CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL STRATIGRAPHY (PINDOS FORELAND BASIN, GREECE) 107
GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 54, 2, BRATISLAVA, APRIL 2003
CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL STRATIGRAPHY OF TERTIARY
SUBMARINE FAN DEPOSITS FROM THE KLEMATIA-PARAMYTHIA
BASIN (PINDOS FORELAND BASIN, WESTERN GREECE)
, PAVLOS AVRAMIDIS
and ABRAHAM ZELILIDIS
Geological Institute Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Paleontology and Stratigraphy, BG-1113 Sofia, Bulgaria;
University of Patras, Department of Geology, Laboratory of Sedimentology, 26500 Patras, Greece; P.Avramidis@upatras.gr,
(Manuscript received July 1, 2002; accepted in revised form December 12, 2002)
Abstract: In the Klematia-Paramythia Basin, which belongs to the middle Ionian zone and is part of the Pindos Foreland
Basin, submarine fan deposits accumulated from the Middle Eocene to the Middle Miocene. Calcareous nannofossils are
used as a tool for dating and correlation of the fan sediments. Calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been studied in
four main geological cross-sections, located in the Pindos Foreland Basin. Seven nannofossil biostratigraphic units were
detected two in the Middle and Upper Eocene (NP16, NP1720), one in the Lower Oligocene (NP21), one in the
Upper Oligocene (NP2425), two in the Lower Miocene (NN1, NN23) and one in the Middle Miocene (NN7). The
Upper Miocene NN812 interval probably occurs in the section AA. These age data indicate that the Pindos foredeep,
as a result of Pindos thrust activity, began subsiding during the Middle Eocene. The basin was filled by submarine fan
deposits until the Middle (Late?) Miocene, when internal thrusting ended sedimentation.
Key words: Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, NW Greece, Pindos Foreland Basin, biostratigraphy, calcareous nannofossils.
Introduction and geological setting
The study area, located in northwestern Greece, is a part of the
external Hellenides and belongs to the Pindos Foreland Basin
of the Hellenide orogen. The basin is filled by submarine fan
deposits and is segmented during its evolution by thrusting
and strike-slip motions (Fig. 1).
The Pindos Foreland Basin (Underhill 1989; Clews 1989;
Leigh & Hartley 1992; Avramidis 1999; Avramidis et al.
2000) comprises the Gavrovo and the Ionian geotectonic
zones sensu Aubouin (1965). The studied area is part of the
Ionian Zone, which due to the differentiation of the carbonate
facies, the flysch (turbidite) deposits and the existence of the
internal thrusting, is subdivided from east to west in the inter-
nal, middle and external Ionian zones (IGSR & IFP 1966)
(Fig. 1). The subdivision of the Ionian Zone occurred during
Late Oligocene to Early Miocene.
The evolution of the Pindos Foreland Basin was mainly in-
fluenced by the activity of the Pindos and Ionian thrusts, and
secondarily by the Gavrovo thrust and internal thrusts of the
Ionian Zone (Fig. 1). Due to the Pindos thrust activity a fore-
deep was formed during Middle Eocene (IGSR & IFP 1966),
whereas due to the internal thrusting the foreland changed to a
complex type foreland basin, during the Late Oligocene in its
northern part (studied area Avramidis et al. 2000), and to a
piggy back basin, during Early Pliocene in its southern part
(Zakynthos area Zelilidis et al. 1998). The Pindos foredeep
during the Middle Eocene was an example of an undefiled
foreland basin and these conditions can be related to narrow
linear basins where submarine fans accumulated (Avramidis
& Zelilidis 2001). The distribution of submarine fan facies
was influenced mainly by tectonically driven subsidence and
to a lesser degree by sea-level variations (Avramidis et al.
The objectives of the present paper are to correlate and com-
pare stratigraphical data, obtained from the study of calcare-
ous nannofossils from the turbidites in order to estimate the
timing of the major events, which influenced the evolution of
the Pindos Foreland Basin.
P. Avramidis and A. Zelilidis (University of Patras, Greece)
carried out all field studies, sedimentological and tectonic in-
terpretations. K. Stoykova (Geological Institute, Sofia) per-
formed calcareous nannofossil studies and the biostratigraphic
interpretation of the obtained data.
The Pindos Foreland Basin consists of several thousand
metres thick flysch sequences (submarine fans). Their tectoni-
cally controlled deposition took place during the westward
progradation of the external Hellenides and extended longitu-
dinally to the axes of the synclines that formed during this de-
formation (Fig. 1). The source material of the submarine fans
was mainly within the Pindos Mountains (Piper et al. 1978;
Faupl et al. 1998; Avramidis & Zelilidis 2001).
A number of researchers have interpreted the flysch of the
Pindos foreland as parts of a submarine fan (turbidite deposits)
(Piper et al. 1978; Clews 1989; Wilpshaar 1995; Avramidis &
Kontopoulos 1998; Avramidis & Zelilidis 1998; Avramidis et
108 STOYKOVA, AVRAMIDIS and ZELILIDIS
al. 2000). Adjacent to the Pindos thrust front (internal Ionian
zone in the north and Gavrovo Zone in the south,
Fig. 1) coarse-grained sediments were deposited, representing
the proximal part of a submarine fan, while westward (middle
and external Ionian zone), fine-grained sediments accumulat-
ed representing the distal parts of the fan (Fig. 1).
Flysch deposits usually overlie conformably the Eocene
limestones, but there are some places, where their contact is
marked by an unconformity. The age of the onset of flysch
sedimentation in the Pindos Foreland Basin is a controversial
point. I.G.S.R & I.F.P. (1966) proposed that the onset of fly-
sch sedimentation took place in the Late Eocene, while Fleury
(1980), Leigh & Hartley (1991), Wilpshaar (1995) and Bellas
(1997) proposed an Early Oligocene age. In contrast to the
above studies, B.P. (1971) proposed an Early to Middle Mi-
ocene age for the onset of flysch sedimentation, an age which
has not been widely accepted.
Avramidis et al. (2000), studying the turbidite deposits in
the middle Ionian zone, interpreted them as submarine fan de-
posits and classified them with the main facies types and fa-
cies association of turbidite depositional environments (Mutti
& Ricci Lucchi 1972, 1975; Walker 1978). The Middle
Eocene to Upper Oligocene turbidite sediments, deposited in
the middle Ionian zone, represent the distal parts of a subma-
rine fan (lobe, lobe-fringe and basin plain), while the Lower to
Upper Miocene turbidite sediments, due to differential tecton-
ic evolution of Pindos Foreland Basin, represent both proxi-
mal and distal depositional facies of inner and outer submarine
fans. According to Avramidis et al. (2000) the Middle Eocene
to Upper Oligocene formations of turbidites are up to 1050 m
thick and were deposited before the division of the Ionian
Zone. The Lower Miocene to Upper Miocene turbidites were
deposited after the segmentation of the Ionian Zone within a
restricted basin, and are up to 2300 m thick.
Fig. 1. Simplified geological map of western Greece, showing the Ionian and Gavrovo Zones (after Avramidis et al. 2000) and the location
of the studied basin.
CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL STRATIGRAPHY (PINDOS FORELAND BASIN, GREECE) 109
In the middle Ionian zone, the major thickness of submarine
fan deposits (up to 3300 m thick) is present in the Klematia-
Paramythia Basin. The Klematia-Paramythia Basin involves
the Botzara and Dragopsa synclines and their deposits were
examined in four geological cross-sections (Fig. 2).
Section AA has a total stratigraphic thickness of up to
3300 m. From the base to the top it consists of outer fan de-
posits (up to 800 m), basin plain deposits (up to150 m), inner
fan deposits (up to 90 m) and outer fan deposits (up to
2260 m) (Fig. 3). A total of 16 samples have been examined
for calcareous nannofossils.
Eastern part of Botzara syncline. This section has a thick-
ness of up to 1250 m and consists of outer fan (up to 450 m)
and inner fan deposits (up to 800 m). Three samples were ex-
amined from the outer fan deposits (FL1, FL2 and FL7) and
three samples from the inner fan deposits (MI1, MI6 and MI 11)
Section BB. It is up to 1720 m thick and from the base up-
ward consists of outer fan deposits (up to 646 m) and inner fan
deposits (up to 1074 m). From outer fan deposits three sam-
ples were examined (P1, P5 and P7) and from the inner fan
four samples (P8, P9, P12 and P13) (Fig. 5).
Section CC has a stratigraphic thickness of up to 360 m
and from the base upward consists of basin plain (up to 50 m)
and outer fan deposits (up to 310 m). One sample was exam-
ined from the basin plain (D2) and three samples from the out-
er fan deposits (D8, D12 and D13) (Fig. 6).
Calcareous nannofossils material and methods
Our calcareous nannofossil study is based on 33 samples,
taken from the different sections (AA 16 samples, East-
ern part of Botzara syncline 6 samples, BB 7 samples,
CC 4 samples Fig. 2). All samples were processed
and the smear-slides were prepared without centrifuging in or-
der to avoid changes in the composition of the original assem-
blages. A biostratigraphic evaluation was conducted under the
light microscope with 1250
magnification. Each slide was
observed in normal and cross-polarized light. Most samples
were logged two or three times for an average of 4060 min-
utes. Some critical samples were examined for several hours.
Semi-quantitative analysis has been performed on each sam-
ple. The relative abundance of nannofossils was determined in
the following way: the species was termed abundant if more
than 10 specimens can be observed per field of view, com-
mon (92 spec./f.v.) and rare (< 2 spec./f.v.).
Calcareous nannofossils are common and moderately well
preserved throughout the sections. Only a few samples (4) are
devoid of nannofossils. Because of the turbiditic depositional
environment, reworking of the nannofossils is commonly ob-
served, as indicated by the presence of many Upper Creta-
ceous, Paleocene and Lower Eocene species.
Our biostratigraphic interpretations are based on precise de-
termination of the first (FO) and last (LO) occurrences of
stratigraphically important nannofossil species, including zon-
al markers and taxa with well-known stratigraphic range, as
well as on careful taxonomic identification of the nannofos-
sils. We tried to use generally accepted taxonomic concepts,
following Aubry (1984, 1988, 1989, 1990) and Perch-Nielsen
In order to achieve an accurate biostratigraphic correlation
between the studied sections, we used the standard zonation of
Martini (1971). Special attention was paid to samples within
important stratigraphic intervals, especially around zonal
boundaries. All observations were made on dense smear
slides, in order to register the occurrences of rare species. Sev-
eral of the important boundary markers were absent or scarce
in the studied samples. Then in most cases we used combined
range of recorded taxa. A calcareous nannofossil range chart is
produced for each of the sections studied (Figs. 36).
The section is situated in the central part of the basin (Fig. 2).
The thickness of the exposed sediments (turbidites) is up to
3300 m. Stratigraphically the section spans from the Lower
Oligocene NP21 Zone up to the Upper Miocene NN812
zones. Sixteen samples were investigated, only one containing
a poor nannofossil assemblage (M38).
Fig. 2. Geological map, showing the turbidite sub-environment dis-
tribution within the Klematia-Paramythia Basin and the position of
the sections studied.
110 STOYKOVA, AVRAMIDIS and ZELILIDIS
Notably, it was only in this section that we observed the
presence of the nannofossil genera Braarudosphaera and
Pontosphaera, regarded as indicators of a shallow depth of
deposition shelf or hemipelagic environments (Bramlette
& Sullivan 1961). Relatively large-sized forms of Braaru-
dosphaera bigelowii (Fig. 8.14) are recorded in samples M2
and M12, in the Upper Oligocene zones NP2425.
Pontosphaera sp. (Fig. 7.13) is determined in sample M44,
in the Middle Miocene Zone NN7.
The occurrence of the recognized calcareous nannofossil
species is reported on Fig. 3.
Lower Oligocene, NP21 Ericsonia subdisticha Zone.
According to its definition (Roth & Hay 1967 emend. Marti-
ni 1970), the zone spans the interval from the LO of Dis-
coaster saipanensis to the LO of Ericsonia formosa. The
lower part of AA section is assigned to NP21. The nanno-
fossil assemblage of this zone is dominated by Ericsonia
formosa (Fig. 7.9), E. subdisticha (Fig. 7.3b,4), Dictyococ-
cites bisectus (Fig. 7.2,3a,17), Coccolithus pelagicus, Cycli-
cargolithus floridanus (Fig. 7.18), Reticulofenestra dictyoda
and Sphenolithus moriformis. Several species are common
in this zone: Reticulofenestra umbilica (Fig. 7.5,6), Dis-
coaster deflandrei, Discoaster nodifer, Sphenolithus pseu-
Fig. 3. Range chart of calcareous nannofossils and stratigraphic subdivision of section AA.
The two basal samples of the section (F1, F2), contain a
large number of reworked Eocene species such as: Rhom-
boaster contortus, R. orthostylus, Discoaster lodoensis, D.
saipanensis, Toweius eminens, T. gammation, Chiasmo-
lithus modestus, Nannotetrina cristata, N. fulgens.
Because of the uncertainty of reworking in the turbidite
deposits, the LO Ericsonia formosa could not be used as a
reliable datum for the upper boundary of the zone. Therefore
it is drawn above the sample F23, by the first occurrence of
Cyclicargolithus abisectus, Discoaster adamanteus and Dis-
coaster calculosus in sample F33.
Upper Oligocene, NP2425 Sphenolithus distentus
Sphenolithus ciperoensis zones. These two zones span the
Upper Oligocene and could not be separated because of the
scarcity of sphenoliths in this part of the section. The age as-
signment of the samples F33, F34, M1 to M23 to NP2425
zones is based on the combined range of the detected spe-
cies. The lower boundary of the zone is traced by the FO of
Cyclicargolithus abisectus (Fig. 7.19), Discoaster adaman-
teus (Fig. 9.1) and Discoaster calculosus. For the upper
boundary (which is the Oligocene/Miocene boundary as
well), the LO of Dictyococcites bisectus and Sphenolithus
pseudoradians and/or the FO of Sphenolithus conicus and
Helicosphaera scissura is used for approximation.
CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL STRATIGRAPHY (PINDOS FORELAND BASIN, GREECE) 111
Lower Miocene, NN12 T. carinatus-Discoaster druggi
zones. The presence of these basal Miocene zones is proven in
the middle part of the section, in sample M25. The distinguish-
ing criteria for its lower boundary were stated above in the pre-
vious zone. The FO of Sphenolithus belemnos is an important
nannofossil event, largely used for correlation. This event marks
the upper boundary of the zone in our AA section, which is
drawn between the samples M25 and M28 (Fig. 3).
NN3 S. belemnos Zone. This zone was originally defined
as an interval between the LO of Triquetrorhabdulus carina-
tus and the LO of S. belemnos (Bramlette et Wilcoxon, 1967).
Since Triquetrorhabdulus carinatus was not found in our ma-
terials, we used the FO of S. belemnos as an approximation of
the lower boundary and its LO for the upper boundary. Practi-
cally, in this section the zone equates with the total range of S.
Coccolithus pelagicus, Cyclicargolithus floridanus and
Helicosphaera scissura dominate the nannofossil assemblages
of the zone.
The upper boundary of NN3 Zone falls between the samples
M38 and M42.
Middle Miocene, NN7 Discoaster kugleri Zone. This
Middle Miocene zone is located in the upper part of the section
Fig. 4. Range chart of calcareous nannofossils and stratigraphic subdivision of the section E-part of Botzara syncline.
(samples M42, M46 Fig. 3). It is identified by the presence
of Discoaster kugleri. The total range of this species defines the
lower and upper boundary of the zone. Discoaster deflandrei
and Discoaster variabilis are common taxa. Small, difficult to
determination reticulofenestrids are observed in the zone.
? NN812 zones. The questionable presence of these Upper
Miocene zones in the topmost sample of the section (M48) is
based on the common occurrence of Discoaster pansus (Fig.
9.5,6). According to Perch-Nielsen (1985) its range is NN12
NN15, and our initial age-estimation was the NN12 Zone.
Aubry (1984, p. 155) in her comprehensive book on Discoast-
er stated that Its FO is later than for D. variabilis and before
D. decorus, that is the FO of D. pansus is not a precisely
fixed event, but occurred in a large stratigraphic interval
NN6 to NN15. Therefore it cannot be used for a precise age
Section in the eastern part of the Botzara syncline
The section is located in the northern parts of the basin
and comprises up to 1250 m a turbiditic succession up to
1250 m thick (Fig. 2). Middle-Upper Eocene (NP1720) to
Lower Miocene (NN13) sediments are exposed in this sec-
112 STOYKOVA, AVRAMIDIS and ZELILIDIS
Fig. 5. Range chart of calcareous nannofossils and stratigraphic subdivision of section BB.
tion. Six samples were studied, all displaying good preserva-
tion of the calcareous nannofossil assemblages (Fig. 4).
MiddleUpper Eocene, NP1720 Discoaster saipanen-
sisSphenolithus pseudoradians zones. The lower part of
the section (samples FL1 and FL2) is assigned to this large
stratigraphic interval, because we did not find any of the
marker species Chiasmolithus oamaruensis, Isthmolithus re-
curvus and Sphenolithus pseudoradians. Instead, we recorded
a moderately rich species association with common Dictyo-
coccites bisectus, Reticulofenestra umbilica (Fig. 7.7), R.
hillae (Fig. 7.8), Cribrocentrum reticulatum (Fig. 7.1), Dis-
coaster barbadiensis, D. saipanensis (Fig. 4). The first two
species have their FO within the NP17 Zone, whereas the last
two have their LO at the top of the NP20 Zone. For this reason
we infer the NP1720 zones for these samples. We avoid us-
ing the LO of Chiasmolithus grandis (Fig. 8.16) as an event
marking the top of NP17, supposing it might be easily re-
Upper Oligocene, NP2425 Sphenolithus distentus
Sphenolithus ciperoensis zones. These zones are inferred for
sample FL7. It is proven by the FO of Cyclicargolithus abi-
sectus, Helicosphaera recta, Discoaster calculosus and D. ad-
amanteus. The nannofossil association is similar to that ob-
served in AA section (see Fig. 4 for details). The upper
zonal boundary is placed between the samples FL7 and MI1,
at the FO of Sphenolithus conicus and Helicosphaera scissura
Lower Miocene, NN13 T. carinatusS. belemnos zones.
These zones span the middle and upper part of the section
(samples MI1 to MI11, Fig. 4). The recognition is based on
the occurrence of Sphenolithus conicus, ranging from NN1 to
NN3, as well as the presence of abundant Early Miocene nan-
nofossil species such as Helicosphaera scissura, H. interme-
dia (Fig. 7.14), Coccolithus pelagicus, C. miopelagicus.
This section is located in the western part of the Botzara
syncline, in the southern part of the basin (Fig. 2). The succes-
sion of calcareous nannofossil zones established and their ver-
tical distribution is reported in Fig. 5. The succession covers a
large stratigraphic interval from the Middle-Upper Eocene
(NP1720 zones) to the Middle Miocene (NN7 Zone) and is
up to 1720 m thick.
MiddleUpper Eocene, NP1720 Discoaster saipanen-
sisSphenolithus pseudoradians zones. These zones are rec-
ognized in the base of the section, in sample P1 (Fig. 5). The
nannofossil association is rich and diverse, dominated by Dic-
CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL STRATIGRAPHY (PINDOS FORELAND BASIN, GREECE) 113
tyococcites bisectus and D. scrippsae. It is similar to the asso-
ciation of the same zone, recorded in the Eastern part of the
Botzara Section. The FO of Ericsonia subdisticha in the sam-
ple P5 marks the upper boundary of the zone.
Lower Oligocene, NP21 Ericsonia subdisticha Zone.
This zone is recorded in sample P5. Its lower boundary is
drawn by the FO Ericsonia subdisticha (Fig. 7.4) a spe-
cies, which occurs commonly in NP21 only.
Upper Oligocene, NP2425 Sphenolithus distentus
Sphenolithus ciperoensis zones. These zones are identified
by the co-occurrence of Helicosphaera recta (Fig. 7.15) and
Discoaster calculosus in sample P7. The nannofossil associa-
tion is analogous to those observed in AA and in the Eastern
part of the Botzara sections.
Lower Miocene, NN13 T. carinatusS. belemnos zones.
The lower boundary is fixed at the FO of Sphenolithus coni-
cus and Helicosphaera scissura (by analogy with AA and
the E-part of the Botzara sections) between the samples P7
and P8 (Fig. 5). The upper boundary is marked by the LO of
Sphenolithus belemnos and S. conicus. It is traced above the
sample P9. Typical Lower Miocene association, containing
Discoaster calculosus, Cyclicargolithus abisectus, Cocco-
lithus pelagicus, C. miopelagicus, Sphenolithus conicus and
Helicosphaera scissura is documented from the samples P8
Middle Miocene, NN7 Discoaster kugleri Zone. The zone
is distinguished in the upper part of the section (samples P12,
P13 Fig. 5). It is based on the total range of its index-spe-
cies, Discoaster kugleri. Small-sized reticulofenestrids (main-
ly Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilica) dominate the nannofossil
associations of this zone. Discoaster variabilis, D. exilis and
Coccolithus pelagicusC. miopelagicus occur commonly.
The section is situated in the Dragopsa syncline, at the east-
ern margin of the basin (Fig. 2). The thickness of the sedi-
ments is relatively small up to 360 m, due to the incom-
pleteness of the section. Middle Eocene (NP16), Upper
Eocene (NP1720) and Lower Miocene (NN13 zones) has
been proven (Fig. 6). The whole Oligocene is missing in this
Middle Eocene, NP16 Discoaster tanii nodifer Zone.
This is the oldest zone recognized in this study. Its presence in
sample D2 is undoubtedly proven by the co-occurrence of
Discoaster bifax and Chiasmolithus modestus, ranging only in
the NP16 Zone. An additional argument for this age determi-
nation is the occurrence of Nannotetrina cristata (Fig. 9.8),
Chiasmolithus solitus and Ch. expansus (Fig. 8.3), which has
its LO at the top of NP16 (Fig. 6).
MiddleUpper Eocene, NP1720 Discoaster saipanen-
sisSphenolithus pseudoradians zones. These zones are
based on the rich and various nannofossil association, ob-
served in sample D8. The lower boundary is approximated by
the FOs of Discoaster tanii nodifer, Dicyococcites bisectus,
D. scrippsae and Helicosphaera compacta (Fig. 8.1).
There appears to be an unconformity at the top of this zone,
as indicated from the overlying Lower Miocene sediments.
Lower Miocene, NN13 T. carinatusS. belemnos zones.
These zones are recognized in the samples D12 and D13.
They are based on the total range of Sphenolithus conicus.
The nannofossil assemblages are abundant, dominated by S.
conicus, Cyclicargolithus floridanus, C. abisectus. Rework-
ing of Eocene species from the underlying sediments is no-
ticeable in D12 sample.
A relatively expanded Middle Eocene to Middle (Upper?)
Miocene turbiditic sequence was recovered from the studied
area (Pindos Foreland Basin, NW Greece), indicating that the
Pindos foredeep was filled from the Middle Eocene onwards.
Calcareous nannofossils are moderately well preserved and
Fig. 6. Range chart of calcareous nannofossils and stratigraphic subdivision of section CC.
114 STOYKOVA, AVRAMIDIS and ZELILIDIS
Fig. 7. LM microphotographs of calcareous nannofossil taxa from the studied sections, all pictures with crossed nicols, scale bar 10
1. Cribrocentrum reticulatum (Gartner et Smith) Perch-Nielsen, sample FL1, section E-part of Botzara syncline. 2, 3a. Dictyococcites bi-
sectus (Hay, Mohler et Wade) Bukry et Percival, sample F1, section AA. 3b, 4. Ericsonia subdisticha (Roth et Hay) Roth; 3b sample
F1, section AA; 4 sample P5, section BB. 57. Reticulofenestra umbilica (Levin) Martini et Ritzkowski; 5 sample F2; 6 sample
F23, section AA; 7 sample FL2, section E-part of Botzara syncline. 8. Reticulofenestra hillae Bukry et Percival, sample FL1, section
E-part of Botzara syncline. 910. Ericsonia formosa (Kamptner) Haq; 9 sample F2, section AA; 10 sample P5, section BB. 11.
Ericsonia subdisticha (Roth et Hay) Roth, sample F2, section AA. 12. Reticulofenestra oamaruensis (Deflandre) Stradner, sample P5, sec-
tion BB. 13. Ponthosphaera sp., sample M44, section AA. 14. Helicosphaera intermedia Martini, sample MI1, section E-part of
Botzara syncline. 15. Helicosphaera recta (Haq) Jafar et Martini, sample P7, section BB. 16. Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich) Schiller,
sample M23, section AA. 17. Dictyococcites bisectus (Hay, Mohler et Wade) Bukry et Percival, sample P5, section BB. 18. Cyclicar-
golithus floridanus (Roth et Hay) Bukry, sample FL1, section E-part of Botzara syncline. 1920. Cyclicargolithus abisectus (Muller) Wise;
19 sample F33; 20 sample M42, section AA.
CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL STRATIGRAPHY (PINDOS FORELAND BASIN, GREECE) 115
Fig. 8. LM microphotographs of calcareous nannofossil taxa from the studied sections, all pictures with crossed nicols, scale bar 10
1. Helicosphaera compacta Bramlette et Wilcoxon, sample D8, section CC. 2. Helicosphaera euphratis Haq, sample FL1, section E-part
of Botzara syncline. 3. Helicosphaera lophota Bramlette et Sullivan, sample FL1, section E-part of Botzara syncline. 4. Chiasmolithus con-
suetus (Bramlette et Sullivan) Hay et Mohler, sample P1, section BB. 56. Cyclicargolithus floridanus (Roth et Hay) Bukry; 5 sample
P5, section BB; 6 sample M2, section AA. 7. Dictyococcites bisectus (Hay, Mohler et Wade) Bukry et Percival, sample M2, section
AA. 8. Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich) Schiller, sample M25, section AA. 9. Sphenolithus editus Perch-Nielsen, sample M2, section A
A, reworked from the Lower Eocene. 10. Sphenolithus capricornutus Bukry et Percival, sample M28, section AA. 11. Sphenolithus mori-
formis (Bronnimann et Stradner) Bramlette et Wilcoxon, sample MI1, section E-part of Botzara syncline. 12. Helicosphaera intermedia
Martini, sample M2, section AA. 13. Chiasmolithus expansus (Bramlette et Sullivan) Gartner, sample D2, section CC. 14. Braaru-
dosphaera bigelowii (Gran et Braarud) Deflandre, sample M2, section AA. 15. Reticulofenestra sp. ex gr. umbilica, sample P1, section B
B. 16. Chiasmolithus grandis (Bramlette et Riedel) Radomski, sample FL2, section E-part of Botzara syncline.
116 STOYKOVA, AVRAMIDIS and ZELILIDIS
Fig. 9. LM microphotographs of calcareous nannofossil taxa from the studied sections, all pictures with parallel nicols, scale bar 10
12. Discoaster adamanteus Bramlette et Wilcoxon; 1 sample F33; 2 sample M2, section AA. 3. Discoaster deflandrei Bramlette et
Riedel, sample MI6, section E-part of Botzara syncline. 4. Discoaster cf. binodosus hirundus Martini, sample D2, section CC. 56. Dis-
coaster pansus (Bukry et Percival) Bukry, sample M48, section AA. 7. Discoaster sp. 1, sample M48, section AA. 8. Discoaster sp. 2,
sample FL7, section E-part of Botzara syncline. 9, 12. Discoaster sp. aff. calculosus Bukry; 9 sample M25, section AA; 12 sample
MI1, section E-part of Botzara syncline. 1011. Discoaster calculosus Bukry; 10 sample F33; 11 sample M25, section AA. 13. Dis-
coaster intermediate between D. calculosus and D. deflandrei, sample M42, section AA. 14. Discoaster sp. aff. deflandrei, sample MI6,
section E-part of Botzara syncline. 1516. Discoaster deflandrei Bramlette et Riedel, sample M42, section AA. 17. Rhomboaster orthosty-
lus (Shamrai) Bybel et Self-Trail, sample P5, section BB, reworked from the Lower Eocene. 18. Nannotetrina cristata (Martini) Perch-
Nielsen, sample D2, section CC. 19. Discoaster tanii ornatus Bramlette et Wilcoxon, sample F23, section AA.
CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL STRATIGRAPHY (PINDOS FORELAND BASIN, GREECE) 117
diverse throughout the sections studied. Martinis (1970) zon-
al scheme was applied for biostratigraphic correlation of the
sections. Some of zonal marker species are present; however,
the scarcity or absence of others made biostratigraphic subdi-
visions difficult. Seven nannofossil biostratigraphic units
were recognized two in the Middle and Upper Eocene
(NP16, NP1720), one in the Lower Oligocene (NP21), one
in the Upper Oligocene (NP2425), two in the Lower Mi-
ocene (NN1, NN23) and one in the Middle Miocene (NN7).
The presence of the Upper Miocene NN812 zones is ques-
tionable in the section AA. These age data indicate that the
Pindos foredeep, as a result of Pindos thrust activity, began
subsiding during the Middle Eocene. The basin was filled by
submarine fan deposits until the Middle (Late?) Miocene
when thrusting ended sedimentation.
Acknowledgments: The authors would like to dedicate this
work to the memory of the recently deceased Prof. Vassil
Vuchev an outstanding Bulgarian geologist, who made the
scientific connection between the Greek and Bulgarian re-
searchers. The paper profited from thorough review and use-
ful suggestions by Ján Soták and two anonymous referees.
List of calcareous nannofossil species mentioned in the
A list of calcareous nannofossil taxa determined is given here. Figs. 79
illustrate some significant markers and other species of the nannofossil
assemblages, observed during the present study (scale bar
Braarudosphaera bigelowii (Gran et Braarud, 1935) Deflandre (1947)
Chiasmolithus bidens (Bramlette et Sullivan, 1961) Hay et Mohler
Chiasmolithus consuetus (Bramlette et Sullivan, 1961) Hay et Mohler
Chiasmolithus expansus (Bramlette et Sullivan, 1961) Gartner (1970)
Chiasmolithus gigas (Bramlette et Sullivan, 1961) Radomski (1968)
Chiasmolithus grandis (Bramlette et Riedel, 1954) Radomski (1968)
Chiasmolithus modestus Perch-Nielsen (1971)
Chiasmolithus solitus (Bramlette et Sullivan, 1961) Locker (1968)
Chiphragmalithus calatus Bramlette et Sullivan (1961)
Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich, 1877) Schiller (1930)
Coccolithus miopelagicus Bukry (1971)
Cribrocentrum reticulatum (Gartner et Smith, 1967) Perch-Nielsen
Cruciplacolithus tenuis (Stradner, 1961) Hay et Mohler (1967)
Cyclicargolithus abisectus (Muller, 1970) Wise (1973)
Cyclicargolithus floridanus (Roth et Hay, 1967) Bukry (1971)
Dictyococcites bisectus (Hay, Mohler et Wade, 1966) Bukry et Percival
Dictyococcites scrippsae Bukry et Percival (1971)
Discoaster adamanteus Bramlette et Wilcoxon (1967)
Discoaster barbadiensis Tan (1927)
Discoaster bifax Bukry (1971)
Discoaster binodosus Martini (1958)
Discoaster calculosus Bukry (1971)
Discoaster deflandrei Bramlette et Riedel (1954)
Discoaster delicatus Bramlette et Sullivan (1961)
Discoaster elegans Bramlette et Sullivan (1961)
Discoaster exilis Martini et Bramlette (1963)
Discoaster kuepperi Stradner (1959)
Discoaster kugleri Martini et Bramlette (1963)
Discoaster lenticularis Bramlette et Sullivan (1961)
Discoaster lodoensis Bramlette et Riedel (1954)
Discoaster multiradiatus Bramlette et Riedel (1954)
Discoaster nodifer (Bramlette et Riedel, 1954) Bukry (1973)
Discoaster pansus (Bukry et Percival, 1971) Bukry (1973)
Discoaster saipanensis Bramlette et Riedel (1954)
Discoaster sublodoensis Bramlette et Sullivan (1961)
Discoaster tanii Bramlette et Riedel (1954)
Discoaster tanii ornatus Bramlette et Wilcoxon (1967)
Discoaster variabilis Martini et Bramlette (1963)
Ericsonia formosa (Kamptner, 1963) Haq (1971)
Ericsonia subdisticha (Roth et Hay, 1967) Roth (1969)
Helicosphaera bramlettei Muller (1970)
Helicosphaera compacta Bramlette et Wilcoxon (1967)
Helicosphaera euphratis Haq (1966)
Helicosphaera intermedia Martini (1965)
Helicosphaera lophota Bramlette et Sullivan (1961)
Helicosphaera mediterranea Muller (1981)
Helicosphaera obliqua Bramlette et Wilcoxon (1967)
Helicosphaera recta Haq (1966)
Helicosphaera scissura Miller (1981)
Helicosphaera seminulum Bramlette et Sullivan (1961)
Micula decussata Vekshina (1959)
Nannotetrina fulgens (Stradner, 1960) Achuthan et Stradner (1969)
Nannotetrina cristata (Martini, 1958) Perch-Nielsen (1971)
Prediscosphaera cretacea (Arkhangelsky, 1912) Gartner (1968)
Prinsius dimorphosus (Perch-Nielsen, 1969) Perch-Nielsen (1977)
Prinsius martinii (Perch-Nielsen, 1969) Haq (1971)
Reticulofenestra dictyoda (Deflandre, 1954) Stradner (1968)
Reticulofenestra hillae Bukry et Percival (1971)
Reticulofenestra oamaruensis (Deflandre, 1954) Stradner (1968)
Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilica (Gartner, 1967) Gartner, (1969)
Reticulofenestra umbilica (Levin, 1965) Martini et Ritzkowski (1968)
Rhomboaster contortus (Stradner, 1958) Bybell et Self-Trail (1995)
Rhomboaster orthostylus (Shamrai, 1963) Bybell et Self-Trail (1995)
Sphenolithus belemnos Bramlette et Wilcoxon (1967)
Sphenolithus capricornutus Bukry et Percival (1971)
Sphenolithus compactus Backman (1980)
Sphenolithus conicus Bukry (1971)
Sphenolithus editus Perch-Nielsen (1978)
Sphenolithus moriformis (Bronnimann et Stradner, 1960) Bramlette et
Sphenolithus radians Deflandre (1952)
Sphenolithus pseudoradians Bramlette et Wilcoxon (1967)
Toweius gammation (Bramlette et Sullivan, 1961) Romein (1979)
Toweius eminens (Bramlette et Sullivan, 1961) Perch-Nielsen (1971)
Zygrhablithus bijugatus (Deflandre, 1954) Deflandre (1959)
Alexander J., Nichols G.J. & Leigh S. 1990: The origins of marine
conglomerates in the Pindos foreland basin, Greece. Sed. Geol.
Aubouin J. 1965: Geosynclines. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1350.
Aubry M.P. 1984: Handbook of Cenozoic Calcareous Nannoplank-
ton. Book 1: Ortholithae (Discoasters). Micropal. Press, Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist., N.Y., 1266.
Aubry M.P. 1988: Handbook of Cenozoic Calcareous Nannoplank-
ton. Book 2: Ortholithae (Catinasters, Ceratoliths, Rhabdo-
liths). Micropal. Press, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., N.Y., 1279.
Aubry M.P. 1989: Handbook of Cenozoic Calcareous Nannoplank-
ton. Book 3: Ortholithae (Pentaliths and others) Heliolithae
(Fasciculiths, Sphenoliths and others). Micropal. Press, Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist., N.Y., 179.
Aubry M.P. 1990: Handbook of Cenozoic Calcareous Nanno-
plankton. Book 4: Heliolithae (Helicoliths, Cribriliths, Lopa-
118 STOYKOVA, AVRAMIDIS and ZELILIDIS
doliths and others). Micropal. Press, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
Avramidis P. & Kontopoulos N. 1998: Hydraulic determination and
palaeoflow trends of turbidite deposits in Klematia-
Paramythia basin. Bull. Geol. Soc. Greece 32, 2, 165173.
Avramidis P. & Zelilidis A. 1998: Two different submarine fan lobe
types and their relationship to basin evolution; implication to
hydrocarbon reservoirs, western Greece. Bull. Geol. Soc.
Greece 32, 2, 299307.
Avramidis P., Zelilidis A. & Kontopoulos N. 2000: Thrust dissec-
tion control of deep-water clastic dispersal patterns in the
Klematia-Paramythia Foreland Basin, Western Greece. Geol.
Mag. 137, 667685.
Avramidis P. & Kontopoulos N. 2001: Clay minerals distribution,
illite crystallinity and Tmax Rock-Eval pyrolysis of turbidite
deposits in Klematia-Paramythia basin, in relation to Pindos
foreland evolution, western Greece. GAIA 16, 5969.
Avramidis P. & Zelilidis A. 2001: The nature of deep-marine sedi-
mentation and palaeocurrent directions as evidence of Pindos
foreland basin fill conditions. Episodes 24, 4, 252256.
Avramidis P., Zelilidis A., Vakalas I. & Kontopoulos N. 2002: In-
teractions between tectonic activity and eustatic sea-level
changes in the Pindos and Mesohellenic Basins, NW Greece:
basin evolution and hydrocarbon potential. J. Petroleum Geol.
25, 1, 5382.
Bellas S. 1997: Calcareous nannofossils of the Tertiary Flysch (Post
Eocene to Early Miocene of the Ionian Zone in Epirus, NW-
Greece): Taxonomy and biostratigraphical correlations. PhD
thesis, Freie Universität Berlin, 1190.
Bramlette M.N. & Sullivan F.R. 1961: Coccolithophorids and relat-
ed nannoplankton of the early Tertiary in California. Micropal-
eontology 7, 129188.
Bramlette M.N. & Wilcoxon J.A. 1967: Middle Tertiary calcareous
nannoplankton of the Cipero section, Trinidad, W. I. Tulane
Studies Geol. 5, 93131.
British Petroleum Co. Ltd. (B.P.) 1971: The geological results of pe-
troleum exploration in western Greece. Institute for Geology
and Subsurface Research, Special report 10, Athens.
Clews J. 1989: Structural controls on basin evolution: Neogene to
Quaternary of the Ionian zone of western Greece. Journal of
the Geological Society London 146, 447457.
Faupl P., Pavlopoulos A. & Migiros G. 1998: On the provenance of
flysch deposits in the external Hellenides of mainland Greece:
results from heavy mineral studies. Geol. Mag. 135, 3, 412442.
Fleury J.J. 1980: Les zones de Gavrovo-Tripolitza et du Pinde-Olo-
nus (Grèce occidentale et Péloponnese du Nord): evolution
dune plateforme et dune bassin dans leur cadre alpin. Spec.
Publ. Soc. Geol. du Nord 4, 1473.
Institute for Geology Subsurface Research of Greece & Institute
Francais de Pétrole 1966: Etude geologíque de lEpire. Tech-
Leigh S. & Hartley A.J. 1992: Mega-debris flow deposits from the
Oligo-Miocene Pindos foreland basin, western mainland
Greece: implication for transport mechanisms in ancient deep
marine basins. Sedimentology 39, 10031012.
Martini E. 1971: Standard Tertiary and Quaternary calcareous nan-
noplankton zonation. In: Farinacci A. (Ed.): Proceedings 2
Planktonic Conference, Roma, 1970. Edizioni Tecnoscienza,
Rome 2, 739785.
Mutti E. & Ricci Lucchi F. 1972: Turbidites of the northern Apen-
nines introduction to facies analysis. (Transl. T.H. Nilsen
1978). Int. Geol. Rev. 20, 125166.
Mutti E. & Ricci Lucchi F. 1975: Turbidite facies and facies associ-
ations. In: Mutti E., Parea G.C., Ricci Lucchi F., Sagri M., Zan-
zucchi G., Ghibaudo G. & Saccarino (Eds.): Examples of
turbidite facies and facies associations from selected forma-
tions of the northern Apennines. I.A.S. fieldtrip guidebook A-
11, International Sedimentologic Congress IX, 2136.
Perch-Nielsen K. 1985: Mesozoic calcareous nannofossils. Ceno-
zoic calcareous nanno-fossils. In: Bolli H. et al. (Eds.): Plank-
ton Stratigraphy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
Piper D.J.W., Panagos A.G. & Pe-Piper G.G. 1978: Conglomeratic
Miocene flysch, western Greece. J. Sed. Petrology 48, 1,
Underhill J.R. 1989: Late Cenozoic deformation of the Hellenide
foreland, western Greece. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 101, 613634.
Walker R.G. 1978: Deep-water sandstone facies and ancient subma-
rine fans: models for exploration for stratigraphic traps. Amer.
Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull. 62, 932966.
Wilpshaar M. 1995: Applicability of dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy
to the analyses of passive and active tectonic settings. PhD the-
sis, University of Utrecht, Netherlands, 1132.
Zelilidis A., Kontopoulos N., Avramidis P. & Piper D.J.W. 1998:
Tectonic and sedimentological evolution of the Pliocene-Qua-
ternary basins of Zakynthos island, Greece: case study of the
transition from compressional to extensional tectonics. Basin
Res. 10, 4, 393408.