CRETACEOUS INTEGRATED BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF VARDAR ZONE 81
GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 54, 2, BRATISLAVA, APRIL 2003
81 — 92
UPPER CRETACEOUS INTEGRATED BIOSTRATIGRAPHY
IN THE WESTERN BELT OF THE VARDAR ZONE
Geoinstitut, Rovinjska 12, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia; firstname.lastname@example.org
(Manuscript received December 12, 2001; accepted in revised form December 12, 2002)
Abstract: A new integrated biostratigraphic concept of an Upper Cretaceous series near Novi Pazar, Stara Raška region,
the Vardar Zone, for Bajevica-Mur and Gradina, is based on the distribution of benthic foraminifers, planktonic micro-
fossils, and calcareous nannoplankton, supported by available information on rudists from Bajevica. The Upper Creta-
ceous succession in the Stara Raška region is characterized by a transgressive trend. The shallow-water sedimentation
was short (uppermost Santonian?—Lower Campanian). Progressive deepening during the Campanian elevata, or the
CC17 and CC18 Nannoplankton Zones, is indicated by successive deposition of shallow-water limestones and lower-
ramp hemipelagic carbonates, and then of basinal pelagic sediments.
Key words: Vardar Zone, Senonian, integrated biostratigraphy, Foraminifera, Algae, Mollusca, nannoflora.
Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Novi Pazar area,
Stara Raška region, the Vardar Zone, have been a subject of
different geological investigations, mostly after the Second
World War (Mojsilović et al. 1980, cum. bibl.). Published mi-
cropaleontological data, however, are scanty, especially that
on benthic fauna and flora from shallow-water pre-Maastrich-
tian rocks which have not been previously studied. Planktonic
foraminifers were studied only from deposits a hundred metres
thick of the sequences of hemipelagic and pelagic carbonates
(“preflysch” auct.). The nannoflora from shallow-water hemi-
pelagic and pelagic sediments researched by P. de Capoa
(University of Naples, Italy, in press.), were also studied.
Pre-Maastrichtian macrofauna from the studied localites has
been studied by Pejović (1953, 1978; rudists, gastropods) and
Rampnoux (1964, 1974; rudists). The first information on
planktonic foraminifers in the preflysch part of the unit is giv-
en by Rampnoux in 1964. Large Maastrichtian foraminifers
are known from carbonate clastics and terrigenous deposits
(Radoičić 1988; Petrović & Jankičević 1988).
The Cretaceous sediments in the Novi Pazar area cover Pa-
leozoic rocks assigned to the Carboniferous (“Golija Paleozo-
ic belt”). The Upper Cretaceous succession is observable only
in sections of the south-western limb of the Novi Pazar syncli-
norium, that is in the western part of the Novi Pazar Creta-
ceous belt (Fig. 1). The northeastern limb of the synclinorium
is inverted and in a tectonic contact with ophiolite rocks
(Rampnoux 1964; Fig. 1).
The Cretaceous succession consists of basal terrigenous de-
posits overlain by shallow-water and hemipelagic uppermost
Santonian?-Campanian (earlier dated as Santonian) limestones,
then a thick sequence of preflysch Campanian/Maastrichtian
and flysch post-Maastrichtian deposits (de Capoa et al. 1998).
The latter deposits were earlier assigned to the Maastrichtian
(Rampnoux 1964, 1974; Petrović & Jankičević 1988).
Bajevica—Mur and Gradina localities are marked in the Fig. 1.
Maastrichtian terrigenous rocks from two small outcrops at
Alulovići and Kovačevo were also analysed.
Stratigraphic succession of Bajevica—Mur (Fig. 2)
A Cretaceous stratigraphic section at Bajevica and Mur un-
covered on the periphery of Novi Pazar, in Novi Pazar-Riba-
rići road cuttings on either side of the bridge across the Jošani-
ca (Fig. 1-Ia). The older part of the sequence is found south of
the bridge (Bajevica) and the younger part north of the bridge
(Mur). Formations newly described in this locality are the Ba-
jevica and Mur Formations, and the Novi Pazar clastics (infor-
Bajevica Formation. Its type section is exposed in an out-
crop south of the bridge over the Jošanica. The formation is
28 metres thick, composed of two members:
1. basal terrigenous deposits, and
2. shallow-water carbonates.
1. Basal terrigenous deposits (conglomerates and sand-
stones). Coarse-grained predominantly quartz conglomerate
passes gradually into finer-grained sandstone, about 12 me-
tres thick, which passes into shallow-water carbonates. A
few beds of fine-grained sandstone shows coaly rashings in
insignificant amounts. The likely age of the member is San-
tonian. Its contact with the underlying Paleozoic unit is not
2. Shallow-water carbonates. These limestones are 16 me-
tres thick and continuously pass upwards into hemipelagic
and pelagic deposits of the Mur Formation. Shallow-water
low-silty, clayey limestones sporadically in low dolomitized
limestones of the Bajevica Formation abound in benthic for-
aminifers, rudists, dominantly radiolitids, and fewer relative-
ly small hippuritids. According to D. Pejović, even the low-
ermost nodular limestone bed (no longer exposed), when
sampled in 1972, contained numerous radiolitids, easily ex-
tractable from this and the overlying bed. D. Pejović de-
scribes a new radiolitid species – Bournonia murensis from
Bajevica limestones. She also mentions: Bournonia retrolata
(Astre), Bournonia sp., Lapeirouseia zitteli Douvillé, L.
laskarevi Milovanović, L. pervinquierei (Toucas), Gorjanov-
icia aff. costata Polšak, Radiolitella secunda Kühn et An-
drusov (Pejović 1978). Bournonia excavata (d’Orbigny) is
now included in this list.
The microfossils assemblage includes: Idalina antiqua Mu-
nier Chalmas et Schlumberger, Nummofallotia cretacea
(Schlumberger), Minouxia conica Gendrot, Antalyna korayi
Farinacci et Köylüoglu, Pseudocyclammina massiliensis Maync,
Pseudocyclammina sphaeroidea Gendrot, Cribrostomoides
paralens Omara, Dicyclina schlumbergeri Munier Chalmas,
Cuneolina pavonia d’Orbigny, Binconcava bentori Hamaoui
et Saint-Marc, Nezzazatinela picardi (Henson), Moncharmon-
tia apenninica (de Castro), Nezzazatinela sp. 1., Nezzazatinela
sp. 2., Spiroplectamina sp., Pseudolituonella sp., Cornuspira
sp., Conorboides? sp., Spiroloculina sp., Rumanoloculina sp.,
Miliolidae gen. and sp. indet., rotalids and others foraminifers
(Fig. 3.2,4,5,12; Fig. 4.1,4—11,13—17; Fig. 5.6—8,11,13—16;
Fig. 6.18); rare algae: Neomeris sp., Marinella lugeoni (Pfen-
der), Udoteacea gen. indet. than micronerineae, other gastro-
pods and small solitary corals.
Mur Formation. Type section of the Mur Formation is ex-
posed partly south of the bridge, and largely north of the
bridge over the Jošanica. The formation is about 87 metres
thick, but the uppermost, about 10 metres thick part is poorly
exposed. Its upper boundary is marked by Maastrichtian brec-
cia. The Mur Formation consists of two members:
1. hemipelagic marly limestone with slumped blocks,
2. hemipelagic and pelagic carbonates.
1. Hemipelagic marly limestone with slumped blocks in
the upper part. The lowermost beds of the Mur Formation,
south of the bridge, are friable low silty marly hemipelagic
rocks (at present, a part of the section obliterated by marly de-
tritus) and marly rocks emplacing limestone blocks
from a fractured “perireef” area. The episode ended with the
influx of finer material: a thick bed of biolithoclastic lime-
stone was found in the section exposed north of the bridge.
Hemipelagic sediments bear scarce planktonic foraminifers
and calcareous nannoplankton. A sample of marl between
blocks of shallow-water limestone also contains calcareous
nannoplankton (CC17 Zone; de Capoa et al. in press).
Limestone blocks (lateral development of the second Ba-
jevica member) contain mainly large hippuritids, fragments
and detritus of colonial corals, and calcisponges. The foramin-
iferal assemblage is the same, only far less abundant and, char-
acteristically, rotalids and rotaliforms are somewhat more nu-
merous. In this outcrop, many large hippuritids (large
fragments from 30 to 40 cm long) are conspicuous in individu-
al blocks or as bioclasts. Dozens of large hippuritids have
been recovered in this locality for museum collections (D. Pe-
jović). The identified species are: Vaccinites atheniensis*
(Ktenas), V. cornuvaccinum* (Bronn), V. galloprovincialis
(Matheron), V. gossaviensis (Douville), V. sulcatus (De-
france), V. vredenburgi (Kühn), Hippurites canaliculatus*
Rolland du Roquan, H. heritschi Kühn, H. matheroni Dou-
ville, H. microstylus Douville, Hippuritella aff. H. lapeirousei
(Goldfuss), Radiolites squamosus d’Orbigny (Pejović 1978;
asteriscs denote species also mentioned by Rampnoux 1964).
The less abundant microfossil assemblage in slump blocks
south of the bridge includes: Idalina antiqua, Nummofallotia
cretacea, Pseudocyclammina massiliensis, Pseudocyclammi-
na sphaeroidea, Dicyclina schlumbergeri, Cuneolina gr. G.
pavonia, Pseudolituonella sp., Conorboides? sp., Nezzazati-
nella picardi, Antalyna korayi, Cribrostomoides paralens,
Dictyopsella cuvillieri Genrot, Sirtina sp., Cornuspira sp.,
Miliolidae gen. and sp. indet. (Fig. 5.2—5,9; Fig. 6.10,13), and
algae Dasycladacea gen. and sp. indet.
Biolithoclastic limestone from the top of the first member
(north of the bridge) contains few planktonic microfossils –
poorly preserved rare calcisphaerae – in addition to benthic
foraminifers and transported rudists and gastropods: Idalina
antiqua, Murgeina apula (Luperto Sinni), Dicyclina schlum-
bergeri, Rotalia reicheli Hottinger miliolidae, hippurites, ac-
teonellae (Fig. 3.1,13,14; Fig. 4.3). This bed gradually passes
into low-sandy hemipelagic and pelagic carbonate of the sec-
Fig. 1. Detail from Geological map of the Novi Pazar area – Milo-
vanović & Ćirić (1968, simplified). I—IV studied outcrops: I – Ba-
jevica, Ia – The Jošanica bridge, II – Gradina, III – Alulovići,
IV – Kovačevo. 1. Paleozoic, 2. basal terrigenous deposits and
shalow-water carbonates, 3. “Upper Cretaceous flysch”, 4. ophio-
lites, 5. quartz latites.
note that recent landslides mask the preexisting relationship.
CRETACEOUS INTEGRATED BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF VARDAR ZONE 83
Fig. 2. Stratigraphic column of Bajevica—Mur (asterisks denote nannofossil analysis).
2. Hemipelagic and pelagic carbonates. The biolithoclastic
limestone is continuously overlain by low-sandy hemipelagic
and pelagic carbonates bearing pithonellae, other cal-
cisphaeruilidae, and few planktonic foraminifers which are
more frequent in the marly, locally silty, limestones of the upper
part of the member. The lower part of the second member con-
tains: Andriella trejoi (Bonet), Pithonella ovalis (Kaufmann)
and other calcisphaerulids, heterohelicids and Globotruncana
linneiana (d’Orbigny), Gl. bulloides Vogler, Globotruncanita
elevata (Brotzen), Gl. gr. G. linneiana (d’Orbigny) (Fig. 7.1).
The nannofossil assemblage indicated the CC18 Zone. Besides
planktonic microfossils, these beds also contain, very few
benthic foraminifers: gavelinellae, sulcoperculinae and lituolid
Tekkeina anatoliensis Farinacci et Yeniay (Fig. 7.5; Fig. 6.15).
Marly limestones forming the upper part of the second
member contain: Globotruncana linneiana, Gl. gr. G. linnei-
ana, Gl. bulloides, Gl. ventricosa White, Gl. arca (Cushman),
Globotruncanita stuartiformis (Dalbiez), Contusotruncana
patelliformis (Gandolfi), Globotruncanella cf. G. pschadae
(Keller) (Fig. 7.2—4,10). The nannoplankton assemblage indi-
cate the CC19b Nannofossil Zone.
The hemipelagic and pelagic carbonates of the Mur Forma-
tion are Campanian representing the elevata Zone (Lower
Campanian), ventricosa Zone (Middle Campanian) and cal-
carata Zone (Middle Upper Campanian). The youngest beds
of the upper member (several meters beneath Maastrichtian
breccia bed) are Upper Campanian by the contained nannofos-
sils (CC23a Nannofossil Zone; de Capoa et al. in press).
Fig. 3. Benthic foraminifers of the Bajevica—Mur section: 1, 2. Idalina antiqua Munier-Chalmas et Schlumberger, samples S30, S7;
4, 5. Nummofallotia cretacea (Schlumberger), sample S6; 12. Antalyna korayi Farinacci et Köyluoglu, sample S4; 13, 14. Rotalia reicheli
Hottinger, sample S28. Benthic foraminifers of the Gradina section: 3, 6—9. Nummofallotia cretacea (Schlumberger), samples S53,
S54, S66; 10. Lituolid, sample S54. Čekovića millhouse locality: 11. foraminifer Laffiteina mengaudi (Astre), sample S78.
CRETACEOUS INTEGRATED BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF VARDAR ZONE 85
The Novi Pazar clastics
The Novi Pazar clastics is an informal formation because
the information on its upper part is lacking. The basal bed
(60 cm thick) is biolithoclastic limestone – breccia contains
in rudist fragments and debris, large Maastrichtian foramini-
fers (Siderolites calcitrapoides Lamarck, Orbitoides gr. media
(d’Archiac), Orbitoides gr. tissoti Schlumberger, Orbitoides
sp., Lepidorbitoides sp.) and lithoclasts of varied shallow-wa-
Marl-sandy sediments directly over the breccia contain ear-
ly Maastrichtian nannofossils (CC23b Nannofossil Zone).
Consequently, the older part of the Novi Pazar formation is
early Maastrichtian in age. This formation probably exceeds
hundred metres in thickness.
Stratigraphic succession of Gradina
Cretaceous sediments of Gradina are exposed along a vil-
lage road on the southern slope of Gradina Hill, north of the
Šaronjska reka (river). Many quartz latite intrusions in the area
of the Šaronjska and Deževska rivers obscure the succession
(Fig. 1). The examined Cretaceous section consists of the Ba-
jevica, the Gradina Formations and the Deževo carbonate clas-
tics. While the Bajevica Formation (both members) is recog-
nized in the examined Cretaceous section, the overlying
sediments differ from those outcropping at Mur. The Gradina
Formation and the Deževo carbonate clastics are newly de-
The Bajevica Formation. 1. Basal terrigenous sediments
(about 11 metres thick conglomerate and sandstone) lie over
the Paleozoic and consist predominantly of Paleozoic schist.
This member has a middle bed of coarse conglomerate with
quartz pebbles, its upper part is of clay-sandy rocks and, un-
like those at Bajevica, with a thin cm level of carbonaceous
matter. The basal member, like at Bajevica, is most likely of
the Santonian age.
2. Shallow-water carbonates. Unlike the type section, the
second member begins with a 35 cm bed of accumulated more
or less large fragments of rudist tests in dark clay-sand ferrugi-
nous sediment (storm bed “coquinite”). A large fragment from
this bed is assigned by D. Pejović to Radiolitella. Upward fol-
lows about eight metres of low-sandy limestone which con-
tains benthic foraminifers, occasional recrystallized udo-
teacean segments and dasycladacean fragments, and only a
few small solitary corals and microgastropods. Notable in this
shalow-water limestone is the lack of rudists, unlike the type
section. An abundance of white Idalina antiqua tests is visible
with the naked eye in the first metre of the member (above the
35 cm, “coquinite” bed). Upward occur numerous lituolids
(Pseudocyclammina massiliensis, Ps. sphaeroidea) and much
scantier idalinae and other foraminifers.
The microfossil assemblage includes: Idalina antiqua,
Nummofallotia cretacea, Ps. cf. P. massiliensis, Antalyna ko-
rayi, Broeckina dufrenoyi (d’Archiac), Dictyopsella cuvillieri
Gendrot, Cuneolina gr. pavonia, Nezzazatinella picardi, Dicy-
clina schlumbergeri, Moncharmontia apenninica, Cornuspira
sp., Sirtina? sp., Conorboides? sp., Quinqueloculina sp.,
Lituolidae gen. and sp. indet., Miliolidae gen. and sp. indet.
(Fig. 3.3,6—10; Fig. 4.2; Fig. 5.10,12,18; Fig. 6.17), and algae:
Udoteaceae and Neomeris sp.
The lowermost Campanian age of the bed with Idalina anti-
qua is corroborated by nannofossils (CC17 Nannofossil Zone).
The Gradina Formation. The Gradina Formation, continu-
ously overlying the Bajevica Formation, consists of 19 metres
thick nodular sandy limestone in alternating compact and thin-
ner softer beds. The basal bed is slumped: wackstone with fine
algal and other debris and bioclastic limestones with udo-
teacean, echinoderm and recrystallized mollusca fragments.
The formation is discontionuously overlied by Deževo car-
Lituolids (Pseudocyclammina massiliensis, Fig. 6.14) still
occur in the lowest two metres, but microfossils are scanty in
other beds. Besides a paucity of predominantly small rotali-
form foraminifers (Rotalia sp. Pararotalia minimalis Hofker,
Fig. 6.7,9), two or three specimens of other foraminifers are
found only in thin sections, a few recrystallized segments and
fragments of udoteacean algae, and occasional dasycla-
dacean – Neomeris fragment. Small and often completely re-
crystallized solitary corals are common. Samples from the
middle and upper parts of the formation bear few planktonic
microfossils: Hedbergella? sp., Globotruncana sp., Andriella
trejoi, Pithonella ovalis. The upper boundary is marked by a
sharp lithological change.
Sediments of the Gradina Formation are Campanian in age,
largely lateral equivalents of the Mur Formation.
The Deževo carbonate clastics
Since its upper boundary undefined, this is an informal for-
mation roughly estimated in excess of 100 metres. Its lowest
bed is polygenous breccia (which indicates a discontinuity),
and lateral slump breccia containing a mixture of limestone
with benthic foraminifers: Nummofallotia cretacea, Monchar-
montia apenninica, Sulcoperculina aff. cubensis (Palmer),
sensu Hottinger, Hemicyclammina chalmasi (Schlumberger)
(Fig. 4.12; Fig. 6.1—4,16) and limestone with abundant plank-
tonic foraminifers: Gl. linneiana, Gl. gr. G. linneiana, Gl. ori-
entalis El Naggar, Gl. arca, Contusotruncana fornicata
(Plummer), Globotruncana arca—Gl. orientalis (transitional
forms), Gl. bulloides, Globotruncana stuartiformis, Gl. cf. G.
ventricosa, Marginotruncana gr. sinuosa tarfayensis (Fig. 7.5,6,
Above this a few metres of microbreccia, calcarenites and
marly limestones with planktonic foraminifers (Contusotrun-
cana fornicata) crop out. This succession is intruded by quartz
latite. Subsequently further, turbidity carbonate clastics also
crop out: several sequences of breccia, calcarenite, and marly
globotruncana limestone with Globotruncana linneiana, Gl.
bulloides, Gl. stuartiformis, “Globotruncanita angulata—Gan-
sserina gansseri”, Gl. arca, Globotruncanella sp., Archaeo-
globigerina cf. A. cretacea (d’Orbigny) (Fig. 7.7). A more or
less coarse breccia bed contain numerous clasts of the shal-
low-water limestones bearing rudists.
The outcropping part of the Deževo carbonate clastics is
dated Upper Campanian/Lower Maastrichtian. It is a lateral
Fig. 4. Benthic foraminifers of the Bajevica—Mur section: 1. Nezzazatinella picardi (Henson), sample S11; 3. Murgeina apula Luperto
(Sinni), sample S29; 4, 5. Pseudocyclammina sphaeroidea Gendrot, samples S7, S11; 6. Pseudolituonella sp., sample S4; 7. Nezzazatinel-
la sp. 1, sample S6; 8. Spiroplectamina sp., sample S10; 9—11. Cribrostomoides paralens Omara, samples S7, S10; 13—15. Biconcava
bentori Hamaoui et Saint-Marc, sample S6; 16, 17. Conorboides? sp., samples S-7, S-11. Benthic foraminifers of the Gradina section:
2. Nezzazatinella picardi (Henson), sample S53; 12. Moncharmontia apenninica (De Castro), sample S67.
CRETACEOUS INTEGRATED BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF VARDAR ZONE 87
equivalent of the upper Mur Formation and the Novi Pazar
Some silicoclastic levels outcropping in the same area and
probably overlying the Campanian/Maastrichtian Deževo car-
bonate clastics are dated Lutetian at latest (CP15 = NP15; de
Capoa et al. in press).
Outcrops in Alulovići and Kovačevo (Fig. 1)
For the purpose of reconnaissance, only a few samples were
collected from Maastrichtian sediments at Alulovići and
Kovačevo (Middle-Upper Maastrichtian by Radoičić 1988).
Some beds in the sandstone outcrop, at Alulovići abounded
in poorly preserved recrystallized orbitoids. The sandstone
also contained sporadic mollusc accumulations. A mollusc
collection from this locality includes: Neritina compacta
Forbes, Natica transsylvanica Palfy, Cerithium alulovici Pe-
jović, Cardium duclouxi Vidal, Corculum (Fragum) cerevi-
cianum Pašić, Lucina producta Goldf., L. falax Forbes (Pejo-
Marly sandstone and sandy argilites in the river at Čekovića
millhouse in the village of Kovačevo bears, besides foramini-
fer Laffiteina mengaudi (Fig. 3.15), numerous Cardium du-
other bivalvia and gastropods (Radoičić 1988).
Maastrichtian sediments of Alulovići and Kovačevo are
shallow-water equivalents of the basinal Deževo and Novi
Pazar formations – actually parts thereof (more accurate cor-
relations will result from further study). These rocks were in-
terpreted by Mojsilović et al. (1979) as lying in the middle of
the flysch column about 300 m thick. They are shown in the
geological map Sheet Sjenica (Mojsilović et al. 1979), and
Petrović & Jankičević (1988) refer to them as a young flysch
series. However, according D. Pejović & R. Radoičić (pers.
com.) these sediments of Alulovići and Kovačevo are not fly-
sch. The latest stratigraphical data indicate the post-Maas-
trichtian age of the flysch (de Capoa & Radoičić 2000).
Paleontological comments on selected foraminifers
Binconcava bentori Hamaoui et Saint-Marc, 1970
This species was described by Hamaoui et Saint-Marc,
1970 from specimens found in Lebanon and Israel. Those
from Lebanon have fewer chamberlets in the terminal coil and
less curved septae. My specimens resemble more those from
Lebanon in having fewer (14 or less) chamberlets in the termi-
nal coil. The species described was found in Cenomanian
rocks, but it also occurs in early Senonian and Campanian of
the Apennines, Dinarides, Hellenides, and Provence.
Antalyna korayi Farinacci et Köylüoglu, 1985
In the present stage of our knowledge, this species, de-
scribed from Maastrichtian sediments of Turkey, ranges from
Santonian to Upper Maastrichtian (Polavder 2000).
Hemicyclammina chalmasi (Schlumberger), 1899
In the type locality, the little known species Hemicyclammi-
na chalmasi ranges from Coniacian to Upper Santonian. H.
chalmasi found in Gradina limestones is Campanian in age
Broeckina dufrenoyi (d’Archiac, 1854)
Broeckina dufrenoyi was known only from the type locali-
ty, from specimens of the B-generation. In 1975 Cherchi &
Schroeder presented specimens of the A-generation from the
same locality. The only section of the species in Campanian
limestone of Gradina is also of the A-generation (Polavder
Nummofallotia cretacea (Schlumberger, 1899)
This is a common species, especially in Mur limestones. Its
preservation and size (diameter, thickness) vary. The external
test coils are frequently dissolved to the degree that only um-
bilical plug has been preserved. Oblique sections of such a
test remainder strongly resemble trocholina (Fig. 3.8).
Sulcoperculina aff. S. cubensis (Palmer, 1934)
A foraminifer, exactly like the one presented by Hottinger
(1966) as Sulcoperculina aff. cubensis, found in the Campa-
nian of Gradina has been reported only from the Pyrenees;
now this is another region of its occurrence (Polavder 1997).
Tekkeina anatoliensis Farinacci et Yeniay, 1994
This little known and recently described species from Turkey
is found in the Lower Campanian hemipelagites of the Mur
Formation, as corroborated by planktonic foraminifers (elevata
Zone) and nannofossils (CC18 Zone). From Brač Island, this
species is presented as “a large coarsely agglutinated similar
foraminifer (or okin) to Navarella juaquini” which also occurs
in Lower Campanian hemipelagic limestones with pitonellae
and calcisphaerae (Gušič & Jelaska 1990 – Pl. XI: Fig. 2).
Miliolidae gen. and sp. indet.
The third most abundant, besides quinqueloculina type and
Idalina antiqua, are miliolids of planispiral coiling at the final
stage of growth. Tests of the Massilina Schlumberger, 1893
and Derventina Neagu, 1968 are characterized by the ball-like
early stage developing into planispiral coiling. Massilinae
have apertures with bifid tooth, and derventinae have dentate
aperture. Since these structural features are not visible in the
available sections, they are presented as miliolidae of open
Fig. 5. Benthic foraminifers of the Bajevica—Mur section: 1. Spiroloculina sp., sample S6; 2—5. Cornuspira sp., sample S26; 6—9, 11, 13—
15. Miliolidae gen. and sp. indet., samples S6, S9, S10, S19, S26: 6,7 – sp. 1; 8 – sp. 2; 9 – sp. 3; 11 – sp. 4; 13 – sp. 5; 14 – sp. 6
(Spiroloculina?); 15 – sp. 7 (aff. Rumanoloculina). 16. Rumanoloculina sp., sample S17; 17. Dicyclina schlumbergeri Munier-Chalmas,
sample S31. Benthic foraminifers of the Gradina section: 10, 12. Miliolidae gen. and sp. indet., sample S53; 10 – sp. 3; 12 – sp. 4;
18. Dicyclina schlumbergeri Munier-Chalmas, sample S53.
CRETACEOUS INTEGRATED BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF VARDAR ZONE 89
Fig. 6. Benthic foraminifers of the Bajevica—Mur section: 5. Sulcoperculina sp., sample S32; 8. Pararotalia minimalis Hofker, sample
S28; 10. Sirtina sp., sample S25; 13. Dictyopsella cuvillieri Gendrot, sample S32; 15. Tekkeina anatoliensis Farinaccci et Yeniay, sample
S24; 18. Minouxia conica Gendrot, sample S4. Benthic foraminifers of the Gradina section: 1—4 Sulcoperculina aff. S. cubensis (Palmer),
(sensu Hottinger), sample S68; 6. Sulcoperculina sp., sample S68; 7, 9. Pararotalia minimalis Hofker, samples S65, S68; 11. Sirtina? sp.,
sample S53; 12. Dictyopsella cuvillieri Gendrot, sample S59; 14. Pseudocyclammina massiliensis Maync, sample S56; 16. Hemicyclammina
chalmasi (Schlumberger), sample S68; 17. Broeckina dufrenoyi (d’Archiac), sample S61.
Fig. 7. Planktonic foraminifers of the Bajevica—Mur section: 1. Globotruncanita elevata (Brotzen), sample S36; 2. Contusotruncana
pateliformis (Gandolfi), sample S40; 3. Globotruncana ventricosa White, sample S40; 4. Globotruncanella cf. G. pschadae (Keller), sample
S40; 10. Globotruncana bulloides Vogler, sample S40. Planktonic foraminifers of the Gradina section: 5. Globotruncana orientalis El
Naggar, sample S68; 6, 9. Contusotruncana fornicata (Plummer), samples S68, S70; 7. “Globotruncana angulata-Gansserina gansseri”,
sample S73; 8. 11. Globotruncana arca (Cushman), sample S68; 12. Hedbergella sp., sample S64; 13. Globotruncana sp., sample S64.
CRETACEOUS INTEGRATED BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF VARDAR ZONE 91
nomenclature. Some of them may be new species of one/or
The assemblage of benthic foraminifers in Cretaceous
shallow-water limestones of Novi Pazar, includes the fol-
a) distributed throughout the Upper Cretaceous (Nezza-
zatinella picardi, Dicyclina schlumbergeri),
b) occurring in the uppermost Turonian or the lowermost
Coniacian, and common in the Santonian (Idalina antiqia,
Pseudocyclammina massiliensis, Hemicyclammina chalma-
si, Nummufallotia cretacea); the Turonian dating of some
species of this association ought to be confirmed by an anal-
ysis of nannofossils.
c) believed to be Santonian or occurring in the Santonian
(Rotalia reicheli, Sulcoperculina aff. S. cubensis, Broeckina
dufrenoyi, Tekkeina anatoliensis),
d) known so far from the Maastrichtian – Antalyna ko-
e) small, little known rotaliform foraminifers and varied
miliolids having the terminal planispiral stage, possibly in-
cluding new species.
According to reference information the Santonian age of
the studied shallow-water limestones should probably be
maintained. A more accurate dating is based on an analysis
of nannofossils in the shallow-water limestones and nanno-
fossils and planktonic foraminifers contained in the succes-
sive sediments. The shallow-water limestones in this part of
the Novi Pazar Cretaceous belt are uppermost Santonian?—
Lower Campanian. The range of I. antiqua is extended into
Campanian, however, it does not have to be its ultimate last
occurrence. According to D. Pejović, the above mentioned
rudists from Bajevica limestones (and blocks) are known as
The assemblage with I. antiqua in the Cretaceous succes-
sions of Novi Pazar resembles largely the association includ-
ing Santonian foraminifers of the pre-Pyrenees and
Provence, though some of the species are widespread in
some other regions. I. antiqua from the pre-Pyrenees (Leri-
da) is commonly mentioned as a Santonian species (Cornella
1977; Hottinger et al. 1989). Cornella mentions it from
member five of section “El Barranco de la Font de la Plata”,
which lies directly under massive Campanian limestones
(microfauna in the latter is not mentioned as it was not the
subject of her study). An important stratigraphical fact is
that orbitoids occur at the top of the third and in the fourth
members, beneath the beds with I. antiqua. The Cretaceous
Stratigraphy Subcommission WGCM field trip guide book,
(Caus et al. 1981), contains a revised version of the same
section. The same authors state that Cornella’s fifth member
is equivalent to the lowest part of their unit seven which is
In the Cretaceous of Provence, according to Tronchetti
(1981), I. antiqua occurs in uppermost Turonian and is com-
mon in the Upper Santonian. In Provence, the assemblage
including I. antiqua and Ps. massiliensis occurs in the ma-
rine Upper Santonian (late Upper Santonian are lacustrine
and continental deposits). Facies bearing assemblages of this
type, excluding Provence, are not well known. I. antiqua is
not even mentioned in many publications on Campanian
The Bajevica Formation is characterized by ramp environ-
ments inhabited by rudists, foraminifers and algae.
According to Bandy & Arnal (1960, p. 215), diverse abun-
dant populations of quinqueloculinas, triloculinas, and other
miliolids indicate a coastal marine environment. In the lower
part of the Bajevica Formation the association with Idalina
antiqua is autochthonous while in the upper beds it is parau-
tochthonous (floatstone with rudist fragments and debris).
The Early Campanian rise of sea level caused substitution of
shallow-water sediments (Bajevica Formation) by lower-ramp
hemipelagic carbonates (Mur Formation). The beginning of
bottom subsidence is indicated by slumping phenomena.
The sequence with slumped blocks is terminated by thick
biolithoclastic or silty limestone bed, at the top of which plank-
tonic microfossils already occur, indicating further deepening
of the depositional environment. Subsequently, pelagic sedi-
ments are followed by flysch-like and flysch deposits.
Excluding a thin bed of accumulated fragments (most likely
carried by a strong tide and deposited in a shallow littoral area),
the lack of rudists is notable in the Bajevica Formation (the
Gradina Succession). The lack of rudists can be explained by
the absence of an important environmental factor for rudists.
Rare benthic foraminifers are parautochthonous in the Gra-
dina Formation, which bears segments, fragments and detritus
of udoteacean algae and occasional solitary corals. The occur-
rence of few planktonic foraminifers in the middle part of the
Gradina Formation indicates a slow progressive deepening of
the still shallow sea (infralittoral, deeper ramp area).
In the Gradina Succession the shallow-water sedimentation,
ends with infralittoral deposits. This formation is followed
discontinuously by deposition of the turbidite carbonate-
The oldest Senonian, sedimentary rocks in the western part
of Stara Raška (the Vardar Zone) Cretaceous belt lie trans-
gressively over the Paleozoic basement.
The oldest shallow-water carbonates of the Bajevica For-
mation, believed to be Santonian so far, are dated uppermost
Santonian?—Lower Campanian. Shallow-water sedimentation
of this part of the Novi Pazar Cretaceous unit was short. The
depositional area began to deepen during the Early Campa-
nian (CC17 Nannoplankton Zone) and continued during Mid-
dle—Late Campanian and also in Maastrichtian (CC23b Nan-
Relatively shallow-water proximal basinal sandstones with
Laffitteina mengaudi and Cardium duclouxi at Kovačevo and
sandstones with orbitoids and molluscs at Alulovići are lateral
equivalents of part of the Novi Pazar clastics and Deževo car-
Acknowledgments: I am grateful for useful suggestions to
the professor M. Sudar of the University of Belgrade. I am
also indebted to Dr D. Pejović for data on the rudist fauna, to
Prof P. De Capoa (University of Naples, Italy), for her analy-
sis of nannofossils and to Dr D. Jovanović for sedimentologi-
cal consultations. And most of all – for the borrowed refer-
ence books, thin-sections and expertise – I owe thanks to Dr
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