GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 52, 2, BRATISLAVA, APRIL 2001
CONTINUOUS TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE ORAVA BASIN
(NORTHERN CARPATHIANS) FROM LATE BADENIAN
TO THE PRESENT-DAY?
Department of Geomorphology and Hydrology of Mountains and Uplands, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish
Academy of Sciences, św. Jana 22, 31-018 Kraków, Poland
(Manuscript received October 21, 1999; accepted in revised form December 12, 2000)
Abstract: The fault-bounded Orava Basin is situated on the boundary between the Inner and Outer Carpathians, close to
the northern boundary of the Klippen Belt. The Orava Basin was formed during the Neogene times and was enlarged in
its NE part during the Quaternary. According to the author’s hypothesis, the crucial role has been played by a master
transversal strike-slip fault named Prosiek-Domański Wierch—Lepietnica fault. The Orava Basin was opened by exten-
sion between the so-called Orava block rotated to the NW and the Tatra block shifted to the NE. According to palynologi-
cal data it started 14—15 Ma and was probably synchronous with thrusting of the Magura Nappe and also with the uplift
of the Tatra massif. Quaternary subsidence of the NE part of the present-day bottom of the Orava depression indicates,
that probably the same tectonic mechanism is active now. Such an assumption is based on multidisciplinary studies:
present-day activity of earthquakes (11 September 1995), geomorphological analysis of the Quaternary terraces aiming
at the reconstruction of vertical tectonic movements, and on geophysical soundings. Some attempts aiming at under-
standing the role of paleostress field were made. The idea of a shift of tectonic process of subsidence and also of vertical
uplift from the west to the east is supported by inferences derived from the thermal evolution of the western part of the
Key words: Western Carpathians, fault-bounded Orava Basin, Quaternary alluvial or fluvio-glacial sedimentation and
terraces formation, vertical tectonic movements, earthquake of 11 September 1995, seismic reflection data.
The geographical position of the Orava Basin (Fig. 1) on the
boundary between the Inner and Outer Western Carpathians is
related to its evolution during the last 14—15 Ma. According to
the author’s assumption, the origin and history of the Orava
Basin was closely associated with the structural history of the
Inner and Outer Carpathians during this period. The crucial
role has been played by a master transversal strike-slip fault
which separates from west the massif of Ve ká Fatra, Choč
Mts, Skorušina Inner Flysch Range and a section of the Klip-
pen Belt between Zázrivá and Trstená with Beskid Żywiecki
and Babia Góra Range (Magura Flysch). From the east, the
master fault separates the Nízke Tatry and Tatry massifs with
Podhale Inner Flysch syncline, related section of the Klippen
Belt from Staré Bystré to Plavec upon Poprad River and
Magura Units with Gorce Mts and Beskid Sądecki Mts
(Baumgart-Kotarba 1996), (Fig. 1). Numerous studies of the
Neogene evolution of the Orava Basin have been published
(Książkiewicz 1972; Oszast 1973; Watycha 1976; Oszast &
Stuchlik 1977; Birkenmajer 1958, 1978, 1985; Pospíšil 1990,
1993; Bac-Moszaszwili 1993, 1995; Pomianowski 1995). Re-
cent papers focus on micro-tectonic problems, attempting to
reconstruct the paleostress field which affected the tectonic
evolution of this area (Zuchiewicz 1994, 1998; Tokarski &
Zuchiewicz 1998; Kukulak 1998).
In the author’s opinion, the Orava fault-bounded basin rep-
resents a pull-apart basin. The Orava Basin became opened
due to block-type horizontal movements. According to this hy-
pothesis, the Orava Basin was opening by extension between
the so-called Orava block rotated to the NW (~40°), and the
Tatry block, shifted to the NE (Baumgart-Kotarba 1996).
Opening of this basin, according to palynological data (Oszast
& Stuchlik 1977), started 14—15 Ma ago (Upper Badenian,
Serravallian). Quaternary subsidence in the NE part of the
present-day bottom of the Orava depression indicates that
probably the same tectonic mechanism, marked by the strike-
slip Domański Wierch Fault, is active now, while the uplifted
southwestern and southern part are now rather in a compres-
sive regime (Fig. 2).
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the present day-
activity of the earthquake of 11 September 1995 can be evalu-
ated by geomorphological methods against the background of
Quaternary vertical movements. Another problem is the pre-
sumed shift of subsidence from the west to the east. The uplift
started in the west close to Ústie n. Priehradou town after the
Pannonian, while at the Domański Wierch hill after the Da-
cian. Despite the change of the sense of vertical movements,
the mechanism related to the activity of a large fault zone
called the “Prosiek fault system” (Nemčok 1993), considered
also as the Domański Wierch left-lateral strike-slip fault
(Baumgart-Kotarba 1992, 1996), probably persists up to now.
Multidisciplinary studies make it possible to understand the
complexity of the Orava Basin’s evolution. Geological and
geomorphological analyses are of fundamental importance,
but the seismic reflection and refraction data reveal the com-
plex architecture of the Neogene basin and the relationship be-
tween older Neogene structural units and newly-formed Qua-
ternary grabens (Dec et al. 1998; Baumgart-Kotarba 2000).
The earthquake of 11—12 September 1995 with the main shock
of Mz ~3.7 and I > 5.5, not so weak on a Western Carpathians
scale (recurrence time 30 years), was studied using micro- and
macrostructural analyses (Baumgart-Kotarba & Hojny-Kołoś
1998). It is very interesting, that the calculated effects of focal
mechanisms, compression or dilatation are in good agreement
with long-lasting tendencies of vertical crustal movements.
The latter can be reconstructed from an analysis of distribution
of the Quaternary terraces in the bottom of the Orava Basin.
The author’s interpretation of 6 joint stereograms from sites:
Lipnica, Hladovka, Staré Bystré, Miętustwo is preliminary,
but together with geophysical sounding and geomorphologi-
cal study seems to be coherent in terms of stress field recon-
The idea of a shift from the west to the east of both the tec-
tonic subsidence later replaced by uplift was related to the
thermal evolution of the Orava Basin (Nagy et al. 1996) and
combined with geomorphological analysis.
The results are illustrated in Fig. 2 which demonstrates the
distribution of the succeeding 18 hypocentres (temporal as-
pect) of the main shock and aftershocks (1—6, 7—10, 11—12,
Fig. 1. The Orava Basin and Tatra Mts against the background of a simplified geological map of Western Carpathians, based on Buday et al.
1960 and Fusán et al. 1967. The author’s interpretation of principal faults that bound the distinguished tectonic blocks. 1 – granitoid and
metamorphic rocks, 2 – mainly Mezozoic faulted and thrusted sedimentary rocks of Inner Carpathians, 3 – Klippen Belt, 4 – Central Car-
pathian Flysch: a – Eocene, b – Upper Eocene, c – basal conglomerate, 5 – Magura Nappe, 6 – Dukla and Grybow units, 7 – Silesian
Nappe, 8 – Subsilesian Nappe, 9 – Neogene molasses, 10 – Quaternary deposits, 11 – volcanites, 12 – overthrusts and faults, 13 – tec-
tonic windows and remnants of nappes, 14 – transversal, important faults (Zázrivá, Orava, Muráň f.), 15 – other important faults, 16 –
satellite lineament Zlín—Plavec named lineament of the northern limit of the Tatra Mts (Baumgart-Kotarba 1981, 1983).
CONTINUOUS TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE ORAVA BASIN 105
13—16, 17—18, see Table 1), calculated from data registered by
three seismic observatories – Ojców, Niedzica and Racibórz
(Baumgart-Kotarba & Hojny-Kołoś 1998). The fourth obser-
vatory at Skalnaté Pleso in the Slovak High Tatra Mts. noted
more shocks during this earthquake (personal information
from Skalnaté Pleso Observatory). The sign “+” or “—” before
the number of concrete shocks denotes compression or dilata-
tion focal effects. The background of this map represents the
main structural features of the Polish fringe of the Orava Ba-
sin. White colour in the bottom of the Orava Basin denotes
Quaternary terraces (Fig. 2). In the Orava Basin, Late-Vistu-
lian glacifluvial fan and Holocene fan-terraces are marked by
small dots (Fig. 5). The flat (dotted) areas are probably related
to Quaternary subsidence, documented at Wróblówka by the
112 m thick fluvial/glacifluvial deposits derived from the
Tatra Mts (Watycha 1973; Baumgart-Kotarba 1992). The new
seismic reflection and refraction profiles demonstrate that the
Wróblówka graben is rather large (ca. 100—120 m deep, 2 km
broad and 6 km lenght in west—east direction), and close to his
southern bordering fault is ca. 128 m deep (Baumgart-Kotarba
1998). The second parallel west—east oriented Pieniążkowice
graben, ca. 50 m deep, is separated from Wróblówka graben
by a flysch horst, which rises only 5 m above the alluvial
The compressive effects of the earthquake hypocentres are
spatially related to areas characterized by uplift during the
Quaternary, while the dilatation effects belong to flat areas of
the NE part of the Orava Basin. The focal depth of the main
Fig. 2. Parameters of the earthquake of 11 September 1995 against the background of the Orava Basin tectonic units and Quaternary ter-
races. Seismic data elaborated by Hojny-Kołoś. 1 – isolines of earthquake intensity (MSK 64): >5.5, >4.5, > 4, >3, 2 – hypocenters 1
to 18, the black spots denote magnitude and their characteristics, compressive (+) or dilatation (—), 3 – temporal alternation of main
shock and after-shocks, 4 – epicenter, 5 – geological structures: FM (Magura Flysch), FP (Podhale Flysch), PPS (Pieniński Pas
Skałkowy – Pieniny Klippen Belt) and terraces: LQ – Lower Quaternary, G – Günz, M – Mindel, R – Riss, W – Würm, LG –
Late Vistulian, H
– Holocene-Atlantic, H
– Holocene-Subboreal, on Domański Wierch hill Pliocene Pl and Pliocene covered by
Quaternary deposits Pl + Q, 6 – European water divide.
C / D
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
11 IX 1995
12 IX 1995
13 IX 1995
13 IX 1995
13 IX 1995
Note: C/D – compressive or dilatation effect
Table 1: List of seismic events: No. 1-18 of September, 11-13, 1995,
on Western Podhale and Eastern Orava basin, and No. 19-20 of Oc-
tober 13, 1995, on Eastern Podhale (Czarna Gora-Trybsz). Accord-
ing to M.Hojny-Kołoś in Baumgart-Kotarba (1998).
shock was calculated at about 6 km. This depth corresponds
very well with Lefeld—Jankowski’s model of the depth struc-
ture of the Tatra Mts together with superimposed syncline of
the Podhale Flysch and narrow structure of the Klippen Belt,
pushed on light and low-resistivity rocks of unknown origin
(Lefeld & Jankowski 1985). Thus, it is possible to suggest that
the whole Tatra Mts massif with Podhale and the Klippen Belt
have migrated to the NNE, and are shifting till now. The Qua-
ternary opening of the Orava Basin with Wróblówka and
Pieniążkowice grabens and horst structures of W-E orientation
(Fig. 3) could be interpreted as an effect of extension perpen-
dicular to the main stress direction from the south (proba-
bly 10—15°). Such an assumption is in good agreement with
seismic profiles made across the uplifled Domański Wierch
molasse, together with the Wróblówka graben. Close to the
southern fault of the Wróblówka graben, the Pliocene deposits
of Domański Wierch series are dipping to the south on reflec-
tion profiles (Fig. 4), whereas the Domański Wierch series in
general is dipping at a low angle to the NNW (Birkenmajer
1958; Baumgart-Kotarba 1998, 2000).
The isolines in Fig. 2 indicate the intensity of the earthquake
of 11 September 1995. It seems that these elongated isolines
mark two orientations: the main SW-NE one, related to the
strike-slip fault of Domański Wierch, and the perpendicular
one, NW—SE. The second orientation can be interpreted as a
line marking the subsidence. This line seems to be parallel to
the zone of change of vertical movements (shorter diagonal of
the the Orava Basin parallelogram) (Fig. 5). Hypocenter no 13,
with sign “+”, belongs to the uplifted part of the bottom of the
Orava Basin. Also, the hypocenter no 10 with “+” is located
on the uplifted northern fringe of the Orava Basin.
A reconstruction of the stress field during the Upper
Pliocene and Quaternary was made on fractured pebbles of the
Late Pliocene (Dacian) age of the Domański Wierch at Staré
Bystré (Zuchiewicz 1994, 1998; Tokarski & Zuchiewicz 1998;
Kukulak 1998). These diagrams are interpreted as a result of
horizontal maximum stress oriented 35—45° NE. It is also the
orientation of the Domański Wierch uplifted ridge and that of
the assumed strike-slip fault of the Domański Wierch (Fig. 3).
The author’s interpretation of Tokarski & Zuchiewicz’s mea-
surement of fractured clasts of Sarmatian age at Miętustwo,
south of Domański Wierch, is that the main direction 13—23°
field in the Tatra Mts. –
Podhale block. The Domański Wierch oblique fault has SW-
NE direction (45°).
This regional stress field of N13—23° E orientation of the
maximum horizontal stress is comparable with the NNE-ori-
entated present-day horizontal stress direction, inferred from
breakout studies by Jarosiński (1998). At locality Miętustwo
A, one distinct maximum of N15° E of joints was interpreted
as an extensional one (Tokarski & Zuchiewicz 1998). Thus,
the Quaternary formation of grabens and horsts in the NE part
of the Orava Basin seems to be related to the NNE-orientated
regional maximum stress direction. The fault situated between
the Domański Wierch uplifted molasse series and subsided
Wróblówka graben is – judging from reflection profiles
(Fig. 4) – a reverse fault and can be interpreted as a result of a
push of Pliocene molasses on relatively young Quaternary flu-
vial/glacifluvial Czarny Dunajec river sediments. Activation
of such a fault can be related to Quaternary uplift and shifting
of the Tatra massif together with Podhale region and a seg-
ment of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, due to NNE-directed com-
pression. In front of the compressive zone, the region showing
E-W extension is probably bounded by normal (?) faults. On
the west, the NW-oriented fault is placed between the western
part of the Orava Basin, uplifted during Quaternary times, and
its subsiding NE part (Fig. 5). On the east, the Wróblówka gra-
ben is probably bounded by a N-S-orientated fault which, far-
ther south, borders Pliocene deposits of the Domański Wierch
hill. This hill is elevated less than the Pieniny Klippen Belt
segment with the locality Rogoźnik and the Staré Bystré Beds
(outer flysch) outcropping at the Cichy stream (Figs. 2, 5)
which runs parallel to the Klippen Belt (Cieszkowski 1992,
1995). On the eastern side of the N-S running fault, the
Pliocene molasses have been drilled by only one borehole lo-
cated north of the Cichy stream. In this well-log, 35-m-thick
Quaternary sediments overlie Neogene silty-clayey fluvial de-
posits. The extent of Neogene molasses needs supplementary
Fig. 3. Geomorphological map and Quaternary faults documented
by geophysical sounding (Baumgart-Kotarba et al. 2001) (a – re-
fraction, b, c – reflection profiles). 1 – braided river pattern, 2
– peat-bogs, 3 – Würm terrace, 4 – present-day braided plain, 5
– flysch hill, 6 – W—E faults, 7 – the Domański Wierch ob-
lique fault (left-lateral strike slip-fault), 8 – geophysical profiles
(a—c), 9 – the epicenter of earthquake of 11 September 1995.
CONTINUOUS TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE ORAVA BASIN 107
Fig. 4. Interpretation of two reflection profiles, “b” and “c” in the eastern part of the Orava Basin. „Faults” means the tectonic zone between
uplifting Pliocene molasse of Domański Wierch hill and subsiding Quaternary in the fault-bounded Wróblówka graben; PPS: Pieniny Klip-
Fig. 5. Geomorphological features of the Orava Basin and system of faults active during Neogene and Quaternary. 1 – faults bordering the
fault-bounded complex Orava Basin, 2 – secondary faults, 3 – Quaternary faults, 4 – left-lateral strike-slip fault (Prosiek-Domański
Wierch—Lepietnica), 5 – the extent of glacio-fluvial/fluvial terraces (G – Gűnz, M – Mindel, R – Riss, W – Würm) with escarpments,
6 – Klippen Belt (PPS), 7 – Würm terrace, 8 – Late-Vistulian terrace, 9 – Holocene terraces, 10 – braid-plain of the Czarny Dunajec
river, 11 – height above the Orava river, 12 – flysch hill, 13 – European water-divide, 14 – epicenter of earthquake of 11 September
1995, 15 – location of drillings: W – Wróblówka, CD – Czarny Dunajec, K – Koniówka, D – Domański Wierch. Thickness of Neo-
gene (N) and Quaternary (Q) deposits in metres, 16 – state boundaries, 17 – sites: P – Piekielnik, T – Trstená, SH – Suchá Hora, CH
– Chochołów, 18 – radiocarbon datings.
It is possible to assume that the long-persisting N to NNE-
orientated horizontal stress, induced by the Alcapa’s advance,
has been responsible for formation of a large oblique Orava
fault during the last 14 Ma. The conjugated NE-SW and NW-
SE faults led to Neogene opening of the Orava Basin, begin-
ning from the Late Badenian (Serravallian) times. This open-
ing was directed towards the NE, utilising a system of parallel
NW-orientated faults. Important changes in tectonic evolution
of this part of the Western Carpathians could have been related
to a substantial impact exerted by the close proximity to the
then uplifted Tatra massif and formation of the Podhale syncli-
norium, controlling W-E and N-S orientated systems of faults
and fractures. The exact timing of these events is difficult to
constrain precisely. I suppose that at the Pliocene/Quaternary
boundary, a gravel-bed river carrying quartzitic sandstones ex-
isted in that area, testifying to increased erosion. Close to Lip-
nica, Pliocene sediments resting on mildly folded Sarmatian
strata were mapped by Watycha (1976). According to unpub-
lished palynological analysis by L. Stuchlik (Institute of
Palaeobotany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków), a Plio-
Quaternary age of the so-called Pliocene strata cannot be ruled
out. That was the time of volcanic activity, documented by a
layer of tuffite comprised in organic sediments filling an aban-
doned channel. The Tatra-derived crystalline cobbles and peb-
bles in the Orava Basin were described from the Wróblówka
well-log. These clasts were deposited during a relatively cold
Quaternary period, characterized by the presence of tundra and
some forest patches (Watycha 1973).
Discussion and conclusions
The thermal evolution of the western part of Orava Basin
was reconstructed by Nagy et al. (1996). On the Polish side at
Lipnica, the Sarmatian strata are exposed above 650 m a.s.l.,
whereas at Czarny Dunajec borehole the Sarmatian strata are
at —116 — +117 m a.s.l. (depth 848—565 m). At Lipnica, the
coal seems to be controlled by high pressure and probably
high temperatures (Kołcon & Wagner 1991). Geochemical
data and thermal reconstruction of the basin indicate that the
western part of the Orava Basin near Ústie n. Priehradou un-
derwent subsidence (up to 1000 m depth, at temperature above
70 °C), and during the Pliocene (Nagy et al. 1996) was uplift-
ed together with its fringe. Thus, the present depression of
Orava is of erosional character due to exhumation of soft Neo-
gene strata. Steep slopes bordering the Orava depression are
built of flysch rocks and probably are close to earlier-formed
slopes controlled by faults. The NE part of the Orava Basin is
a young subsiding area. Fig. 5 illustrates both the older and
The important question is whether the present-day and Qua-
ternary mechanisms of the Orava Basin formation were differ-
ent from those during Neogene times, or could this evolution
be related with the same tectonic process of rotation of the so-
called Orava Block (Choč with Skorušina, section of the Klip-
pen Belt and Beskid Wysoki with Babia Góra and Romanka-
Pilsko group), and a shift to the NE of the Tatra block. The
reason for changes from subsidence to uplift in the Orava Ba-
sin can be interpreted as follows. A shallower platform base-
ment in the west hampered the advance of the Outer Car-
pathians earlier than on the east. The Quaternary and present
activity of strike-slip fault of Domański Wierch controls the
young subsidence in the NE part of the bottom of the Orava
Basin only. Such an effect was described by Kováč et al.
(1989) in relation to the western part of the Western Car-
pathians in the Trenčín-Žilina section which was stopped by
the crystalline Bohemian Massif. In this case the physical rota-
tion to the NW was documented palaeomagnetically on Egg-
enburgian (42°) and Karpatian (37°) marine deposits filling
piggy back basins. On the Polish side, in the Babia Góra
Fig. 6. Hypothetical model of the formation of the Western Carpathian arc during the time spans: 20—18, 14 and about 1 million years ago
(according to Baumgart-Kotarba 1996). Hatchures show the Klippen Belt as a symbol of the Western Carpathians arc, whereas the arrows
mark assumed direction of movements of the blocks (V – Váh block, FM – Malá Fatra block, O – Orava block, T – Tatra block, R –
Rudohorie block). The model shows opening of the Orava Basin due to tension between the Orava block rotated to the NW and Tatra
block migrating to the NE. Main block bounding faults: Mo – Morava fault, Be – Bečva fault, Ol – Olza fault, Bi – Biała (Zázrivá)
fault, Li – Lipnica fault, Do—Le – Domański Wierch and Lepietnica faults (part of the Orava transversal fault), Ru – Ružbachy fault,
Ro – Ropa fault, Mu – Muráň fault, Ho – Hornád fault, L – Laborec fault.
CONTINUOUS TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE ORAVA BASIN 109
Range, Aleksandrowski (1985) has reconstructed two genera-
tions of folds. The younger NW-SE striking folds were consid-
ered as a result of folding in the East Carpathians and were su-
perimposed on the older ones. The older generation was
formed due to horizontal stress, which involved folding of the
Magura Nappe. The author’s assumption is that the older gen-
eration predates rotation, and the younger one could be related
to rotation of the Orava block to the NW (Fig. 6). The age of
the opening of the Orava Basin, evaluated till now due to pali-
nological studies of fluvial deposits from the Czarny Dunajec
borehole (Oszast & Stuchlik 1977), is presently very well sup-
ported by the data of Oszczypko (1997), showing that the
Magura and Silesian nappes are overthrust upon foredeep ma-
rine deposits (Lower and Middle Badenian) in Zawoja bore-
hole. Oszczypko (1997) concluded about multistage over-
thrusting, including the Late Badenian (stage 3) and after
Sarmatian (stage 4) stages, and reconstructed the position of
the front of the Carpathian nappes. Zawoja borehole is located
35 km to the NW of the Czarny Dunajec borehole, situated in
the central part of the Orava Basin. Thus, the thrusting of
Magura Nappe and the opening of Orava Basin have been syn-
chronous. According to Cieszkowski’s (1992, 1995) opinion,
the youngest flysch rocks outcropping close to the Klippen
Belt are Middle Miocene (Staré Bystré Beds), while younger
Kopaczyska and Pasieka Beds are typical deep sea marine mo-
lasses. The Middle Miocene beds according to B. Olszewska’s
opinion Langian, and even Serravallian in age (Cieszkowski
1992, 1995). In such a case, the opening of the Orava Basin
was manifested in a relatively short time. It is also interesting
that the uplift of the Tatra Mts, according to fission track dat-
ing, is 15—10 Ma only (Krá 1977). It is possible to interpret
that the beginning of the opening of the Orava Basin (Fig. 6)
was also synchronous with the onset of the Tatra uplift from a
depth of 5 km (Baumgart-Kotarba 1998). According to new
data concerning K-Ar dating of the Miocene andesite intru-
sions in the southernmost part of the Magura units close to the
Pieniny Mts (Wżar and Bryjarka Mts), Birkenmajer & Péc-
skay (1999) conclusion is that both the 1
similar in age between ca. 13.5—11Ma. It means that the andes-
itic subvolcanic activity is related to the same tectonic phase
which uplifted of the Tatra Mts, opened the Orava Basin and
induced thrusting of the Magura Nappe, as was documented
by Oszczypko (1997).
Acknowledgements: This research was supported mostly by
the Committee for Scientific Research – Grant No. 6PO 4E
020 08. Many thanks for good collaboration to M.A. Maria
Hojny-Kołoś, Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sci-
ences, to Prof. Dr. Ryszard Ślusarczyk, Dr. Jerzy Dec, M.A.
Ing. Elżbieta Czulak and M.A. Ing. Andrzej Bugajski from the
Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Nature Protection, Acad-
emy of Mining and Metalurgy. According to this project As-
soc. Prof. Dr. Antoni Tokarski from the Institute of Geology,
Polish Academy of Sciences measured the joint pattern in the
Pliocene and Sarmatian sediments in Orava Basin. I am in-
debted to Prof. Dr. Witold Zuchiewicz for his suggestion to
improve this manuscript. The same gratitude I would like to
express to the unknown Reviewers.
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