenites with Cruziana, interbeds with
greenish grey shale overlain by graptolite shales followed by
lower Silurian shales and siltstones with some limestone beds.
Shallow water limestones were deposited in the WenlockPøí-
dolí interval followed by shallow water limestones and clas-
tics in the Devonian up to the Emsian. Nodular limestones
passing into the overlying fossiliferous shale of Early Devo-
nian age represent a deeper environment. A characteristic
deepening upward sequence (Görür et al. 1997) from middle
Devonian to early Carboniferous starts with alternating calci-
turbidites and shales. Above, with an increasing frequency of
limestone beds, the calciturbidites pass into a typical cherty
and nodular deep-water micritic limestone of late Devonian
age and radiolarian cherts of late Tournaisianearly Visean
age intercalated with shales containing phosphatic nodules.
The presence of turbidites already suggests the transition to
the flysch sequence.
The overlying Culm facies of Thracian flysch comprise al-
ternating greywackes, siltstones and shales. In the upper part
limestone and conglomerate beds with plant remains are also
found. In a few localities the latest turbidites are associated
with shallow marine bioclastic limestones (late Visean) which
are probably olistoliths (Cebeciköy Limestone). Thracian fly-
sch is unconformably overlain by Triassic sandstones.
The pre-flysch sedimentation represents a south facing At-
lantic-type continental margin. The main Variscan event took
place during the early Carboniferous (late Visean to early Na-
murian) (Okay et al. 1994). The Istanbul Terrane is juxta-
posed to the upper plate of the Sakarya Zone (Göncüoglu et
al. 2000) viewed as a part of the Armorican Terrane Assem-
blage (Kalvoda 2002).
In the Zonguldak Terrane (Fig. 4) the data on lithological
development are based on papers by Dean et al. (1997, 2000),
Görür et al. (1997), Göncüoglu (1997) and Kozur & Göncüo-
Cambrian rocks represented by arkosic sandstones and red-
dish coarse clastics are only anticipated and their Cambrian
age has still not been confirmed (Dean et al. 1997). The Or-
dovician-Silurian sequence starts with sandstones and silt-
stones, overlain by unfosiliferous quartzites. Overlying mud-
stones with a few quartzitic beds of Arenigearly Llanvirn age
are followed by Caradoc black limestones and dark-grey silt-
stones and mudstones. The estimated thickness of the Ordovi-
cian is about 1300 m. In the early Silurian black and grey
graptolitic shales and mudstones with subordinate pelagic
limestone intercalations are described.
The sequence is disconformably overlain by Devonian bas-
al clastics represented by conglomerates, quartzitic sandstones
and shales. The sequence of shallow water platform lime-
stones in the top ranges from Emsian to Visean and is overlain
by middle to upper Carboniferous coal-bearing succession. It
starts with paralic sequence of shales, sandstones and coal
seams of Namurian age followed by Westphalian continental
clastics with the most important coal seams. The contact of
the green-coloured shales and sandstones with red sandstone
intercalations of probably Stephanian age with the underlying
rocks is not clear.
BRUNOVISTULIAN TERRANE AND ISTANBUL ZONE: TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT 145
The Caledonian discordance is post-Silurian/pre-Emsian
and is connected with thermal alteration (Kozur & Göncüoglu
The Moesian Terrane and Scythian Platform
The data on the Paleozoic lithological development in the
Moesian Terrane come from papers by Yanev (1997), Hay-
doutov & Yanev (1997) and Seghedi (1998). The Paleozoic
sequence (Fig. 4) starts with 510 m of Ordovician quartzites
and argillites, nevertheless a Cambrian age in some parts can-
not be excluded. In the Silurian, black and greyish-black
argillites, marls and clayey limestones were deposited. The
lower Devonian pelites are overlain by coarse clastics in the
Middle Devonian. In the top shallow water platform lime-
stones and evaporites were deposited. Biodetrital limestones
dominate over much of the early Carboniferous (Tournaisian
late Visean). The marine environments retreated to the east at
the end of the Visean, and a very thick siliciclastic succession
initially paralic and, from the Namurian to the Westphalian,
limnic, fluvial and coal-bearing was deposited in Dobrogea.
The Permian sediments are typical immature red clastic
rocks, in the upper Permian deposits of anhydrite and halite
In the Scythian Platform (Fig. 4) a thick Lower Devonian
terrigenous sequence often unconformably overlies Vendian
deposits, locally Ordovicianmiddle Silurian mudstones, silt-
stones and sandstones occur (Vaida & Seghedi 1997). It is fol-
lowed by a middle-upper Devonian carbonate sequence with
evaporites and thin terrigenous interbeds. The dark coloured
carbonate succession of the early Carboniferous age is over-
lain by paralic and limnic formations of Viseanmiddle Na-
murian age and Permian red clastics (sandstones, aleurites,
argillites), evaporites and volcanoclastic deposits.
The Scythian Paleozoic structures show two important
tectogenetic moments: the late Devonian one which de-
Fig. 4. Correlation scheme of lithological development in the Brunovistulian, Ma³opolska, Moesian, Zonguldak and Istanbul Terranes
and western part of the Scythian Platform.
146 KALVODA, LEICHMANN, BÁBEK and MELICHAR
formed the Vendian-Devonian formations and generated
schistosity and the mid-Carboniferous one of less tectonic
In the Upper Silesian part of the Brunovistulian Terrane the
Early Cambrian trilobite associations reported by Orlowski
(1975) are regarded by Belka et al. (2000) as characteristic of
the Baltic Zoogeographic Province. On the other hand
Nawrocki et al. (2001) claimed that the fauna is endemic or
inconclusive for paleogeography. Fatka & Vavrdová (1998)
report a pronounced similarity of the Early Cambrian acritarch
assemblages with the EEC. The Baltic affinity is also inferred
for the Ordovician conodont fauna (Belka et al. 2000).
In the Ma³opolska Terrane Early Cambrian olenellid trilo-
bites are regarded as diagnostic of Baltica (Orlowski 1985;
Belka et al. 2000). In contrast Early Cambrian brachiopods of
Avalonian affinities and different from the EEC are reported
by Jendryka-Fuglewicz (1998). Nevertheless, it should be
stressed that the Ma³opolska Terrane and EEC associations
represent quite different facies-environmental conditions. A
progressive migration of Baltic elements is reported for Mid-
dle Cambrian brachiopod associations and the Ordovician
faunas belong essentially to the Baltic Province (Dzik et al.
1994; Belka et al. 2000).
Obviously the Cambrian paleobiogeographic data show
contradictory results which are often not compatible with the
data on the provenance of clastic micas (Belka et al. 2000).
The Silurian bivalve assemblages from the Moesian Ter-
rane are closely related to those known from the EEC sedi-
ments of Eastern Poland (Iordan 1999). Elements of both
Rhenish and Bohemian faunas are present in the Moesian De-
vonian, as in Poland, Moravia and northwestern Turkey, the
gastropod assemblages being characteristic of the tropical-
subtropical marine conditions of the Old World Realm (Ior-
In the Zonguldak Terrane Arenig and early Llanvirn grapto-
lites include taxa of both Anglo-Welsh and cosmopolitan af-
finities, Anglo-Welsh late Arenigian trilobites and early Cara-
doc conodonts of the North Atlantic Province (Dean et al.
1997, 2000; Kozur & Göncüoglu 1998). Tremadoc and
Arenig acritarch associations without any Perigondwana cold-
water forms contain cosmopolitan acritarchs and Amorphog-
nathus tvaerensis typical in the warm-water faunas of Scandi-
Fig. 5. Early Carboniferous paleogeographical scheme showing the location of paleobiogeographic units and terranes discussed in the text
with alternative positions of the Sakarya and North Anatolide-Tauride Terranes. According to Kalvoda (2002). Abbreviations: KAZ Ka-
zakh microcontinent, AP Arabian Plate, WC Western Cimmeria, NAT North Anatolide -Tauride Terrane, Sa Sakarya Terrane,
SEU group of South European terranes, I Istanbul Zone, M Moesian Terrane, B Brunovistulian Terrane, Ma Ma³opolska
Terrane, L £ysogóry Terrane, MOLD Moldanubian Terrane, ARM Armorica, EAV Eastern Avalonia, WAV Western Ava-
lonia, IBR Iberia, MEG Meguma, T Turan Terrane, Ta Tarim Terrane.
BRUNOVISTULIAN TERRANE AND ISTANBUL ZONE: TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT 147
navia, Estonia and North America. According to Kozur &
Göncüoglu (1998) late Caradoc ostracods and brachiopods of
the Istanbul Terrane include Piretella, a typical Baltoscandian
genus, Klimophores very common in Baltica and also present
in Perigondwana and Eochilina known only in Siberia and
Laurentia. They conclude that the Ordovician had apparently
a warm-temperate fauna with close connection to Baltica and
Siberia/Laurentia but also few connections to Perigondwana.
The interpretation that best fits with available data is that the
Istanbul Zone may have been located close to Baltica already
in the Ordovician.
In the DevonianCarboniferous interval, the only data that
could be well applied in all the terranes studied are based on
calcareous foraminiferal fauna. The better application of cal-
careous foraminiferal fauna for paleobiogeographic
interpretations starts with the evolution of multilocular forms
in late Devonian. On the basis of study of late Frasnian, late
Famennian and late Tournaisian-early Visean associations,
Kalvoda (2001) distinguished the Fennosarmatian and Armor-
ican Provinces of the North Paleotethyan Realm (Kalvoda
2002). The Fennosarmatian Province (Fig. 5) also comprised
terranes of the Brunovistulian group which included the
£ysogóry, Ma³opolska, Brunovistulian, Moesian and Zongul-
dak Terrane while the Armorican Province included the Ar-
morican Terrane Assemblage and Intra-Alpine terranes.
The Zonguldak Terrane is a typical part of the Fenno-
sarmatian Province, while the Istanbul Terrane s.str. is includ-
ed because of unsuitable facies for foraminifers with some
reservation (Kalvoda 2001, 2002). The record of foraminiferal
fauna is poor here and richer associations are reported only in
the midle-upper Visean Cebeciköy Limestone (Kaya & Ma-
met 1971; Kaya in Catal et al. 1978) which may represent
olistoliths in the Thracian flysch. The faunal list contains the
typical middle-late Visean North Paleotethyan association of
Eostaffella, Forschiella, Lituotubella magna, Archaediscus
karreri, Vissarionovella tujmasensis, Globoendothyra globu-
lus, Omphalotis omphalota and bilayered paleotextulariids.
Consequently, the Zonguldak and Istanbul Terranes are both re-
garded as a part of Laurussia in similar geotectonic position as
the Rhenohercynian and Subvariscan Zones in Central Europe.
Cadomian basement, Vendian-?early Cambrian flysch and
Cadomian basement was found only in the Brunovistulian
Terrane and the Istanbul Zone. Although a perfect fit between
the two units could not be established because of different
size, degree of exploration and different post Variscan evolu-
tion, the broad similarity in the geological structure, lithology
and geochronology between the units point to the possibilty
of their cognate origin (see Table 1).
The broad fit of the geological structure (older ophiolites
and metamorphic rocks surrounded by younger granites) and
of the geochronology between the Brunovistulicum (BVT)
and parts of the Eastern Desert in Egypt (El Gaby et al. 1988)
may indicate a close relation of the BVT to the northern
Gondwana margin during the Panafrican Orogeny (Belka et
al. 2000; Finger et al. 1989; Finger et al. 2000). On the other
hand, there also seems to be a good correlation with the geo-
chronological data from the Urals. On the basis of the Cado-
mian Enganepe 670 Ma ophiolite and 560 Ma calc-alkaline
granites in the Polar Urals as well as on other Cadomian age
intrusives and metamorphites in the central and southern
Urals, Scarrow et al. (2001) hypothesized that the Cadomian
Avalonian arc probably extended along the entire length of
the eastern margin of Baltica. More data on the extent and
geochemistry of the Uralian Cadomides are, however, needed
to establish a more precise correlation with the Brunovistulian
and Istanbul Cadomides.
The limited isotopic data presently available for the Prot-
erozoic basement of the Moesian Terrane do not provide
strong constraints on its affinity. Correlation with the Mora-
vo-Silesian (Brunovistulian) Terrane, which is in a similar
structural position with regard to the EEC, has been proposed
by Burchfiel (1975) and Matte et al. (1990).
The crucial role in the interpretations of the terrane prove-
nance is played by the Vendian and Cambrian sequences. In
central Ma³opolska and the Moesian Terranes and maybe also
in the Brunovistulian Terrane late Neoproterozoic-early Cam-
brian flysch and molasse correlate well with Scythian and
Moldavian Platforms. In the Istanbul Zone Vendian an-
chimetamorphic flysch and Cambrian sediments have not
been detected so far, however, some lithologies may suggest
the presence of Cambrian sediments.
The evidence on the provenance of the terranes is often con-
tradictory, which makes it difficult to formulate a viable tec-
tonic model. Some authors interpret the Brunovistulian
Ma³opolska and £ysogóry Terranes as fragments of Gondwa-
na (Belka et al. 2000) while others prefer origins in E Baltica
Table 1: Schematic comparison of the Neoproterozoic rocks in the
Brno Massif and the Istanbul Zone.
Metasediments + volcanics
Ophiolites < 725±Ma
Granites 580590 Ma
Metasediments ~900700 Ma
Metagranites 560590 Ma
3) Tectonic setting of granitoids 3) Tectonic setting of granitoids
Diorites + tonalites = Volcanic arc
Sr 0.7050.707; åNd 1 to 2)
Granites = Volcanic arc with crustal
åNd 4 to 7)
Metatonalites = Volcanic arc
~0.705; åNd 2.12.2
Granites = Volcanic arc with crustal
Sr ~0.708; åNd 5
Variablevery low grade to amphibolite
facies. Western part affected by Variscan
Mostly amfibolite facies,strong
148 KALVODA, LEICHMANN, BÁBEK and MELICHAR
(Pharaoh 1999) or in SW Baltica (Zelazniewicz et al. 1997;
Zelazniewicz et al. 2001). In all models there are, however,
In the model of Belka et al. (2000) some detrital micas may
be early Cambrian and thus nearly coeval with the age of the
trilobite fauna of inferred Baltic affinity and the comparison
of micas with the Fennoscandian source in Poland is not com-
patible with significant dextral translation (Lewandowski
1993, 1994; Pharaoh 1999; Winchester et al. 2000).
In the Urals the Cadomian-age orogeny has been well de-
fined up to now only in the Timanides (Scarrow et al. 2001) in
the NE part of the Baltica. It still needs to be better con-
strained and documented outside the Timanides, especially in
the SE and S part of Baltica.
The model of Zelazniewicz et al. (1997, 2001) may be in
contradiction with sedimentological data from the Peri-Torn-
quist and Baltic Basins (Nawrocki et al. 2001; Poprawa et al.
The paleobiogeographic data in Cambrian are, unfortunate-
ly, not conclusive enough to give an unequivocal constraint to
the paleogeography of the Brunovistulian and other terranes
of the group in Central Europe. Paleomagnetic data suggest
the Early Cambrian nearly equatorial position and its paleolat-
itude differs by about 25° from the coeval paleolatitude of the
closest margin of Baltica (Nawrocki et al. 2001).
In summary it can be stated that the latest Proterozoicearli-
est Paleozoic data are often contradictory and that without a
careful reexamination of biostratigraphic, paleobiogeographic,
geochemic, sedimentological, paleomagnetic and geochro-
nologic data along the TESZ no further advance is possible.
In the Ordovician most terranes contain arenites with vari-
able amount of shales and argillites. One exception is the
Ma³opolska Terrane, where the basal Ordovician clastics are
overlain by a carbonate sequence, and the second is the Istan-
bul Terrane, where the oldest thick sequence of conglomer-
ates, arkosic sandstones and violet to pinkish mudstones
(Görür et al. 1997) may resemble the Cambrian sequences in
other terranes. In the Brunovistulian Terrane and Scythian
Platform the Ordovician sediments are quite rare.
The Silurian sedimentation is governed by shale facies with
a variable amount of basinal carbonates and rare arenites.
Only in the Istanbul Terrane shallow water limestones pre-
dominate contrary to the Zonguldak Terrane where graptolitic
shales and mudstones with subordinate pelagic limestone in-
tercalations became established. It is quite consistent with
their respective distal and proximal position during the Cale-
donian orogenic event. In our view, the absence of the Devo-
nian unconformity in the Istanbul Terrane may be attributed to
the fact that it represented a distal foreland during the Cale-
donian event. The Caledonian Orogeny is manifested best in
the Ma³opolska Terrane, where a late Silurian flysch sequence
is documented. Again, the Silurian is only rarely represented
in the Brunovistulian Terrane and the Scythian Platform.
The available evidence shows close similarities of all ter-
ranes in the DevonianCarboniferous interval. The basal clas-
tic formation is followed in all terranes by a carbonate prefly-
sch sequence topped either with Culm flysch (proximal fore-
land) and/or coal bearing molasse. In some terranes (Bruno-
vistulian and Istanbul Terranes, partly Ma³opolska Terrane)
deeper sequences represented by calciturbidites, basinal
shales and radiolarites also occur.
There is strong evidence of close similarities both in the
lithological development of the Devonian and Carboniferous
and in the main Variscan events (late Visean to early Namurian
and WestphalianStephanian Okay et al. 1994; Grygar 1997)
between the Brunovistulian Terrane and the Istanbul Zone.
The sediments of the Zonguldak Terrane can be well corre-
lated with the platform Moravian Karst Facies development of
the Brunovistulian Terrane. In the eastern and especially
northeastern part of the terrane, which represented a distal
foreland during the Variscan Orogeny, the same sequences as
in the Zonguldak Terrane were encountered basal clastics,
shallow platform carbonates of the middleupper Devonian
and lower Carboniferous topped by coal bearing Namurian
paralic and Namurian-Westphalian limnic molasse. The same
sequences are also recognized in the Moesian Terrane and in
the Scythian Platform. It may favour the views that assume
the Carboniferous dextral translation of the Brunovistulian
Terrane and locate it in the proximity of the Scythian Platform
In contrast, the Devonian and Carboniferous of the Istanbul
Terrane correlates well with the Ludmírov facies development
of the Brunovistulian Terrane. In the mentioned areas the
deeper facies of calciturbidites, nodular limestones and shales
topped by shales with radiolarites and Culm flysch are in a
tectonic contact with the basement. We argue that the litho-
logical differences between the Zonguldak and Istanbul Ter-
ranes can be attributed to their distal and proximal position re-
spectively during the Variscan orogenic events.
Consequently, we suppose that the comparison of the Pale-
ozoic sequences of the Istanbul Zone with the southern side of
the Variscan chain (Görür et al. 1997) or with the Intra-Alpine
Terrane (Stampfli 1996; Neubauer & von Raumer 1993; Neu-
bauer 2002) are only very general and based mostly on the
similarities of the Cadomian basement. The Istanbul Zone
represented a lower plate during the Variscan events and a
more plausible alternative, supported both by the paleobio-
geographical and lithological data, is that the zone correlates
very well with the Rhenohercynian and Subvariscan Zones of
the southern margin of Laurussia.
The results of the comparison of the Brunovistulian Terrane
and the Istanbul Zone and their relation to other terranes at the
SE margin of Laurussia can be summarized in the following
1 There is a broad similarity in the geological structure,
lithology and geochronology between the Cadomian crystal-
line units of the Brunovistulian Terrane and the Istanbul Zone
which points to the possibility of their cognate origin.
2 The important role in the interpretations of the terrane
provenance is played by Vendian and Cambrian sequences. In
the central Ma³opolska, Brunovistulian and Moesian Terranes
BRUNOVISTULIAN TERRANE AND ISTANBUL ZONE: TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT 149
late Neoproterozoic-early Cambrian flysch and molasse se-
quences correlate well with the Scythian and Moldavian Plat-
3 The provenance of the Cadomian terranes is still poor-
ly constrained and remains a matter of debate. Besides former-
ly strongly argued views of the Gondwanian origin of all the
Laurussian terranes, a Baltica location of some Cadomian ter-
ranes has recently gained increasing support. To clarify which
alternative is more plausible requires more precise data on the
paleobiogeography, geochronology, geochemistry and loca-
tion of the Cadomian events at the margins of Baltica. Never-
theless, the Ordovician Anglo-Welsh (Perigondwana) fauna
of the Istanbul Zone and the Baltic Ordovician fauna of the
Ma³opolska Terrane raise the possibility of different prove-
nance of Cadomian terranes at the southern margin of Lau-
4 The sedimentological record of the Istanbul Zone and
the Brunovistulian Terrane in the early Paleozoic (Cambrian
Silurian) is hard to compare because Cambrian deposits in the
Istanbul Zone are only anticipated and the record of Ordovi-
cian-Silurian sedimentation in the Brunovistulian Terrane is
5 The good fit of both Ordovician-Silurian and Devo-
nian-Carboniferous sequences of the Zonguldak Terrane and
the Moesian Terrane supports the view that the Istanbul Zone
was located in Paleozoic times along the Odessa shelf be-
tween the Moesian Platform and the Crimea (Okay et al.
6 There are close similarities in the sedimentary record
of the Brunovistulian, Ma³opolska, £ysogóry and Moesian
Terranes, the Istanbul Zone and the Scythian Platform in the
DevonianCarboniferous interval. The facies and tectonic de-
velopment in the Zonguldak and Istanbul Terrane of the Istan-
bul Zone closely compares with the Moravian Karst and Lud-
mírov development in the Brunovistulian Terrane.
7 Close sedimentological similarities are well in accord
with the late Devonian-Carboniferous paleobiogeographical
data including the Brunovistulian Terrane and the Istanbul
Zone together with the Ma³opolska, £ysogóry, Moesian and
Scythian units in the Fennosarmatian Province, that is to the
southern margin of Laurussia (Fig. 5).
8 The Zonguldak and Istanbul Terranes were in proximal
and distal positions to the orogenic events during the Cale-
donain and Variscan time respectively. In our interpretation
the Istanbul Zone was in similar geotectonic position to the
Brunovistulian Terrane representing the lower plate at the
southern margin of Laurussia during Variscan times. Thus,
the zone cannot be viewed as an equivalent of the Intra-Alpine
or other Variscan terranes of the southern branch. The inter-
pretation that best fits the available evidence is that the Istan-
bul Terrane and the Zonguldak Terrane may thus be correlat-
ed with the Rhenohercynian and Subvariscan Zone of Central
9 The Brunovistulian Terrane is juxtaposed to the Mold-
anubian and Saxothuringian terranes representing a part of
Armorican Terrane Assemblage (Kalvoda 2001). Similarly in
Turkey, the lower plate with Cadomian basement and unmeta-
morphosed Paleozoic cover (Istanbul Zone) is juxtaposed to
the upper plate with Variscan granites and high grade meta-
morphites of the Sakarya Zone locally overlain by Carbonifer-
ous-Permian molasse. Even though the age of this juxtaposi-
tion is still a matter of debate the Sakarya Zone can most
probably be regarded as a part of the Armorican Terrane As-
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