GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA,53,3,BRATISLAVA, JUNE 2002
159 — 178
ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LATE TRIASSIC BACKPLATFORM
AND INTRAPLATFORM BASINS IN THE TRANSDANUBIAN RANGE,
Geological Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/c, 1117 Budapest,
(Manuscript received May 21, 2001; accepted in revised form December 13, 2001)
Abstract: The setting and facies distribution of the Upper Triassic basin formations in the Transdanubian Range of
Hungary clearly reflects the paleo-geodynamic evolution of the northwestern termination of the Neo-Tethys margin.
Westward propagation of the Neo-Tethys continued during the Middle Triassic. By the Late Triassic large carbonate
platforms (Dachstein-type platforms) developed on the continental margin of the newly formed oceanic branch. Progres-
sive rifting led to downfaulting of the external (ocean-ward) margin of the platforms and formation of narrow intraplatform
basins roughly parallel to the platform margin since the Carnian. Some of these basins were already filled up and reoccu-
pied by carbonate platforms in the Triassic but some of them persisted until the Jurassic. Initiation of opening of the
Ligurian-Penninic ocean-branch resulted in rifting and formation of new extensional basins in the Late Norian. In this
way a large basin-system came into being (Kössen Basin) behind the platforms, so that the previous continent-encroach-
ing platform became an isolated platform. The basins were filled up with terrigenous clay and platform-derived carbon-
ate mud by the Late Rhaetian, giving rise to progradation of the platforms onto the former basins. Coeval rifting of the
Neo-Tethys and the Ligurian-Penninic branches led to disintegration and step-by-step drowning of the Dachstein plat-
form system in the Early Jurassic. Although the evolution of the studied basins was mainly tectonically controlled, their
architecture and depositional pattern were influenced by several other factors: climate, sea-level changes and the general
Key words: Transdanubian Range, Upper Triassic, intraplatform basin, carbonate slope, facies analysis.
The Upper Triassic of the Transdanubian Range (TR), Hunga-
ry is made up of platform carbonates and intraplatform basin
deposits. Neo-Tethys rifting in the late Anisian—Ladinian re-
sulted in the formation of relatively large basins in the central
part of the TR. Increased terrigenous influx and shedding of
carbonate mud led to filling up of these basins by the latest
Carnian. The leveled topography made possible the formation
of an extremely extensive carbonate platform system
(Dachstein-type platform). At the same time new basins were
formed in the northeastern part of the TR Unit, and some of
them persisted until the Jurassic. During the Norian new ba-
sins were formed both on the northeastern and southwestern
sides of the TR Unit.
According to the recent paleogeographical reconstructions
the TR Unit was a part of the Neo-Tethys passive margin in
the Late Triassic (Dercourt et al. 1993; Haas et al. 1995a;
Vörös 2000). It may have been located between the South Al-
pine and the Upper Austroalpine realms (Haas et al. 1995a). In
the Northern Calcareous Alps (Upper Austroalpine unit),
backstepping of the platform margin and formation of narrow
basins near the offshore margin were explained by thinning of
the continental crust due to rifting of the Tethys (Lein 1985,
1987) or Neo-Tethys according to the present-day nomencla-
ture. In the Southern Alps, in Lombardy and also in the Car-
nian Fore-Alps, formation of intraplatform basins in the late
Norian was attributed to incipient rifting of the Ligurian-Pied-
mont ocean branch (Jadoul et al. 1992; Carulli et al. 1998). On
the basis of studies of the tensional features of the Late Trias-
sic basins in the Carnian Fore-Alps, Cozzi (2000) emphasized
the role of the westward propagation of the Neo-Tethys in the
Southern Alps as well.
The TR Unit has got good potential for the comparative
study of various intraplatform basins and analysis of their orig-
inal relationships because it represents an almost complete
cross-section of the Neo-Tethys paleomargin and it was affect-
ed only by relatively slight tectonic deformation during the Al-
pine Orogeny. In the last decade, detailed studies have been
carried out to detect the stratigraphy and sedimentological
characteristics of the basins. Majority of the results of these
studies has been published, mainly in Hungarian (Csővár Ba-
sin – Haas et al. 1995b; Hármashatár-hegy Basin – Haas et
al. 2000; Kössen Basin – Haas 1993). These results are only
briefly summarized, occasionally updated and complemented
here, highlighting data on the facies evolution.
The aim of the present paper is to summarize the character-
istics and compare the evolutionary history of the Late Triassic
intraplatform basins in the area of the TR and to consider their
evolution within the structural frame of the region.
Paleogeographical and stratigraphic setting
The Transdanubian Range is located in northwestern Hun-
gary, traversing northern Transdanubia in a NE—SW direction
(Fig. 1). The mountain range is made up predominantly of Tri-
assic formations which also constitute the basement of Tertia-
ry basins SW and NE of the mountains (Fig. 1). According to
recent geodynamic concepts, the TR Unit broke away from its
original location probably in the Late Cretaceous and as a re-
sult of multi-phase dislocations joined with other lithosphere
Fig. 2. Paleogeographical sketch-map of the western Neo-Tethys
and reconstructed location of the Transdanubian Range Unit in the
Fig. 1. A – Location of the study area in Europe and B – within Hungary. C – Upper Triassic formations in the Transdanubian Range
Unit and location of the studied basins.
fragments (terranes) reaching its present-day setting during the
Tertiary (Majoros 1980; Kázmér 1984; Kázmér & Kovács
1985; Balla 1988; Csontos et al. 1992; Haas et al. 1995a). The
reconstruction of the original setting of the present-day TR
Unit (i.e. prior to the major orogenic movements) is based
mainly on fitting of the Late Permian to Triassic facies zones
(Haas et al. 1995a; Haas & Budai 1995). According to these
reconstructions the TR Unit was located at the western termi-
nation of the Neo-Tethys between the South Alpine and Drau-
zug—Upper Austroalpine realms (Fig. 2). For the entire Late
Permian—early Late Triassic interval, a segment of the Neo-
Tethys margin, the present-day TR Unit, shows a definite fa-
cies polarity: its northeastern part represents the seaward side
(which was located closer to the Neo-Tethys Basin), whereas
its southwestern part represents the landward one. This setting
was significantly modified in the latest Triassic—Jurassic due
to rifting of the Ligurian-Penninic ocean branch.
In the Late Permian continental red beds (fluvial-lacustrine
formations) were deposited in the southwestern part of the
area of the TR Unit, whereas evaporitic dolomites of shallow
lagoonal cyclic subtidal—sabkha facies formed in its northeast-
ern part. Transgression in the earliest Triassic (subsequent to
the Permian/Triassic boundary event) led to inundation of the
whole area leading to a shallow ramp setting. On the ramp
mixed siliciclastic—carbonate deposition took place in the Ear-
ly Triassic, which was followed by prevalence of carbonate
deposition in the early Middle Triassic (Early Anisian). In the
Middle Anisian Neo-Tethys rifting led to the formation of ex-
tensional basins in the central part of the TR (Bakony—Balaton
LATE TRIASSIC BACKPLATFORM AND INTRAPLATFORM BASINS 161
Highland area) whereas on the relatively elevated blocks,
small isolated carbonate platforms developed coevally. Dep-
osition of volcanic tuffs from a distal source initiated in the
latest Anisian and repeated at several times till the beginning
of the Carnian. In the Ladinian, coeval deposition of con-
densed pelagic limestone in the basins and shallow marine
carbonates on the platforms continued, with progradation of
the platforms during the sea-level highstands. The segment
of the Neo-Tethys margin, represented by the southwestern
part of the TR (Bakony—Balaton Highland area), was affect-
ed by intense terrigenous influx in the early Carnian, result-
ing in gradual filling of the basins by the late Carnian (see
the stratigraphic chart for the Upper Triassic – Fig. 3). On
the other hand, in the northeastern part of the area of the TR
(Gerecse Mts, Buda Mts, and Danube E-side blocks) contin-
uation of the Neo-Tethys rifting led to disintegration of the
Ladinian platforms and establishment of new extensional in-
traplatform basins in the Carnian. One of them, the Zsámbék
Basin (Gerecse Mts) was also affected by an intense terrige-
nous influx and filled up by the Late Carnian (Haas 1994). In
contrast, the basins in the northeastern part of the TR were
not reached by terrigenous material and thus persisted for a
long time: the Hármashatár-hegy Basin (Buda Mts) at least
until the Rhaetian, and the Csővár Basin (Danube E-side
blocks) also into the early Jurassic. As a consequence of the
filling up of the larger basins in the inner part of the TR seg-
ment of the Neo-Tethys margin, an extremely leveled topog-
raphy came into existence by the Late Carnian. A short-term
subaerial exposure in some parts of the area may also have
contributed to the levelling of the surface (Haas & Budai
1999). Due to the levelled topography, transgression at the
beginning of the Late Tuvalian led to the formation of a huge
platform system (Dachstein-type platforms). In the inner
platform, cyclic peritidal successions were deposited and
pervasively dolomitized under semiarid climatic conditions.
In the segmented outer platform, shallow subtidal oncoidal
limestone was formed. At the beginning of the Late Norian,
initiation of the rifting of the Ligurian-Penninic ocean basin
led to formation of large extensional basins (Kössen-type ba-
sins) in the southwestern part of the TR. Filling of these basins
by fine terrigenous siliciclastics and platform derived carbon-
ates was completed by the late Rhaetian. It was followed by
fast progradation of the platform. Penecontemporaneously a
small intraplatform basin was established in the area of the Pi-
lis Mts (Fekete-hegy Basin) in the northeastern part of the TR,
and filled up by carbonates prior to the Rhaetian.
Facies characteristics and evolution of the basins
The Csővár Basin
In North Hungary, east of the Danube, small outcrops of the
Mesozoic basement occur in fault-bounded, uplifted blocks,
which also belong to the TR Unit. They are made up of Upper
Triassic platform carbonates as a rule. However, one of them,
the Csővár Block, along with platform facies, also contains co-
eval slope and basin facies (Figs. 1, 2).
Fig. 3. Stratigraphic chart for the Upper Triassic of the Transdanubian Range. Abbreviations: F – Feketehegy Formation, D – Dachstein
Limestone, M – Mátyáshegy Formation, Cs – Csővár Formation.
The cherty carbonate sequence was first reported by Szabó
(1860) who tentatively classified it as Liassic. Vadász (1910)
correlated the succession with the “Raibl Beds” and assigned
it to the Carnian. A revision of this chronostratigraphic assign-
ment was suggested by Kozur & Mostler (1973) who found
Upper Norian microfossils in the Pokol-völgy quarry. Detre et
al. (1988) determined Upper Norian ammonoids, Kozur &
Mock (1991) and Haas et al. (1997) reported Rhaetian macro-
and microfossils from the same quarry. Kozur (1993) found
Hettangian and Sinemurian radiolarian fauna in samples taken
from the Vár-hegy (Castle Hill). A preliminary report on the
biostratigraphy of the Triassic/Jurassic boundary section on
the Vár-hegy was published by Pálfy & Dosztály (1999).
In the northwestern part of the Csővár Block, thick-bedded
Upper Carnian-Norian oncoidal limestone, that is the oncoidal
facies of the Dachstein Limestone with bioconstructed patch-
reefs (Nézsa Member) crops out. In a few outcrops, rudstones
and floatstones representing the foreslope facies of the reef
In the southeastern part of the block, thin-bedded, cherty do-
lomite and limestone (Csővár Limestone Formation) are ex-
posed in a quarry and outcrops. The field observations were
complemented by core data. Core Csv-1 exposed an approxi-
mately 600 m-thick part of the Csővár Formation, representing
the Upper Carnian—Lower Rhaetian interval (Haas et al.
1995). In the borehole, above a major low-angle fault, cherty
dolomite (Pokolvölgy Dolomite Member – Carnian) was en-
countered in a thickness of 100 m. It was followed by thin-
bedded, laminated, locally cherty limestone of basin and toe-
Interpreted depositional setting
Fine calcirudite– coarse calcarenite gr, p
Crinoid and mollusc fragments
Coarse calcarenite gr, p, w
Brachiopods, molluscs, ostracodes
Redeposited bioclastic wackestone (Rb)
Coarse calcarenite w
Crinoids, benthic foraminifers,
Proximal turbidite (Pt)
Coarse calcarenite p
Crinoids, molluscs, bethic foraminifers,
microbial crust fagments
Distal turbidite (Dt)
peloidal p, and sponge spicule w alternate
crinoids, molluscs, ostracodes, sponge
Very distal turbidite (Vt)
Laminitic: calcisilt and calcilutite alternate, w
Sponge spicule facies (S)
Calcisilt, calcilutite w
Sponge spicules, crinoids, filaments,
Filament facies (F)
Calcisilt, calcilutite w
Filaments, radiolarians, echinoderm fragments
Radiolarian facies (R)
Calcisilt, calcilutite w
Radiolarians, sponge spicules
Filaments, echinoderm fragments
Condensed radiolarian facies (Ra)
Radiolarians (very abundant), sponge spicules
Table 1: Lithofacies types of the Csővár Formation. Abbreviations: gr – grainstone, p – packstone, w – wackestone.
of-slope facies. The upper part of the Csővár Formation (Rha-
etian) is exposed in the Pokol-völgy quarry (Haas et al. 1995)
and outcrops on the steep southwestern slope of the Vár-hegy.
The Triassic/Jurassic boundary can be drawn within the
Csővár Formation (Pálfy & Dosztály 1999). As to their sedi-
mentological features, there is no significant difference be-
tween the Upper Triassic and the Hettangian part of the forma-
tion. The probably Sinemurian (Kozur 1993) cherty limestone
layers, cropping out at the top of the Vár-hegy, are of deeper
The characteristics of the distinguished lithofacies types of
the Csővár Formation are summarized in Table 1 and Fig. 4.
The results of facies analysis of core Csv-1 were presented by
Haas et al. (1995). In this paper only the uppermost (Upper
Norian—Lower Rhaetian) segment of the core section is pre-
sented (Fig. 5) for the sake of comparison with the time-equiv-
alent basinal sections in the TR. Sections of the Pokol-völgy
quarry and the Vár-hegy trench are shown in Figs. 6 and 7, re-
The sedimentological features and fossil assemblage of the
Csővár Formation point to a toe-of-slope depositional environ-
ment, as well as slope to basin transitional zone. This paleo-
environmental setting is indicated by gravity-flow deposits
(debris-flow deposits, graded, allodapic limestone etc.) and
frequent occurrence of remnants of platform biota, together
with typical pelagic fossil elements (Haas et al. 1995). The
major facies units can be characterized as follows:
Carbonate platform – Platform carbonates, coeval with the
Csővár Formation (Upper Carnian—Norian) are known in the
LATE TRIASSIC BACKPLATFORM AND INTRAPLATFORM BASINS 163
Fig. 4. Characteristic microfacies of the Csővár Formation. A – Lithoclastic—bioclastic facies (Lb). Mollusc shell fragments, echino-
derm fragments and intraclasts. Scale bar: 0.5 mm. A part of a larger lithoclast is visible at the left margin of the microphotograph. B –
Oncoidal—grapestone facies (On). Scale bar: 0.5 mm. C – Redeposited bioclastic wackestone facies (Rb). Microbially encrusted particle
is visible in the central part of the microphotograph. Scale bar: 0.1 mm. D – Proximal turbidite (Pt). Basal part of a turbidite layer with
crinoid ossicles and mollusk shell fragments. Scale bar: 0.5 mm. E – Distal turbidite (Dt). Scale bar: 0.5 mm. F – Very distal turbidite
(Vt). Scale bar: 0.2 mm. G – Filament facies (F). Scale bar: 0.2 mm. H – Radiolarian facies. Scale bar: 0.2 mm.
vicinity of the study area (see Fig. 2). The nearest occurrence
of coeval platform carbonates, which can be classified as
Dachstein Limestone Formation, is located northwest of the
Pokol-völgy quarry, at a distance of 2 km. Patch-reef and on-
coidal facies occur, indicating the marginal zone of a carbon-
Slope – Rudstone and floatstone consisting of coarse detri-
tus of reefal limestone.
Proximal toe-of-slope – Debris-flow deposits, that is litho-
clasts of various size and rudite—calcarenite-sized bioclast in
mudstone—wackestone matrix characterize this depositional
zone (Fig. 8).
Distal toe-of-slope – Predominance of turbiditic deposition
characterizes this depositional environment. Above erosional
surfaces (locally erosional channels), allodapic limestone,
showing features of the classic Bouma sequence, are visible,
alternating with laminitic limestone, that is fine-grained tur-
bidites, deposited from low-density turbidity currents.
Pelagic basin – In the inner basin, relatively far from the
slope, pelagic oozes (filament or radiolarian oozes) were de-
Fig. 5. Lithology, microfacies types and facies interpretation of the
uppermost part of Csv-1 core. Abbreviations: M – mudstone, W –
wackestone, P – packstone, G – grainstone, DF – debris flow de-
posit (debrite); Rb – Redeposited bioclastic facies, Rc – crinoidal
grainstone, Dt – distal turbidite, Vt – very distal turbidite, F –
filament facies, R – radiolorian facies; Pl – carbonate platform,
S – slope, T – toe-of-slope, B – basin.
Fig. 6. Lithology, microfacies types and facies interpretation of a
composite section in the Pokolvölgy quarry. For legend and expla-
nation of abbreviations see Fig. 5.
LATE TRIASSIC BACKPLATFORM AND INTRAPLATFORM BASINS 165
posited as a rule. Fine lamination, that is, alternation of cal-
cisilt and mudstone laminae, is common. It can be interpreted
as a very distal, low-density turbidite. Calcarenitic turbidites
are rare and very thin (mm-thick).
Basin evolution is summarized in Fig. 9. The Upper Car-
nian—Norian succession encountered in the Csv-1 core shows
a fairly clear trend. In the lower part of the succession, the pre-
dominance of the basin facies is characteristic, whereas distal
toe-of-slope facies prevails upward, thus suggesting platform
progradation. Within this long-term trend, short-term facies
changes can also be seen. These may reflect sea-level changes.
An increasing amount of microfossils of platform-interior ori-
gin probably indicates highstand intervals (high-stand shed-
ding – Reijmer & Everaars 1991; Reijmer et al. 1992; Schla-
ger et al. 1994).
Fig. 8. Debrite intercalation in a distal turbidite succession. Large
plasticlasts and lithoclasts occur in the debrite bed. Pokolvölgy
In the early part of the Rhaetian, represented by the basal
layers of the Pokol-völgy quarry a remarkable facies change
could be recognized. Appearance of a large amount of larger
plant fragments (among them an imprint of a pine-cone – J.
Oravecz pers. comm.) and sporomorphs of continental plants
(Haas et al. 1995), suggests a significant sea-level drop, when
large parts of the former platforms may have been subaerially
exposed and restriction of the intraplatform basin increased
The appearance of proximal toe-of-slope facies in the higher
part of the quarry can be bound to sea-level rise, when reefs
(bioherms) were formed on the upper slope, whereas a large
part of the neighbouring platform remained probably emerged,
thus providing a relatively large amount of sporomorphs of
continental plants for the basin. This model can also explain
why the inner-platform foraminifers are missing in the Rha-
etian part of the Csővár Formation.
According to the study of the Vár-hegy section, an upward-
deepening trend characterizes the latest Rhaetian. The distal
turbidites are followed by laminitic layers, that is very distal
turbidites and then filament wackestones of basin facies. A
thin debris-flow layer was found at the T/J boundary interval,
which was determined by ammonites (Pálfy & Dosztály 2000)
and conodonts (Pálfy et al. 2001). This was followed by distal
turbidites and pelagic basin facies, which probably already be-
long to the Jurassic.
The Hármashatár-hegy Basin
In the Buda Mountains, Upper Triassic cherty dolomite and
limestone of basin facies have been known since the 19th cen-
Fig. 7. Lithology, microfacies types and facies interpretation of
the Vár-hegy trench. For legend see Fig. 5, for explanation of ab-
breviation see Table 1.
tury (Hofmann 1871). On the basis of a few fossils, they were
classified into the Middle—Upper Carnian (Schafarzik 1902;
Lőrenthey 1907). In the same area, thick-bedded dolomites
with Upper Carnian molluscs and without chert were also en-
countered. Accordingly, the concept of coeval shallow and
deep marine Late Triassic facies already emerged in the 1920s.
The juxtaposition of the significantly different facies was ex-
plained by Horusitzky (1943, 1959) by a nappe structure. On
the other hand, Wein (1977) attributed the facies differences to
the paleogeographical setting, assuming subparallel basins
separated by submarine highs. In 1993, Kozur & Mock report-
ed Carnian—Rhaetian age data from the cherty basin facies in
the Hármashatár-hegy Range. In 1992, a core boring (Vh-1)
penetrated a 200 m-thick succession of the Upper Triassic ba-
sin and slope facies, which provided data of outstanding im-
portance from both stratigraphic and sedimentological points
of view. Detailed analyses of the core samples and new con-
cepts on carbonate platform and foreslope evolution inspired a
comprehensive re-evaluation of the existing data and the re-
sults of the new studies (Haas et al. 2000).
The geological setting of the Upper Triassic basin and plat-
form facies is shown in Fig. 10. Cherty basin facies occur in
two ranges, in the southwestern and northeastern side of the
Buda Mts, respectively. They are separated by coeval platform
facies. The time/space relationship of the basin and platform
formations are presented in Fig. 3.
The lithology, chronostratigraphic subdivision and results of
petrographic and microfacies studies, as well as facies inter-
pretation of core Vh-1, which exposed the Upper Norian—Rha-
etian part of the Mátyáshegy Formation are shown in Fig. 11.
The characteristic facies types recognized in the core section
are presented in Table 2 and Figs. 12, 13.
A general depositional model for the Late Norian—Rha-
etian part of the Mátyáshegy Formation based mainly on the
studies of the microfacies and organic matter in core Vh-1, is
shown in Fig. 14. A high-productivity intraplatform basin,
partially separated from the open sea by isolated platforms
and islands, was the site of deposition. From the ambient
platform, bioclasts and lithoclasts were transported into the
basin and deposited at the toe of the slope. The semi-consoli-
dated sediments were commonly affected by synsedimentary
The main facies units can be characterized as follows:
Carbonate platform – Platform carbonates (Fődolomit =
Hauptdolomit and oncoidal Dachstein Limestone), of the same
age of the Mátyáshegy Formation (Upper Carnian—Rhaetian)
are known in the neighborhood of the outcrops of basinal de-
posits. Near to the paleomargin of the platform, peculiar fossil
assemblages (e.g. ammonites in platform facies) occur.
Proximal toe-of-slope – Polymict and monomict breccia
represent the talus of the steep slope, whereas debrites char-
acterize the more gentle outer part of the toe-of-slope fan.
Interpreted depositional setting
Sedimentary breccia (Br)
Monomict or polymict intraformational
Redeposited bioclastic (Rb)
Calcisilt – coarse calcarenite, w
Crinoids, Tubiphytes, benthic foraminifers
Distal turbidite (Dt)
Graded fine calcarenite, peloidal, bioclastic
gr and peloidal p–w alternate
Peloidal wackestone (Pw)
Calcisilt w, peloids, bioclasts
Filaments, ostracodes, echinoiderm
fragments, radiolarians, algal cysts, sponge
basin (hemipelagic deposit)
Sponge spicule facies (S)
Calcisilt, calcilutite w
Radiolarians, algal cysts, ostracodes,
Radiolarian facies (R)
Calcisilt, calcilutite w, p
Radiolarians (molds — very abundant),
sponge spicules, filaments, ostracodes
Algal cyst facies (Ac)
Calcisilt, calcilutite w, p
Cysts of Tasmanites-type algae (very
abundant), ostracodes, phytoclasts
Homogenous mudtstone–wackestone (Ho)
Calcilutite m, w
Phytoclasts, filaments, ostracodes, algal
Alternation of microsparite and fine
phytoclastic, organic rich laminae
Algal cysts, ostracodes, echinoderm
Silty marl (Sm)
Argillaceous mudstone with significant
amount of siliciclastic silt, laminitic
Globular molds, sponge spicules, ostracodes
oxygen-depleted basin with terrigenous
Table 2: Lithofacies types of the Mátyáshegy Formation in the Vh-1 core.
LATE TRIASSIC BACKPLATFORM AND INTRAPLATFORM BASINS 167
Fig. 9. Late Triassic facies models and facies changes in the Csővár Basin. Abbreviations: is – island, pl – platform, sl – slope, ts – toe-
of-slope, fr – fringing reef, b – basin, f – filament facies, r – radiolarian facies.
Fig. 10. Triassic formations of the Buda Mts, showing extension of the Upper Triassic platform and basin facies (after Haas et al. 2000).
Synsedimentary microfaults and slump structures are also
Distal toe-of-slope – Deposition of fine-grained lithoclastic
and bioclastic wackestone characterize this facies zone.
Among the bioclasts fragments of crinoids, molluscs and detri-
tus of microbial encrustations are predominant, along with for-
aminifers and ostracods of platform origin (Haas et al. 2000).
Graded peloidal fine bioclastic turbidites also occur, but rarely.
Fig. 11. Lithology, microfacies types and facies interpretation of Vh-1 core. For explanation of abbreviations see Table 2.
Oxygenated basin facies – Peloidal wackestone, sponge
spicule wackestone—packstone, algal cyst-bearing and radi-
olarian wackestone—packstone and homogenous, bioturbated
mudstone—wackestone deposits were formed in the more oxy-
genated, probably shallower parts of the basin.
Oxygen-depleted basin facies – The very finely laminated,
organic-rich carbonate or shale (mudstone—wackestone) was
deposited in the stagnant, probably deepest, parts of the basin.
LATE TRIASSIC BACKPLATFORM AND INTRAPLATFORM BASINS 169
Fig. 12. Characteristic microfacies of the Mátyáshegy Formation in the Vh-1 core. A – Redeposited bioclastic facies (Rb) with calcare-
ous sponge fragments. Scale bar: 0.1 mm. B – Redeposited bioclastic facies (Rb). Scale bar: 0.2 mm. C – Redeposited bioclastic facies
(Rb). Scale bar: 0.2 mm. D – Distal turbidite (Dt). Scale bar: 0.2 mm. E – Sponge spicule facies (S). Scale bar: 0.2 mm. F – Radiolar-
ian facies (R) with discontinuous organic rich seams. Scale bar 0.2 mm. G – Algal cyst (Ac). Scale bar: 0.1 mm. H – Laminitic facies
(La). Scale bar: 0.5 mm.
Fig. 13. Organic-rich laminitic calcareous marl (laminitic facies).
Core Vh-1, 128.9. Scale bar: 2 cm.
The early evolution of the Hármashatár-hegy Basin is poor-
ly known. During the Julian (Kozur & Mock 1993) above the
former platform (Budaörs Dolomite) a relatively shallow basin
came into being where platy dolomite was formed. There are
no biostratigraphic data for the Late Carnian—Early Norian in-
terval, but survival of the basin can be assumed. Cherty dolo-
mite and limestone of pelagic basin facies make up the pre-
dominant part of the Hármashatár-hegy Range. On the basis of
the study of core Vh-1 a more detailed evolutionary history
could be presented for the Late Norian—Rhaetian interval (for
details see: Haas et al. 2000).
Laminitic dolomite, rich in organic material, locally with
microlayers rich in radiolarians or cysts of Tasmanites-type al-
gae, is the most characteristic rock type in the Upper Norian
part of the succession. It may have been formed in a restricted
basin of layered water mass. The high-productivity upper wa-
ter layer must have been rich in nutrients, whereas decay of or-
ganic material led to oxygen depletion in the lower water lay-
er. Establishment of nutrient-rich surface water conditions can
be explained by upwelling. The nutrient-rich water may have
reached the restricted basin via intraplatform channels. At the
water/sediment interface, anoxic conditions came into exist-
ence providing ideal condition for anaerobic bacteria activity.
Fig. 14. Sedimentological model for the Hármashatár-hegy Basin.
Size of O
symbols refers to the oxygen content of the water. For ex-
planation of the abbreviations see Table 2.
The microbial sulphate reduction, removing the inhibitor sul-
phate from the system, allowed the dolomite to precipitate
(microbial dolomite model – Vasconcelos & McKenzie
1998). Synsedimentary microfaults, fractures, slump struc-
tures and sedimentary breccia are common in the lower and
middle parts of the core section. They indicate sliding of the
more or less consolidated sediments on a gentle slope.
The upper part of the core section is practically free of dolo-
mite. It may reflect more humid climatic conditions, that is
less effective water layering in the basin. Increasing kaolinite
content and interlayers rich in silt-sized siliciclastics also sug-
gest increasing humidity. The predominance of the laminitic
microfacies does not change, but graded distal turbidite layers
appear and basin facies with sponge spicules, radiolarians and
Tasmanites-type algal cysts are also common.
The Fekete-hegy Basin
In a small area in the Pilis Mts, in the northeastern part of
the TR, a dark grey, thin-bedded dolomite and limestone se-
quence crops out (Fig. 2). It probably overlies the Fődolomit
(Hauptdolomit)—Dachstein Limestone transitional unit, al-
though their boundary is not exposed, and it is conformably
overlain by the Dachstein Limestone (Fig. 3).
Stache (1866) first reported the occurrence of dark, thin-
bedded limestone, rich in bivalves. Schafarzik (1884) de-
scribed it as a fossil-rich segment of the Dachstein Limestone.
Lóczy sen. (1913) considered it to belong to the “Kössen
Beds”. Oravecz (1961) proposed the name “Feketehegy Beds”
(which was later modified to Feketehegy Formation) and clari-
fied the stratigraphic setting of the formation.
The lower part of the 400 to 500 m-thick formation is made
up of dark grey, thin-bedded dolomite. Upsection it grades to
brownish grey or dark grey, thin-bedded limestone (peloidal
mudstone and skeletal wackestone). Intercalations of thicker,
graded lithoclastic—bioclastic and ooidic—oncoidal calcarenite
beds and cross-bedded mollusc coquinas are common. In the
mudstone—wackestone layers, along with ostracods and
sponge spicules, a monospecific conodont fauna Metapolyg-
natus slovakensis (Kozur) indicating the boundary of the Mid-
dle and Upper Norian was found (Budai & Kovács 1986;
Kovács & Nagy 1989). The coquina beds are characterized by
the massive occurrence of bivalves (Avicula, Halobia, Myo-
concha, Gervilleia, Myophoria, etc. – Fig. 15) and gastro-
pods (Euomphalus, Worthemia, Noritopsis, Coelostylina, etc.).
Ammonoids (Rhabdoceras suessi Mojs., Arcestes, Paraplac-
ites, Megaphyllites) also occur (Oravecz 1961, 1987). The oc-
currence of Rhabdoceras suessi Mojs. proves the Sevatian age
of the upper part of the formation.
The Feketehegy Formation was deposited in a small, re-
stricted intraplatform basin (Fekete-hegy Basin) which proba-
bly began forming in the Middle Norian. Restricted conditions
of the basin are also evidenced by the monospecific conodont
fauna. The sedimentological features of the succession point to
a gentle slope (ramp) between the basin and the ambient plat-
form. The ooid and oncoid grains and some of the bioclasts are
of platform margin—inner ramp origin. The coquinas and the
graded calcarenite beds are probably storm layers, which were
formed on the mid-ramp, that is above the storm wave-base.
LATE TRIASSIC BACKPLATFORM AND INTRAPLATFORM BASINS 171
Fig. 15. Bivalve (Avicula) coquina in the Feketehegy Formation. Fekete-hegy key section. Scale bar: 2 cm.
The relatively shallow basin was filled up by the latest Norian
giving rise to extension of the platform system (Dachstein
Limestone) onto the area of the former basin.
The Kössen Basin
In the southwestern part of the TR Unit (South Bakony,
Keszthely Mts, North Zala Basin) platy dolomite (Rezi Dolo-
mite) and dark shale (Kössen Formation) of restricted basin fa-
cies represent the Late Norian to Early—Middle Rhaetian inter-
In the southwestern part of the Southern Bakony and also in
the Keszthely Mts, already in 1913 Lóczy sen. distinguished
the platy dolomite from the bedded Fődolomit (= Hauptdolo-
mit). Noszky (1958) referred to it as “Kössen Dolomite” be-
cause it contained a “Kössen-type” fossil assemblage. Bohn
(1979) defined it as Rezi Dolomite Formation.
The 150 to 300 m-thick Rezi Dolomite conformably over-
lays the Fődolomit. It is made up of platy, laminated dolomite
with lithoclastic—bioclastic interlayers and slump structures.
Mollusc coquinas are common mainly in the upper part of the
formation. In the Keszthely Mts a thick-bedded dasycladacean
dolomite intercalation (150—170 m in thickness) occurs in the
middle part of the formation, which can be interpreted as a
tongue of the Fődolomit.
In the lower part of the succession conodonts indicating the
boundary between the Middle and Upper Norian were found
(Budai & Kovács 1986).
The Kössen Formation overlays the Rezi Dolomite and ex-
tends over it northeastward, interfingering with the Dachstein
The term “Kössen Beds” was introduced by Oppel (1854) in
the Northern Calcareous Alps. Böckh (1872) applied the term
in the TR. Later on, the term of Kössen Beds was used with
many different meanings, both in the TR and the Northern
Calcareous Alps. At present it is applied to dark, shaly—calcar-
eous sequences deposited in restricted, oxygen-depleted basins
(Kuss 1983; Haas 1993). In the Southern Alps (Lombardy) the
Riva di Solto Shale and the cyclic Zu Limestone shows close
facies relationships with the Kössen Formation (Stefani &
In the Zala Basin, in the southwestern part of the TR Unit,
the approximately 500 m-thick Kössen Formation is made up
predominantly of shale. It is overlain by Upper Rhaetian-Het-
tangian platform limestone.
In the Keszthely Mts the thickness of the formation may
have reached 300 m, but its topmost part has been eroded. This
succession is exposed in the core Rezi-1 (Fig. 16). Above a
thin transitional interval (consisting of dolomite, limestone
and shale), the Kössen Formation begins with alternating li-
thoclastic—bioclastic slope deposits and laminitic restricted ba-
sin facies. On the basis of sporomorphs, the Norian/Rhaetian
boundary could be recognized in this interval (Góczán 1987).
Upsection it is overlain by monotonous shale of inner basin fa-
Northeast of this area, in the westernmost part of the South
Bakony, the Kössen Formation is made up of cyclic alternation
of carbonate and shale intervals (Fig. 17). According to the fa-
cies studies, the carbonate beds were formed in shallow sub-
tidal, the shale layers in deeper subtidal environments (Haas
1993). Further northeastward, the shale layers pinch out within
the Dachstein Limestone (Fig. 18).
A general depositional model for the Kössen Basin in the
TR Unit is shown in Fig. 19. The main stages and controlling
factors of the basin evolution can be summarized as follows.
The Kössen Basin, that is the site of deposition of the Rezi
and Kössen Formations, began forming at the end of the Mid-
dle Norian as a result of extensional tectonics that led to disin-
tegration of the previously existing large carbonate platform.
In the early stage of the evolution of the basin, platy dolomites
(Rezi Dolomite) were formed. Intercalation of platform dolo-
mite into the platy basin succession indicates progradation of
the platform facies during highstanding sea-level, which was
followed by a new transgression. An intense, climate-induced
terrigenous influx led to shale deposition in the latest Norian.
As a consequence, in the inner part of the 100 to 150 m-deep
basin, argillaceous marl, marl, and siltstone, rich in organic
material, were deposited under stagnant, oxygen-depleted con-
ditions. The gentle slope (distally steepened ramp – Read
1982) between the basin and the ambient platform was popu-
lated by a rich epibenthic bivalve fauna, whereas the upper
slope (shallow ramp) was inhabited by shallow subtidal bio-
ta. Redeposited remnants of the aforementioned organisms
were accumulated at the toe of the slope together with frag-
ments of lithified or semilithified sediment (Fig. 20). The li-
thoclasts and plasticlasts originated from the shallower parts
of the ramp.
Fig. 17. Lithology and interpretation of relative sea level changes in
the core Sümeg Süt-17. For legend see Fig. 16. Abbreviations:
HTS – highstand systems tract, TST – transgressive systems tract.
Fig. 16. Lithology, sedimentary structures and facies interpretation
of core Rezi-1.
LATE TRIASSIC BACKPLATFORM AND INTRAPLATFORM BASINS 173
Sedimentological analysis of the sections revealed that sea-
level changes significantly controlled the features of the suc-
cession (Haas 1993; Haas & Budai 1995, 1999). In the area of
the Keszthely Mts, the toe-of-slope facies in the lower part of
the Kössen Formation is overlain by a laminitic deeper basin
facies reflecting sea-level rise in the early Rhaetian. At the cli-
max of the transgression, the clayey basin facies extended over
the upper slope and even some parts of the platform. This was
followed by regression in the highstand interval when the
Dachstein Platform re-occupied a large part of the former ba-
sin. This third order cycle is superimposed by higher order
order) transgression-regression cycles. It
is clearly demonstrated in the cyclic successions of the wide
gentle slope (ramp) between the Dachstein Platform and the
Facies relationships and summary of Late Triassic
In the TR Unit, segmentation of the practically undifferenti-
ated ramp began in the Middle Anisian. It was attributed to the
Neo-Tethys rifting (Budai & Vörös 1992, 1993; Haas & Budai
1995). It is worth mentioning that this rifting affected the cen-
tral part of the TR (Balaton Highland) whereas in the north-
eastern part of the TR a large carbonate platform came into ex-
istence in the Ladinian.
Segmentation of the Budaörs Platform was initiated in the
Early Carnian (Julian). The Zsámbék Basin (basement of a
Tertiary basin W of the Buda Mts and the southwestern part of
the Buda Mts—Sas-hegy Range) and the Hármashatár-hegy
Basin (northeastern part of the Buda Mts—Hármashatár-hegy
Range) began forming at this time and most probably the evo-
lution of the Csővár Basin also began at the same time.
The Zsámbék Basin was affected by intense influx of fine
siliciclastics (“Reingraben Event” – Lein 1987) leading to
the complete filling of the basin by the latest Carnian (Late
Tuvalian) and establishment of carbonate platform condi-
tions (deposition of the Fődolomit Formation) in the area of
the former basin (Haas 1994; Góczán & Oravecz-Scheffer
In contrast, the Hármashatár-hegy Basin and the Csővár Ba-
sin received only poor terrigenous siliciclastic influx and fault-
controlled steep slopes did not favour platform progradation.
Therefore these intraplatform basins persisted for a long time.
A tectonically tranquil interval occurred during the latest
Carnian to middle Norian, giving rise to the complete building
up of the Dachstein platform-system. In the Csővár Basin,
slow and small-scale progradation of the platform took place
coevally (Haas 1997).
Fig. 18. Relationship of the coeval Kössen and Dachstein Formations in the SW part of the Transdanubian Range, along a SW—NE section.
At the end of the mid-Norian, extensional tectonics led to
formation of new basins in the area belonging to the SW part
of the present-day TR Unit. Consequently, the continent-en-
croaching Dachstein Platform was transformed into an isolat-
ed platform. This process, that is the initial stage of evolution
of the large Kössen Basin system, was roughly coeval with on-
set of the development of the small Fekete-hegy Basin (north-
eastern part of the TR). In the Hármashatár-hegy Basin, litho-
clastic intercalations in the Mátyáshegy Formation may indi-
cate tectonic rejuvenation of the basin-bounding fault system.
The back-stepping trend of the toe-of-slope facies zones in the
Csővár Basin can be explained by down-faulting of the plat-
form margin, roughly at the same time.
In the latest part of the Late Norian a significant change oc-
curred in the sediment deposition of the Kössen Basin. Pure
carbonate (dolomite) deposition was replaced by deposition of
argillaceous sediments, probably reflecting a marked climatic
change. More arid conditions were replaced by more humid
ones, leading to an enhanced terrigenous siliciclastic influx
(Haas 1994). In the Hármashatár-hegy Basin, the dolomite and
dolomitic marl are substituted by limestone and silty marl,
roughly in the same period (Haas et al. 2000).
The evolution of the Kössen Basin came to an end by rapid
progradation of the Dachstein Platform in the late Rhaetian. In
the area belonging to the southwestern part of the present-day
TR Unit, development of the carbonate platform system con-
tinued until the end of the Hettangian, whereas in the north-
eastern part of the TR Unit, disintegration, unequal subsidence
and drowning of the Dachstein Platform began at the end of
The relationship of the Late Triassic facies and evolutionary
history of the depositional area of the TR Unit can be ex-
plained by double rifting as a consequence of coeval westward
progression of the Neo-Tethys and eastward opening of the
Ligurian-Penninic ocean basins. Formation of the new exten-
sional basins in the northeastern part of the TR, that is near to
the margin of the Neo-Tethys shelf, can be attributed to Neo-
Tethys rifting. Segmentation of the wide continent margin was
interrupted in the latest Carnian. A new extensional period be-
gan at the end of the Middle Norian, affecting mainly the area
represented by the southwestern part of the TR Unit, which
Fig. 20. Characteristic lithofacies of the Kössen Formation. A –
Organic rich laminite (calcareous marl) with a bioclastic slump in-
terlayer. Core Rezi-4, 105 m. B – Lithoclasts and plastoclasts in a
slump bed. Core Rezi-4, 50 m. Scale bar: 1 cm.
Fig. 19. Sedimentological model for the Early Rhaetian Kössen Basin. Size of O
symbols refers to the oxygen content of the water.
LATE TRIASSIC BACKPLATFORM AND INTRAPLATFORM BASINS 175
was originally located close to the later Ligurian ocean basin.
Therefore this process can be attributed to Ligurian-Penninic
rifting. Disintegration and drowning of the platforms resumed
at the very end of the Rhaetian in the northeastern part of the
TR, probably reflecting the rejuvenation of Neo-Tethys rift-
ing in this time. This was followed by the disruption of the
large platform in the southwestern part of the TR from the
Early Sinemurian on, which can be linked to Ligurian-Pen-
Facies and paleogeographical relationships outside
the TR Unit
Remnants of the huge Dachstein platform-system are well
known in the Central Western Carpathians (Michalík 1980,
1993; Haas et al. 1995b), Upper Austroalpine (Zankl 1967,
1971; Tollmann 1976; Fruth & Scherreiks 1982; Haas et al.
1995a) and South Alpine units (Bosellini & Hardie 1988;
Ogorelec 1999) and also in the Dinarides (Dimitrijevic &
Dimitrijevic 1991), that is in various segments of the Neo-
Tethys passive margins.
The relationships of the segment of the Kössen Basin in the
TR with that of the classic Kössen facies area in the Upper
Austroalpine realm appears to be plausible. Similarities with
the Riva di Solto Basin in the Southern Alps have also been
documented (Haas 1993; Haas et al. 1995; Haas & Budai
1995). In the Hauptdolomit facies zone of the Northern Cal-
careous Alps (Bajuvaricum and parts of the Tirolicum), the
Kössen Formation conformably overlies the Upper Norian
Plattenkalk (thin-bedded dolomite and limestone) which is
similar to the Rezi Dolomite. Akin to the situation in the TR,
by the Late Rhaetian, large parts of the basin were filled up
with shale and limestone, and the carbonate platforms were re-
established (“Oberrhät” Limestone). In the Dachstein Lime-
stone facies zone the Kössen Formation pinches out. It occurs
only in the most external part of the Tirolicum as a thin inter-
calation within the Dachstein Limestone (Golebiowsky 1990).
In Lombardy, the tectonic segmentation of the Dolomia
Principale Platform led to the formation of smaller intraplat-
form basins, site of deposition of the Aralata Group, consisting
of organic-rich carbonates (Jadoul 1985; Jadoul et al. 1992).
This was followed by deposition of the Riva di Solto Shale, of
a much greater lateral extension. The facies change has been
attributed to a significant climatic change and sea-level rise
(Burchell et al. 1990). The Riva di Solto Shale is overlain by
the Zu Formation, consisting of shale-limestone cycles with a
shallowing upward facies trend. In the Late Rhaetian the plat-
form carbonates re-occupied the former basin (Conchodon
The relationships of the Hármashatár-hegy and the Csővár
Basins beyond the TR are much less known. The Csővár For-
mation shows very close similarity to the Pötschen Limestone
(Schlager 1967), a characteristic Norian formation of the Hall-
statt facies unit of the Northern Calcareous Alps and the Inner
Western Carpathians. As far as the Rhaetian is concerned, the
predominantly carbonate lithology of the Csővár Formation
significantly differs from that of the contemporaneous Zlam-
bach Marl of the Hallstatt facies unit. In contrast, the Rhaetian
segment of the Mátyáshegy Formation is akin to the Zlambach
Formation in terms of its biofacies and lithofacies characteris-
tics. It is worth mentioning that toe-of-slope facies containing
detritus of the Dachstein Reef Limestone was also reported
from the Zlambach Marl in the Northern Calcareous Alps
(Janoschek & Matura 1980).
Detailed sedimentological investigations of the Pötschen
Limestone section in the Gosau Valley were carried out by
Reijmer (1991). His studies revealed that the succession was
made up of calciturbidites containing mainly pelagic material,
that is planktonic or pseudo-planktonic bioclasts in fine car-
bonate mud. The lithofacies and biofacies in the Csv-1 core
show features very similar to those described by Reijmer
(1991) but due to the lack of continuous core detailed studies
of the facies changes and cyclicity could not be carried out.
Calciturbidites in the Rhaetian part of the Csővár Formation
show practically the same characteristics as were observed by
Reijmer (1991) in the Pötschen Limestone, with the exception
of debrite interbeds that were not reported in the studied sec-
tion of the Pötschen Limestone.
The Pötschen Limestone is also known in the Silica and Tor-
na Nappe (it is slightly metamorphosed in the latter unit) in
North Hungary (Aggtelek—Rudabánya Mts), as well as in Slo-
vakia. In the Silica Nappe it consists of grey, thin-bedded cher-
ty limestone with Halobia coquina interbeds. In the lower part
of the formation intraconglomeratic and allodapic crinoidal in-
tercalations are common (Balogh & Kovács 1981). The most
frequent radiolarian and radiolarian-filament microfacies rep-
resent basin facies, whereas crinoidal coquinas and intracon-
glomerates indicate toe-of-slope depositional environments.
The formation has been dated to the Tuvalian to Early—Middle
Norian mainly on the basis of conodonts (Kovács 1986). In the
Silica Nappe the Upper Norian—Rhaetian is represented by the
Zlambach Marl consisting of brownish-grey marl with grey
limestone interlayers. Due to its significantly higher terrige-
nous content this part of the sequence differs considerably
from the Rhaetian part of the Csővár Formation, but is akin to
the Rhaetian of the Mátyáshegy Formation. The Zlambach
Marl is overlain by the Liassic “fleckenmergel” facies in the
territory of Slovakia.
In the Carnic Fore-Alps, in the eastern part of the Southern
Alps, Upper Triassic facies akin to those in the Buda Mts were
reported (Crauli et al. 1988; Cozzi & Podda 1998). Among the
carbonate platforms that made up the Norian Dolomia Princi-
pale and Rhaetian Dachstein Limestone, small intraplatform
basins occur. In the basins Norian cherty dolomite (Dolomia di
Forni) and Rhaetian to Liassic limestone were formed. The
platforms are bounded by N—S and NE—SW-trending synsedi-
mentary listric faults (Cozzi 2000). At the foot of the faults,
megabreccia was accumulated; further on, graded doloarenites
and in the inner part of the basins distal turbidites and mud-
stone facies were reported (Cozzi & Podda 1998).
In the Southern Karavanks (in a section between Mittagsko-
gel and Hahnkogel, Austria), a thick Upper Triassic intraplat-
form basin succession was investigated by Krystyn et al.
(1994) and the authors emphasized the similarity of this series
with the time-equivalent formations in the northeastern part of
the Transdanubian Range. The intraplatform basin in the
Southern Karavank region began to form at the Carnian/Nori-
an boundary interval. The Lower and Middle Norian are repre-
sented by 200 m-thick cherty dolomite with slump structures,
sedimentary breccia and turbidites. This is followed by a 300
m-thick pelagic platy limestone formation of Late Norian—
Rhaetian age. It consists of crinoidal and radiolarian turbidites
and bioturbated wackestones, but no coarse clastics occur in
the upper part of the succession. Just as in the Csővár Block, a
continuous succession of deeper basin facies represents the
Rhaetian to Early Jurassic interval.
Due to Neo-Tethys rifting, extensional basins began forming
in the central part of the TR during the Middle Triassic. Some
of them persisted until the Late Carnian. A new rifting stage
was initiated in the Early Carnian, which resulted in the for-
mation of narrow intraplatform basins in the northeastern part
of the TR Unit.
In the late Norian, incipient rifting of the Ligurian-Penninic
Ocean led to formation of the Kössen Basin in the external belt
of the shelf that is in the southwestern part of the TR Unit.
Therefore, since that time a double rift system may have been
Although formation of the basins was tectonically con-
trolled, their sedimentation pattern, facies characteristics, ar-
chitecture and evolution were influenced by various factors.
The most important of these are:
– the paleogeographical setting of the basins, that is their
relation to the continental hinterland (source area of the silici-
clastics) and the shallow marine (subtidal) carbonate factories.
– climate, which basically controlled the siliciclastic input
and also influenced the carbonate production and mode of di-
agenesis (e.g. dolomitization).
– sea-level changes which controlled the geometry of plat-
form carbonates and also determined the size and restriction of
the intraplatform basins. Signals of the 3
-order relative sea-
level changes are generally recognizable in the successions.
Higher order cyclicity was recognized in the successions
formed on the wide ramp between the Dachstein Platform and
the Kössen Basin.
Intraplatform basin successions akin to those in the TR are
known also in the Central Western Carpathians, Northern Cal-
careous Alps and Southern Alps, indicating a similar scenario
of basin evolution.
Acknowledgments: The author is indebted to M. Sacci, and
two anonymous referees for thoughtful reviews of the manu-
script and useful comments and suggestions. I thank H.M. Lie-
berman (Houston) for the linguistic corrections. This work
was supported by the Hungarian Research Fund (OTKA) by
projects T—034168 (Hetényi, M.) and T—02797 (Haas, J.).
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