GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 53, 3, BRATISLAVA, JUNE 2002
149 — 157
CARNIAN CORALS FROM THE MALÉ KARPATY MOUNTAINS,
WESTERN CARPATHIANS, SLOVAKIA
and JOZEF MICHALÍK
Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa, Poland; firstname.lastname@example.org
Geological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 842 26 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; email@example.com
(Manuscript received January 28, 2002; accepted in revised form May 9, 2002)
Abstract: Carnian small scleractinian coral fauna found in the Malé Karpaty Mts (Western Carpathians), is closely
related to early late Carnian corals of the Dolomites (Southern Alps). The former fauna includes three new genera:
Carpathiphyllia (type species: C. regularis sp.n.), Pontebbastraea (type: Stylophyllopsis pontebbanae Volz),
Protostylophyllum (type: Stylophyllum praenuntians Volz), and a new species of Volzeia (V. carpathica sp.n.). The Carnian
age of the upper part of the Veterlín platform sequence proves the continuous development of Triassic carbonate plat-
form, which was never interrupted by the Lunz/Rheingraben clastic interval (unlike to the Choč- and/or Lunz Nappe
Key words: Western Carpathians, late Carnian, reef assemblages, taxonomy, Scleractinia, Anthozoa.
In spite of abundant coral findings from several European La-
dinian Carnian localities, namely from Germany (Wöhrmann
1889), Italy (Salomon 1895; Volz 1896; Montanaro-Gallitelli
1976; Cuif 1977), Hungary (Papp 1911; Kolosváry 1958a) Ru-
mania (Kühn 1936), Slovakia (Kolosváry 1957, 1958a,b,
1963, 1966), Slovenia (Turnšek & Buser 1989 – with other
bibliography), and Greece (Celet 1962; Matarangas et al.
1995), only those from Italy (Dolomites) have a complete pa-
leontological documentation, thanks to perfectly preserved
aragonitic coral skeletons (Cuif 1977 – with other bibliogra-
phy; Montanaro-Gallitelli 1976 – with other bibliography).
Data collected by Kolosváry (1957, 1958a,b, 1963, 1966),
who studied Ladinian/Carnian corals from Slovakia, and
among others those from the Malé Karpaty Mts, need a re-ex-
amination, as his descriptions and illustrations are insufficient-
ly treated and do not permit adequate comparisons. New coral
findings in the Wetterstein facies of the Veterlín and Havranica
partial nappes (southwestern end of the Western Carpathians)
enable stratigraphical correlation between both West-Car-
pathian and South Alpine coral-bearing beds.
Remarks and discussion on the Carnian corals from
the Malé Karpaty Mts
The northern part of the Malé Karpaty Mts is formed by a
nappe slices pile, thrust backward on the margin of the Central
Western Carpathians (Michalík 1984; Plašienka et al. 1991).
These bodies (designated the “higher” nappes, namely Veter-
lín-, Havranica- and Jablonica nappes, Fig. 1) consist of Trias-
sic carbonate sequences similar to these preserved in the
Ötscher- or the Göller nappes of the Northern Limestone Alps
nearby. The Ladinian/Carnian sequence represents non-terri-
geneous clastic infilling of a tensional basinal system in the
external rim of the Alpine-Carpathian carbonate shelf
(Michalík 1993, 1994). During Early Carnian, the reef front
(preserved in the Havranica partial nappe) prograded basin-
wards by a slope talus megabreccia (across the Veterlín partial
nappe; Michalík et al. 1993, 1999; Fig. 2). The Veterlín basin
was filled by fine carbonate debris irresistent to dolomitization
fluids (Lintnerová et al. 1988; Lintnerová & Hladíková 1992;
Lintnerová & Soták 1994), instead of clay matrix which en-
Fig. 1. Sketch map of northwestern part of the Malé Karpaty Mts
with indication of main tectonic units and the distribution of the
Veterlín carbonate platform.
150 RONIEWICZ and MICHALÍK
abled unique fine preservation of the famous Cipit blocks in a
similar situation in the South-Alpine St. Cassiano Basin.
The middle part of the Kršlenica section (Fig. 3) developed
in a slope facies yielded findings of Gondolella polygnathifor-
mis Budurov & Stefanov, Gladigondolella tethydis (Huck-
riede) and other conodonts (Papšová in Michalík et al. 1993).
According to Vrielynck (in Graciansky et al. 1998), the co-oc-
currence of the two former species is typical of Early Carnian
Aonoides- and Austriacum Zones. On the other hand, the oc-
currence of the foraminifer Aulotortus pregaschei (Koehn-Za-
ninetti) along with sporadic Galeanella sp. higher up in the
section indicates early Late Carnian age of the prograding
platform wedge sediments containing the coral fauna. This
fauna is composed of Protoheterastraeidae (Protoheterastraea,
Carpathiphyllia gen.n., Pontebbastraea gen.n.), Volzeiidae
(Volzeia), Margarophylliidae (Margarosmilia), and Stylophyl-
lidae (Protostylophyllum gen.n.). These are characterized ei-
ther by particular (minitrabecular, and non-trabecular, that is,
fascicular: Roniewicz 1989; Roniewicz & Morycowa 1989,
1993) microstructures or by large-scale features (thick wall,
tabuloid endotheca). According to Roniewicz & Morycowa
(1993), such a faunal composition is typical of the pre-Alau-
With the exception of Carpathiphyllia regularis sp.n., all
species of this fauna strongly resemble that from the Cipit
limestone boulders from marly St. Cassiano Formation in the
Dolomites, Southern Alps. The age of these deposits is esti-
mated to be early Late Carnian (Russo et al. 1991). The taxo-
nomic affinity of the Malé Karpaty fauna and that of the Dolo-
mites suggests that both faunas lived in geographical
proximity to each other. This affinity is interesting from the
ecological point of view, too: due to the different environ-
ments in which the faunas developed, the coral-bearing depos-
its of both the regions were of different facies. The Veterlín
reef builders were mostly represented by Tubiphytes obscurus,
Thaumatoporella, porostromates, calcareous algae, sponges
and other organisms. Although the corals lived rather subordi-
nately in the inner part of the reef only, a small collection un-
der examination obtained from light, hard biodetrital lime-
stone came from a diversified fossil assemblage, as the only
eight found specimens represent as many as six different gen-
era. The fauna consists of four solitary species and two others
with a phaceloid growth form (Table 1). Although variable in
taxonomic composition, this fauna belongs to a non-reef cate-
gory due to solitary and phaceloid growth forms and epithecal
walls of corals. These features characterize rather a low hydro-
dynamic environment (Roniewicz & Stolarski 1999).
Surprisingly enough, this small portion of a diversified Car-
pathian fauna is distant taxonomically from the faunas de-
Fig. 2. View on the Kršlenica Hill showing Carnian carbonate platform progradation across the slope megabreccia.
Table 1: Corals from the Veterlín carbonate platform of the Malé
Protoheterastraea leonhardi (Volz)
Carpathiphyllia regularis sp. et gen.n.
Volzeia carpathica sp.n.
Margarosmilia cf. richthofeni Volz
Protostylophyllum praenuntians (Volz)
CARNIAN CORALS FROM THE MALÉ KARPATY MOUNTAINS 151
Fig. 3. The Kršlenica section: a correlation of lithological log with
important faunal occurrences.
scribed from Slovenia (Turnšek et al. 1982, 1987; Ramovš &
Turnšek 1984), Rumania (Kühn 1936) and Hungary (Papp
The collection under study consists of eight specimens, col-
lected by Stanislav Buček (1988) mostly from loose blocks,
and housed in the Slovak National Museum of Natural History
in Bratislava (abbreviated as SNM 23 034—SNM 23 041). The
corals are recrystallized and their microstructure has been
completely obscured. Comparison of this material with the
Cassian corals from the Dolomites (Volz 1896) was based on
Volz’s original thin sections housed at the Geological Museum
of Wrocław University (MGUWr), and Protoheterastraea le-
onhardi lectotype housed in the Museum für Naturkunde Ber-
Abbreviations used in the text: d – corallite diameter (in
mm), h – corallite height (in mm), s – number of septa in
the coralite, nS1... – number of septa of the succeeding size
orders, sd/mm – septal density, number of septa per millime-
ter measured directly at the wall in cross-section.
Suborder Caryophylliina Vaughan et Wells, 1943
Superfamily Volzeioidea Melnikova, 1974
The corals from the families Protoheterastraeidae, Volzei-
idae and Margarophylliidae show a midseptal zone (called
also a midseptal line) built of more or less clearly individual-
ized small centres of calcification (minitrabeculae), a feature
exclusively typical of the Caryophylliina. The epithecal wall
differentiates the Triassic families from Recent caryophylli-
ines having septothecal, trabeculothecal or marginothecal
walls, and allows us to embrace them into the superfamily
Volzeioidea (compare Stolarski 1995, 1996; Roniewicz &
Family Protoheterastraeidae Cuif, 1977
(“Protoheterastraea group” of Cuif, 1977)
Protoheterastraea Wells, 1934
Wells 1934 replaced the homonyme Hexastraea Volz with
Protoheterastraea and designated P. leonhardi (Volz) its type
species. The second coral described by Volz 1896 under the
generic name of Hexastraea, that is, Hexastraea fritshi, repre-
sents the genus Quenstedtiphyllia Melnikova, 1975 (Ro-
niewicz & Stolarski 2001) from the family Amphiastraeidae,
suborder Pachythecaliina Eliášová, 1976. The corals of this
suborder have pachythecal wall of modular structure different
from the epitheca in the caryophylliine corals, and very thin
septa lacking structural ornamentation (microarchitecture).
The assignement of two other Carnian species, that is, P.
hudajuznensis Turnšek, 1982 and P. minor Turnšek, 1989, and
two early Norian: P. alakirensis Cuif, 1974 and P. razorensis
Turnšek, 1991 needs revision.
In the Malé Karpaty collection, the genus is represented by
the type species, P. leonhardi (Volz, 1896). Up to now, this
species has been recorded from the Dolomites only.
Protoheterastraea leonhardi (Volz, 1896)
pars 1896 Hexastraea Leonhardi Volz: p. 92, Pl. 11: Figs 22—25 (non
non 1973 Protoheterastraea leonhardi Volz: Cuif, p. 258, Figs. 23—26.
M a t e r i a l: Specimen No. SNM 23034 (loc. 278a/84):
fragmentary corallite in the organodetrital limestone (bind-
stone—wackestone), associated with Carpathiphyllia regularis
gen. et sp.n. Two thin sections.
152 RONIEWICZ and MICHALÍK
R e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l: Lectotype specimen (MB) illus-
trated by Volz in Pl. 11: Fig. 22, and Volz’s original thin sec-
tions executed from this specimen (MGUWr 139sz) presented
by Volz in Pl. 11: Figs. 23, 25, and herein Fig. 4.2a—c.
M e a s u r e m e n t s (in mm): h – >15; d – 5—7; s – 48
(6 S1 + 6 S2 + 12 S3 + 24 S4).
D e s c r i p t i o n a n d r e m a r k s: Corallite high, cylindri-
cal, slightly enlarging distally. Wall very thick, epithecal. Reg-
ularly distributed radial elements are differentiated into 4 size
orders (Fig. 4.1,2a,b). The septa S1 are the thickest and ap-
proaching near to the axis. Other septa are shorter and thinner
depending on the order; the septa S3 and S4 are zigzag. The
section of the lectotype specimen (MGUWr 139sz) shows tab-
ular endotheca formed of thin, rare elements (Fig. 4.2a).
M i c r o s t r u c t u r e: The radial elements observed in the
lectotype specimen show fan-like arrangement of minitrabecu-
lae composing midseptal zone. Lateral stereome in radial ele-
ments S1 and S2 is very thick and covered with irregular,
sharp, abundant granulations. The epitheca is fascicular in
structure and it forms a thick composite wall together with the
thickened peripheral ends of radial elements (Fig. 4.2c).
R e m a r k s: The material examined, as well as the type
specimen, show regularly hexameral symmetry (Fig. 4.1,2a).
This evidences that P. leonhardi represents corals of a solitary
growth form, not a fragment of a phaceloid corallum increas-
ing by budding or division that disturb each symmetry.
Cuif (see synonymy) under the name of P. leonhardi de-
scribed some corals differing from the type in their septothecal
wall and phaceloid growth form. Volz (1896) in the Pl. 11, Fig.
21 showed a phaceloid coral that cannot belong to the same
taxon as the rest of the series illustrated in Figs. 22—25.
O c c u r r e n c e: Carpathians – Malé Karpaty Mts, southern
slope of the Mt Záruby—Mt Havranica ridge, Ladinian/Carnian
Veterlín carbonate platform. Dolomites – Middle Carnian St.
Cassiano Formation (probably Stuores, after Volz 1896) and
Alpe di Specie Member overlying it.
Type species: Carpathiphyllia regularis gen. et sp.n.
D i a g n o s i s: Solitary, radial elements scarce, distributed in
regular systems, and differentiated into 4 orders. Wall inde-
pendent of other skeletal elements. Endotheca tabuloid.
R e m a r k s: This new (monotypic) genus is included in Pro-
toheterastraeidae due to septal apparatus composed of regular-
ly distributed septa, wall independent from other skeletal ele-
ments and tabuloid endothecal elements. It differs from
Protoheterastraea in equally thick septa, and in size (a range
of magnitude greater) of corallite diameter.
Carpathiphyllia regularis sp.n.
H o l o t y p e: Specimen No. SNM 23035, Fig. 4.3.
T y p e l o c a l i t y: Malé Karpaty, Malá Skalka rock (loc.
365/85) on southern slope of Mt Veterlín.
T y p e h o r i z o n: Veterlín carbonate platform, Wetterstein
D i a g n o s i s: Carpathiphyllia with a diameter of approxi-
mately 20 mm and with about 90 septa.
M a t e r i a l: Two fragmentary coralla: a well preserved dis-
tal fragment No. SNM 23035 (holotype) and a fragment of a
middle part of the corallum from southern slope of Mt Záruby
(767 m a.s.l), – Mt Havranica ridge (No. SNM 23034, loc.
278a/84); organodetrital limestone; packestone. One thin sec-
M e a s u r e m e n t s (in mm): d – 20; s – e. 96 (12 S1).
D e s c r i p t i o n: Solitary coral, circular in cross-section,
more than 15 mm high. The radial elements are thin, differen-
tiated by length into four orders. The septa S1, ca. 12 in num-
ber, approach the central cavity. The length of the septa S2 is
equal to half the radius or longer, that of the septa S3 is about
1/3 the radius. The septa S4 are short, regularly distributed.
Septa laterally ornamented by sharp, scarce granulations. Wall
most probably epithecal, without any traces of structural de-
pendence from septa or endotheca. The endotheca visible in
transverse section of the corallum is made of rare tabulae.
O c c u r r e n c e: Western Carpathians – Malé Karpaty Mts,
Mt Veterlín, Veterlín carbonate platform, Wetterstein facies.
Type species: Stylophyllopsis pontebbanae Volz, 1896
D i a g n o s i s (based on the lectotype, MGUWr 69sz, Volz
1896: Pl. 11, Figs. 9, 10). Phaceloid. Wall epithecal, radial in
structure. External ends of radial elements embedded in the
wall. Radial elements wavy in shape, equal in thickness, dif-
ferentiated into three irregular orders and ornamented with
rare, sharp granulations. Endotheca subtabuloid. Microstruc-
S p e c i e s i n c l u d e d: P. pontebbanae (Volz, 1896) and P.
sp. described herein.
R e m a r k s: The type species, originally assigned to Stylo-
phyllopsis, reveals volzeiid/protoheterastreid morphology and
ornamentation of radial elements (compare volzeiid micro-
structure in Cuif 1975: Figs. 17, 20—24). Their minitrabecular
septal structure differs from this of stylophyllids which bear
non-trabecular septa formed of septal spines build by fascicles
of fibres (compare Roniewicz 1989; Roniewicz & Morycowa
1989). The new genus differs from Volzeia in having subtabu-
loid endothecal elements, and approaching a protoheterastreid
pattern of the endothecal structure, if compared with the sim-
ple vesicular dissepiments of Volzeia.
Material: Specimen No. SNM 23036 (loc. 518), distal por-
tion of a corallite; four thin sections.
R e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l: Thin sections MGUWr 69sz exe-
cuted from the lectotype of the type species, P. pontebbanae
(Volz), Dolomites, Stuores (according to supposition of Volz
1896), a member overlying Middle Carnian St. Cassiano For-
mation figured herein Fig. 4.5a—c
M e a s u r e m e n t s (in mm): d – 10; s – 24 (6 S1+ 6 S2+
D e s c r i p t i o n: The corallite is circular in section, high.
Central pit circular and empty. Wall thick with characteristic
vertical furrows answering the position of septa of a low order
merging into the wall. Radial elements differentiated into 3
CARNIAN CORALS FROM THE MALÉ KARPATY MOUNTAINS 153
Fig. 4. 1. Protoheterastraea leonhardi (Volz). Malé Karpaty Mts, Mt Záruby—Mt Havranica ridge, Veterlín carbonate platform. Polished
surface of the sample No. SNM 23034 (= 278a/84). 2. Protoheterastraea leonhardi (Volz). Dolomites, St. Cassiano (Stuores after Volz), a
member overlying the St. Cassiano Formation, Middle Carnian. Lectotype, original Volz’s thin section, MGUWr 139sz: a, b – cross and
longitudinal sections; note scarce endothecal tabulae; c – a fragment showing a structure of the wall composed of thick epithecal stere-
ome incorporating external margins of radial elements. 3. Carpathiphyllia regularis gen. et sp.n., holotype; Malé Karpaty Mts, Malá skal-
ka on S Mt Veterlín slope, Veterlín carbonate platform, sample No. SNM 23035 (= 365/85): cross-section showing thick wall, regularly
distributed radial elements and a section of the tabuloid endothecal element, forming a periaxial ring. 4. Pontebbastraea sp. Malé Kar-
paty Mts, Ambrové Hills near to Prievaly, Veterlín carbonate platform, sample No. SNM 23036 (= 518): a – cross-section showing rare,
long radial elements and wavy wall; b – longitudinal section showing rare, tabuloid elements of endotheca. 5. Pontebbastraea pontebba-
nae (Volz). Dolomites, Stuores (after supposition of Volz), St. Cassiano Formation, Middle Carnian. Lectotype, Volz’s original thin sec-
tion, MGUWr 69sz: a – cross-section showing rare, long radial elements; b – longitudinal section with scarce, tabuloid, concave endot-
hecal elements (note the upside down position of this section in Volz 1896, Pl.11:10); c – a fragment showing a wall with furrows facing
peripheral ends of radial elements. Scale bars: 2.5 mm if not stated otherwise.
154 RONIEWICZ and MICHALÍK
Fig. 5. 1. Volzeia carpathica sp.n., holotype. Malé Karpaty Mts, Javorinky Hill above the Mokrá Valley by Plavecký Mikuláš, Veterlín
carbonate platform, sample No. SNM 23037 (= 475/85): a – cross-section; b – longitudinal section showing large dissepiments. 2. Mar-
garosmilia cf. richthofeni Volz. Malé Karpaty Mts, Javorinky Hill above the Mokrá Valley by Plavecký Mikuláš, Veterlín carbonate plat-
form, No. SNM 23038 (= 475/85): a – cross-section of lobate corallite; b – longitudinal section showing vesicular endotheca. 3. Proto-
stylophyllum praenuntians (Volz), Dolomites, Valparola, St. Cassiano Formation, Middle Carnian. Lectotype, original Volz’s thin section,
MGUWr 71sz: a – cross-section with septal blades disassociated adaxially into septal spines; b – longitudinal section showing a septum
compacted peripherally (black, at the left) and disassociating adaxially into isolated, regular septal spines; c – a fragment of b with thin
tabulae; d, e – septal spines showing a typical coarse micro-ornamentation. Note a development of a loose columella-like structure oc-
cupying a large axial region. 4. Protostylophyllum praenuntians (Volz), Malé Karpaty Mts, eastern part of the Mt Veterlín ridge, the Vet-
erlín carbonate platform (No. SNM 23041, loc. 297a/85): a – distal portion of the corallum in slightly oblique cross-section; b – a frag-
ment with internal septal portions dissociated into septal spines. Scale bars: 2.5 mm if not stated otherwise.
CARNIAN CORALS FROM THE MALÉ KARPATY MOUNTAINS 155
size orders: 6 septa S1 approaching the centre and subequal
septa S2, and septa S3 about 1/4 the radius in length. Septal
blades thin, slightly wavy or zigzag, enlarging toward the wall.
Endotheca formed of rare, tabuloid dissepiments which are flat
adaxially and slightly convex peripherally.
R e m a r k s: Pontebbastrea sp. differs from the type species
in its far larger diameter and lower number of septa; the lecto-
type specimen of P. pontebbanae (MGUWr 69sz) shows a cor-
allite diameter of 5
6 mm, and number of septa equal to 32
(Fig. 4.5a). The endotheca is tabuloid (Fig. 4.5b). In the struc-
ture of the wall, the coral considered displays a very character-
istic feature observed also in P. pontebbanae (Fig. 4.5c): the
furrows which develop on the wall surface in the place where
the septa of low orders merge into the wall.
O c c u r r e n c e: Carpathians – Malé Karpaty Mts, Am-
brové Hills near Prievaly, Veterlín carbonate platform, Wetter-
Family Volzeiidae Melnikova, 1974
Genus Volzeia Cuif, 1968
This Carnian genus is recorded from the European and Cen-
tral Asiatic parts of the Tethys.
Volzeia carpathica sp.n.
T y p e s p e c i m e n: Specimen No. SNM 23037, Fig. 5.1a,b.
T y p e l o c a l i t y: Malé Karpaty Mts, Javorinky Hill (loc.
475/85), above the Mokrá Valley near to Plavecký Mikuláš.
T y p e h o r i z o n: Veterlín carbonate platform.
D i a g n o s i s: Volzeia with approximately 60 septa in a di-
ameter of about 10—11 mm, and large dissepiments.
M a t e r i a l: A fragment of a colony of 6 corallites; organo-
detrital limestone; bindstone and packestone; nine thin sec-
M e a s u r e m e n t s (in mm): d – 8—11; s – 60; sd/3 – 4—6.
D e s c r i p t i o n: Phaceloid coral composed of parallel coral-
lites. Increase by equivalent division. Corallite surface
smooth. Wall thin. Axial pit well marked, slightly elongated.
Radial elements thin, differentiated into 4 size orders. Septa
S1 reaching nearly to the axis, S2 markedly shorter than S1,
S3 from a third to more than half the radius in length, septa S4
rare but well developed. Ornamentation not observed. Endoth-
eca made of extended dissepiments deeply concave at the cen-
tre, and smaller dissepiments located at the periphery.
R e m a r k s: The new species differs from V. subloevis
(Münster), V. subdichotoma (Volz) and V. badiotica (Volz) in
having larger calice diameters and lesser density of septal ap-
paratus. In the lectotype specimens of the mentioned species
(MGUW 75sz and 136sz, respectively) the measurements are
as follows: V. badiotica (Volz 1896) – adults d 7—8 mm, s
58—64, sd 9—11/3 mm; V. subdichotoma (Volz 1896) – adults
d 5.5 mm, s 40—45, sd 7—9/3 mm. The specimens of V. sublo-
evis (Münster, 1841; MB: Volz’s original collection) show di-
ameters of 3.0—3.5 mm and number of septa 40—58. The new
species differs from V. hinzei (Volz) (MGUWr 80sz) in its thin
and spaced septa.
O c c u r r e n c e: Carpathians – Malé Karpaty Mts, Ladin-
ian-Carnian Veterlín carbonate platform.
Family Margarophylliidae Volz, 1896
Genus Margarosmilia Volz, 1896
Margarosmilia cf. richthofeni Volz, 1896
M a t e r i a l: Specimens Nos. SNM 23038 (loc. 475/85) and
SNM 23039 (loc. 494/85) – long corallite fragments in the
organodetrital packestone—bindstone. Specimen from southern
slope of the Kršlenica Hill (SNM 23040) represents a frag-
ment of a branching corallite in packstone—bindstone. Thirteen
M e a s u r e m e n t s (in mm):
Specimen No. SNM 23038 SNM 23039 SNM 23040
D e s c r i p t i o n: In cross-section, the corallites are lobate in
shape and showing permanent ability to form offsets. The di-
ameters in adults reach 15—20 mm. The radial elements, ca.
100 in number, in general, are thin, slightly fusiform, densely
crowded and differentiated into five orders. The septa S1 ap-
proach the centre, their internal margins slightly enlarged; oth-
er septa are shorter depending on the order, the S5 reach at
least 1/4 the length of the S1. The septal ornamentation is
minute and granular. A thin epithecal wall covers the whole
corallite surface. The endotheca is composed of very small ve-
sicular dissepiments at the periphery and somewhat larger
ones at the centre.
R e m a r k s: The species in question in its dimensions and
mode of branching resembles Margarosmilia richthofeni Volz
(1896: p. 36, Pl. 1: Figs. 13 and 14). Its ultimate determination
can be completed on the basis of the type material.
O c c u r r e n c e: Carpathians – Malé Karpaty Mts, Mokrá
Valley by Plavecký Mikuláš and little valley near to Plavecký
Peter, Veterlín carbonate platform. Margarosmilia richthofeni
is known from the Dolomites, from the member overlying San
Cassiano Formation, early Late Carnian.
Suborder Stylophyllina Beauvais, 1981
emended Roniewicz, 1989
The emendation points to the fact that septal spines, wall,
and dissepiments are built from the fascicular and scaly skele-
tal tissue, different from trabecular skeleton in all other corals.
Family Stylophyllidae Frech, 1890
Genus Protostylophyllum gen.n.
Type species: Stylophyllum praenuntians Volz, 1897
D i a g n o s i s: Solitary. Septa thin, built of spines of equal
thickness, subhorizontal at the wall and bending upwards at
the coral axis. Wall thick. Endotheca built of rare, thin, hori-
S p e c i e s a s s i g n e d: Carnian – P. praenuntians (Volz,
1896); Norian – P. bortepense (Melnikova, 1972).
R e m a r k s: The type of the new genus differs from Stylo-
phyllum in: (i) septal spines growing out subhorizontally from
156 RONIEWICZ and MICHALÍK
the wall and changing direction into subvertical at the corallite
centre (in Stylophyllum the septal spines direct upwards from
their beginning); (ii) endotheca perfectly tabuloid (in Stylo-
phyllum the endotheca is vesiculous).
The second known species, Norian P. bortepense from the
Pamirs shows similar structure of the septal spines, their abun-
dance in the centre, and thin, tabular endotheca (Melnikova
1972). It differs from the type species in its far larger dimen-
Protostylophyllum praenuntians (Volz, 1896)
Figs. 5.3a—e, 5.4a,b
1896 Stylophyllum praenuntians Volz, p. 87, Pl. 11: Figs. 1—4.
non 1973 Stylophyllum praenuntians Volz; Cuif, p. 254, Fig. 22b,c.
M a t e r i a l: Specimen No. SNM 23041 (loc. 297a/85): a
fragment of corallite; organodetrital limestone; bindstone—
wackstone, 1 thin section.
R e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l: Two thin sections MGUWr 71sz
executed from the lectotype of P. praenuntians (Volz), figured
by Volz 1896: Pl. 11: Figs. 1, 2, and herein, Fig. 5.3a—e.
M e a s u r e m e n t s (in mm): d – ca. 12; s – 45—50.
D e s c r i p t i o n a n d r e m a r ks: Cross-section of the cor-
allum is circular, with septa continuous at the wall and dicon-
tinuous adaxially (Fig. 5.4a). The internal, large part of the
corallum is filled with free septal spines (Fig. 5.4b). The wall
and the septal elements are thin, non-thickened. The septal
spines show typical, rough ornamentation formed with tips of
skeletal fascicles emerging on the spine surface. The same fea-
tures are seen in the type specimen (Fig. 5.3d,e). Unfortunate-
ly, in the specimen under study, the endotheca is not observ-
able; in the type specimen it is composed of very thin,
horizontal tabulae (Fig. 5.3c). The species is considered to be
very rare: the Carpathian specimen is only the second one ever
The specimen from the Zlambach Beds presented as S.
praenuntians Volz by Cuif (1973: Fig. 22a) shows all features
of Stylophyllopsis lindstroemi Frech, 1890 and does not re-
semble S. praenuntians Volz. A section of one non-illustrated
Volz’s specimen (BSP AS I 662 – Cuif 1973: Fig. 22b,c)
shows a set of features different from those observed in the
lectotype specimen sectioned by Volz in transverse and longi-
tudinal directions and illustrated by that author (Volz 1896:
Pl. 11: Figs. 1, 2) and herein (Fig. 5.4a—c).
O c c u r r e n c e: Carpathians – Malé Karpaty Mts, eastern
part of the Mt Veterlín ridge, Veterlín carbonate platform. Do-
lomites – Valparola, early Late Carnian St. Cassiano Forma-
Acknowledgments: The authors are thankful to Dr.
Stanislav Buček for kind supply of the coral samples he col-
lected during his work at the SAS Institute of Geology. We
thank also to Dr. G. D. Stanley, jr. for his valuable remarks
on taxonomic descriptions. The paper has been accomplished
within the frame of an international convention on scientific
cooperation between the Institute of Geology, the Slovak
Academy of Sciences in Bratislava and the Institute of Paleo-
biology of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. The
financial support was given by the Committee for Scientific
Research (KBN), Grant 6 P04D 037 14 to E. Roniewicz and
J. Stolarski and by the VEGA Grant Agency (Project No.
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