GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 51, 6, BRATISLAVA, DECEMBER 2000
LATE ALBIAN AND CENOMANIAN REDEPOSITED FORAMINIFERA
FROM LATE CRETACEOUS-PALEOCENE DEPOSITS OF THE RAÈA
SUBUNIT (MAGURA NAPPE, POLISH WESTERN CARPATHIANS)
AND THEIR PALEOGEOGRAPHICAL SIGNIFICANCE
and NESTOR OSZCZYPKO
Institute of Geography, Cracow Pedagogical University, Podchor¹¿ych St. 2, 30-084 Kraków, Poland; email@example.com
Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Oleandry St. 2a, 30-063 Kraków, Poland; firstname.lastname@example.org
(Manuscript received April 25, 2000; accepted in revised form October 17, 2000)
Abstract: Late Albian abundant and diversified foraminifers and calcified radiolaria representing the Planomalina
buxtorfi-Rotalipora appenninica Zone, and single Cenomanian planktonic foraminifers have been found as redepos-
ited assemblages within lower-middle Campanian and Paleocene flysch deposits of the Raèa Subunit, Magura Nappe,
Polish Western Carpathians. The Late Albian foraminifers derived from the source area located at the NW margin of
the Magura Basin, whereas the Cenomanian foraminifers derived from the SE periphery of the basin. The presence of
such microfauna is interpreted as an occurrence of a submarine plateau with pelagic deposition, under lower neritic-
upper bathyal depths in the marginal parts of the Magura Basin, during the Late AlbianEarly Cenomanian. This
assumption was used for reconstruction of the Late Albian-Early Cenomanian paleogeography of the Magura Basin.
Key words: Western Carpathians, Magura Nappe, Late Albian, Cenomanian, paleogeography, Foraminifera.
The results of paleontological studies of Late Albian and
Cenomanian redeposited foraminifers from the Campanian
and Paleocene deposits of the Magura Nappe (Western Car-
pathians) within the Raèa Subunit are discussed in this paper.
These studies may give a better understanding of the early
sedimentation history in the Polish part of the Magura Basin
(a part of the Outer Carpathian realm), which is poorly docu-
The Magura Nappe was almost completely uprooted from
its substratum during the overthrust movements, mostly
along the ductile Upper Cretaceous rocks. For this reason,
the Lower Cretaceous deposits are very scarce. Exposures
with Lower Cretaceous deposits in this nappe were described
from Southern Moravia (Bubík et al. 1993; vabenická et al.
1997) and from Poland (Birkenmajer 1965, 1973; Ciesz-
kowski & Sikora 1976; Burtan et al. 1976, 1978; Burtan &
Most stratigraphical data concerning the oldest deposits in
the Polish part of the Magura Nappe were connected with the
Grajcarek Unit (Birkenmajer 1965, 1973) the southern-
most tectonic-facies zone of the Magura Nappe, incorporated
into the Pieniny Klippen Belt during the Laramian folding
(Birkenmajer 1986). The oldest deposits of the Grajcarek
Unit, represented by black turbidities, are ?Toarcian-Aalen-
ian in age (e.g. Birkenmajer 1977). They were followed by
deep-water, condensed sedimentation of Bajocian through
Lower Cretaceous. The Albian and ?Cenomanian rocks were
attributed to the Wronine and Hulina formations (Birkenma-
jer 1977), represented mostly by argillaceous, marly, sili-
ceous, bituminous, black or dark-green shales with pyrite,
siderite and ferruginous dolomite concretions (Wronine
Fm.), and radiolarian cherts (Hulina Fm.).
The oldest deposits (green spotty shales) of the Krynica
Subunit were described in the Obidowa IG-1 borehole
(24532510 m; Cieszkowski & Sikora 1976). Their age was
determined as the Cenomanian, however, no paleontological
data was presented there. According to Birkenmajer & Osz-
czypko (1989), these deposits could be included as a part of
the Hulina Formation (AlbianCenomanian in the Grajcarek
Unit; Birkenmajer 1977), based on lithofacies.
The oldest deposits in the Grybów Subunit and the Koninki
thrust-sheet of the Magura Nappe are known from a few small
exposures at the southern margin of the Mszana Dolna tecton-
ic window (Burtan et al. 1976, 1978; Burtan & £ydka 1978).
They include dark and green, spotty shales with manganesifer-
rous concretions (?Albian-Cenomanian) and dark shales with
siliceous sandstones and benthonites (?Albian-Cenomanian).
According to a recent investigation (Oszczypko et al. 1999),
the Koninki thrust-slice could be assigned to the Raèa Subunit.
Birkenmajer & Oszczypko (1989) compared these deposits
with the Hulina Formation (Albian-Cenomanian). The assem-
blage of small foraminifers, described from the green, spotty
shales at Koninki village, consists of exclusively agglutinated
taxa, corresponding to the Plectorecurvoides alternans Zone
sensu Geroch & Nowak (1984). In the Polish Carpathians, this
zone represents the Middle AlbianEarly Cenomanian accord-
ing to Geroch & Nowak (1984) and B¹k (in print), and the
MiddleLate Albian according to Olszewska (1997).
The study area is located along the £ososina stream in the
Pó³rzeczki village, within the SE part of the Beskid
Wyspowy Range, close to Mogielica Mt. (Figs. 1, 2). This
area belongs to the Raèa Subunit of the Magura Nappe,
building up the eastern periphery of the Mszana Dolna tec-
tonic window (Fig. 1; see also Burtan et al. 1976, 1978; Bur-
tan & £ydka 1978). This part of the Raèa Subunit is com-
posed of the Upper CretaceousMiddle Eocene deposits
belonging to: Malinowa Formation, Jaworzynka and Ropianka
beds, and £abowa and Belovea formations (Fig. 2; Oszczyp-
ko et al., submitted paper).
The Malinowa ShaleFormation (see Birkenmajer & Osz-
czypko 1989) is represented by cherry-red, non-calcareous
shales, which occur in 3050 cm layers, intercalated by grey-
greenish shales, a few up to 25 cm thick. In this area, the for-
mation contains a few intercalations of thick-bedded, coarse to
medium-grained quartz-glauconite sandstones, laminated
quartzitic mudstones and hornstones. The thick-bedded
quartz-glauconite sandstones revealed the paleotransport from
W and WNW. The frequency of the grey-greenish intercala-
tions increases in the upper part of the formation, displaying
features of the Ha³uszowa lithofacies described from the Zasa-
dne section (Malata & Oszczypko 1990). The thickness of the
Malinowa Formation reaches at least 50 m (Oszczypko et al.,
Fig. 1. Sketch-map of the middle part of the Polish Western Carpathians (after Oszczypko et al. 1999, supplemented). 1 Podhale Flysch, 2
Pieniny Klippen Belt; Magura Nappe: 3 Krynica Subunit, 4 Bystrica Subunit, 5 Raèa Subunit, 6 Siary Subunit; 7 Grybów
Unit; 8 Dukla, Silesian and Subsilesian units, 9 Miocene onto the Carpathians, 10 Miocene andesites, 11 fault, 12 Albian-
Cenomanian deposits in outcrops and borehole Obidowa IG-1, 13 study area.
LATE ALBIANCENOMANIAN REDEPOSITED FORAMINIFERA FROM RAÈA SUBUNIT 373
Fig. 2. Geological map of the Pó³rzeczki area in the Mogielica
Range (Raèa Subunit, Magura Nappe, Polish Western Carpathians;
after Oszczypko et al., submitted paper). 1 Late Albian-Cenoma-
nian spotty shales, 2 Malinowa Shale Formation, 3 Kanina
beds, 4 Jaworzynka beds, 5 Szczawina Sandstones, 6 Ropi-
anka beds, 7 £abowa Shale Formation, 8 Belovea and Bystri-
ca formations (not divided), 9 Bystrica thrust, 10 other thrust,
11 fault, 12 study section.
argillaceous shales with sideritic concretions and layers of
black silicified mudstones (hornstones, see sample Pó³-0/93;
Fig. 4). The thickness of the Kanina beds reaches 100 m.
The Jaworzynka beds are composed of thick-bedded sand-
stones, dirty-green in colour, medium to coarse-grained, rich
in feldspars and admixture of glauconite and biotite (Burtan et
al. 1976, 1978; Burtan & £ydka 1978; Oszczypko et al., sub-
mitted paper). These sandstones revealed the paleotransport
direction from W and NW. The Jaworzynka beds are upper Se-
nonian in age. Their maximum thickness is about 200 m.
The Ropianka beds are represented by thin to medium-bed-
ded, green-greyish sandstones, dark, muscovite mudstones,
enriched with coalfield plant flakes and dark-grey, blue, usual-
ly carbonate-free shales. In the upper part of the beds, interca-
lations of dark-grey medium-bedded and very fine-grained,
glauconite and biotite non-calcareous sandstones occur. A few
layers of turbiditic limestones and siderites have also been
found. Flute-cast measurements display paleotransport from
WNW (280°) in the lowermost portion of the beds, to ESE and
SES (100160°) in their upper part. The Ropianka beds (150
m thick) are Maastrichtian to Paleocene in age (Oszczypko et
al., submitted paper) in the Pó³rzeczki section.
The £abowa Shale Formation (Oszczypko 1991) is repre-
sented by a few meters thick, repeated packets of soft, carbon-
ate-free, red and green shales, intercalated with very thin-bed-
ded turbidites in its lower part, and thick (23 m) packets of
red shales in its middle part. Locally, green and blue shales
with intercalations of thin-bedded sandstones have been ob-
served at the Pó³rzeczki section. The thickness of the forma-
tion attains up to 150 m. According to biostratigraphical stud-
ies (see Oszczypko 1991; Oszczypko et al., submitted paper),
the £abowa Shale Formation represents the Early Eocene.
The uppermost part of the Raèa Subunit sequence belongs to
the Belovea Formation in the study area. The formation is
represented mainly by thin- to medium-bedded turbidites.
Shales, varying in colour (green, grey, blue, brown and yel-
lowish) prevail distinctly over sandstones. In the basal part of
the formation, a few intercalations of red shales have been ob-
served in the studied section. The thickness of the formation
reaches about 50 m. Its age has not been investigated at the
Pó³rzeczki section, however, by comparison with the Zasadne
section (see Oszczypko 1991), it could correspond to the Mid-
Material and methods
Samples of black and dark siliceous shales of the Kanina
beds were taken from the Pó³rzeczki section (Figs. 2, 3) for
micropaleontological study. Seven samples (Pó³-33/94Pó³-
39/94) were collected from two limbs of an overturned anti-
cline. The samples weigthing 500750 g were dried and disin-
tegrated in a solution of sodium carbonate. One sample (Pó³-0/
93), taken from a 10 cm thick, black, silicified mudstone layer
was dissolved in 5 % dilute hydrofluoric acid. The material
was then washed through sieves with mesh diameters of 63
µm and 1500 µm. The microfauna were picked from 631500
µm fraction and mounted on cardboard slides for microscopic
submitted paper). According to Malata & Oszczypko (1990)
and Oszczypko et al. (submitted paper), the Malinowa Shale
Formation represents the Turonian through Santonian stages.
The Malinowa Shale Formation passes upward into the Se-
nonian-Paleocene deposits, which have been traditionally re-
ferred to the Inoceramian beds. In the investigated area these
beds have been divided into four divisions, known as the lower
(Kanina beds), the middle (Jaworzynka and Szczawina beds)
and the upper (Ropianka beds) Inoceramian beds (Burtan et al.
1976, 1978; Burtan & £ydka 1978; Cieszkowski et al. 1989;
The Kanina beds are composed of thin- to medium-bedded
sandstones with intercalations of grey-bluish and grey-yellow-
ish mudstones and shales, corresponding to the early-middle
Campanian. The uppermost part of the formation consists of
thin- to medium-bedded siliciclastic turbidites with numerous
530 cm thick intercalations of turbiditic limestones (see
Cieszkowski et al. 1989). At the Pó³rzeczki village, this part of
the beds displays thin intercalations of grey-green and black
The microfaunal slides are housed in the Institute of Geog-
raphy, Cracow Pedagogical University (collection No. 07 Mg).
The black and dark silicified shales contain scarce and poor-
ly diversified deep-water agglutinated foraminifers with
Caudammina gigantea (Geroch), which is important for
stratigraphy. The assemblage is dominated by tubular, mostly
pyritized forms of the superfamily Astrorhizacea (Fig. 4; Pls.
I, II). Specimens of the genera Paratrochamminoides, Tro-
chamminoides, Reophax, Trochammina, Recurvoides as well
as Saccammina placenta (Grzybowski), S. grzybowskii
(Dyl¹¿anka) and Caudammina ovulum (Grzybowski) also oc-
The occurrence of Caudammina gigantea in these deposits,
the species used as an index taxon in most zonations of non-
calcareous, Late Cretaceous facies (e.g. Geroch & Nowak
1984; Kuhnt et al. 1992; Bubík 1995; B¹k in print) and the
stratigraphical data of younger deposits in the studied section
suggest the early-middle Campanian age of the black, sili-
However, one sample (Pó³-0/93), taken from a 10 cm thick
chert layer (silicified mudstone) includes a well-preserved and
rich assemblage of planktonic and benthic (calcareous and ag-
glutinated) foraminifers (Fig. 4; Pl. III). The species Hedber-
gella delrioensis (Carsey), accompanied by other hedbergel-
lids, such as H. planispira (Tappan), H. simplex (Morrow)
dominates there (more than 140 specimens). Other common
planktonic forms include species of Planomalina buxtorfi
(Gandolfi) (10 specimens), Rotalipora appenninica (Renz) (8
specimens), Globigerinelloides ultramicra (Subbotina) (6
specimens), Praeglobotruncana delrioensis (Plummer) (3
specimens) and Heterohelix moremani (Cushman) (2 speci-
mens). Benthic foraminifers are represented by single forms
(15 specimens) of Gyroidinoides infracretacea (Morozova),
Lenticulina gaultina (Berthelin), Gavelinella intermedia (Ber-
thelin), Dentalina sp., Marginulina sp., Rhabdammina sp. and
Fig. 3. The sampled section of the lower-middle Campanian black turbidite deposits (Kanina beds) at the Pó³rzeczki village (Raèa Sub-
unit, Magura Nappe, Polish Western Carpathians).
Ammodiscus cretaceus (Reuss). Silicified (all recrystallized)
small radiolaria (Pl. IV; undeterminable, pers. inf. by Marta
B¹k) are a significant element (50 specimens) of this assem-
These foraminifers represent the Planomalina buxtorfi-Ro-
talipora appenninica Zone sensu Gasiñski (1988) and B¹k
(1998), corresponding to Vraconian. Unusual micropaleonto-
logical results obtained from the sample Pó³-0/93, encouraged
us to study more samples from this chert layer. Unfortunately,
they were devoid of microfauna.
In the authors opinion the described foraminifers can be in-
terpreted as redeposition of microfauna from the shallower
part of the basin, which represented another type of environ-
ment. Hieroglyphs measured from the base of this silicified
black mudstone layer show paleotransport from the west and
The younger deposits of the studied section at the Beskid
Wyspowy Mts., belonging to the lower Paleocene Ropianka
beds, contain single redeposited Cenomanian planktonic fora-
minifers (Pl. IV). A few specimens of Rotalipora cushmani
(Morrow), Praeglobotruncana gibba Klaus and P. delrioensis
(Plummer) have been found in the sample Pó³-2/94 (Pl. IV),
taken from the uppermost part of the Ropianka beds (early Pa-
leocene; Oszczypko et al., submitted to print).
Late Albian-Early Cenomanian
The Late Albian-Early Cenomanian paleogeography of the
Outer Carpathian sedimentary area was reconstructed mainly
for its northern (Silesian/Subsilesian Basin) and eastern (Skole
Basin) parts (e.g. Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1962; Birkenmajer 1977;
Birkenmajer 1986). The tectonic amputation of the Lower/
Middle Cretaceous deposits of the Magura Nappe makes diffi-
cult such reconstruction for the Magura Basin.
Taking into account all published data from the Magura
Nappe (Burtan et al. 1976, 1978; Burtan & £ydka 1978; Ciesz-
kowski & Sikora 1976; Birkenmajer 1977; Bubík et al. 1993;
LATE ALBIANCENOMANIAN REDEPOSITED FORAMINIFERA FROM RAÈA SUBUNIT 375
vabenická et al. 1997; Oszczypko et al., submitted paper) and
the present results, the authors propose the following recon-
struction of the paleogeography for the Magura Basin, during
the Late Albian/Early Cenomanian (Fig. 6).
Calcareous oozes (Vraconian in age) were deposited on the
submarine plateau or basin slope, to the south of the Silesian
submerged (or uplifted) ridge. Occurrence of this facies is
speculated here on the basis of the present results. The studied
Vraconian foraminiferal assemblage is very similar to that
from pelagic deposits of the Pieniny Klippen Belt (Fig. 5). The
number of foraminifers, species composition with abundant
hedbergellids and scarce agglutinated forms are similar to as-
semblages of the same planktonic foraminiferal Zone from the
Niedzica Succession (see sample Kos-4/92; B¹k 1998), and
from the Czorsztyn Succession (comp. Gasiñski 1988). This
may suggest a similar type of sedimentation, interpreted here
for the Magura Basin, as pelagic deposition on submarine pla-
teau under lower neritic-upper bathyal depths. Presence of
similar facies-zone during the Early Cretaceous in the Raèa
Subunit was documented in the Bile Karpaty Mts., within the
so-called Kurovice Klippe (e.g. Beneová et al. 1968). Ac-
cording to Bubík (in vábenická et al. 1997), single foramini-
fers such as Caudammina ovulum and Globigerinelloides ul-
tramicra, described from this area by Beneová et al. (1962),
may be indicators of the Albian in the Kurovice Klippe.
On the lower slope of the Silesian Ridge and adjacent part
of the basin, black-grey, calcareous, thin- to medium-bedded
turbidites were deposited (Fig. 6). These deposits are known
from the Hostynske Vrchy Mts. in the Raèa Subunit, Czech
part of the Magura Nappe (Bubík et al. 1993; vábenická et al.
1997). Occurrence of deep-water agglutinated foraminifers
with Recurvoides imperfectus Hanzliková, and numerous cal-
careous nannoplantkon with Eiffelithus turriseiffelii could in-
dicate Middle-Late Albian age (since CC9a Zone). The depos-
its of the latter locality represents flysch-type sedimentation
(vábenická et al. 1997), compared to the Gault Flysch known
from the Rhenodanubicum of the Eastern Alps (Salzburg envi-
The deepest part of the Magura Basin, up to the slope of the
Czorsztyn Ridge was probably occupied by pelagic, strongly
bioturbated green shales and spotty shales (see Burtan et al.
1976, 1978; Burtan & £ydka 1978; Birkenmajer 1977; vábe-
nická et al. 1997; Oszczypko et al., submitted paper), deposit-
ed below the calcium compensation depth (Fig. 6).
On the lower slope of the Czorsztyn Ridge, non-calcareous,
mostly siliceous black and dark shales with siliceous mud-
stones (partly radiolarites) were the dominant deposits (Hulina
Formation; Grajcarek Unit). Their sedimentation took place
under deep-water conditions, near the calcium compensation
depth (CCD) (rare planktonic foraminifers are present there).
To the west (Bile Karpaty Subunit), the Hulina Formation is
replaced by the upper part of the Hluk Formation (Stráník et
al. 1995), represented by carbonate flysch with black and grey-
Fig. 4. Occurrence of microfauna in the investigated samples;
Pó³rzeczki village, Raèa Subunit, Magura Nappe; L.A. Late Al-
Hyperammina cf. dilatata
Subreophax cf. splendidus
Subreophax cf. scalaris
Caudammina cf. crassa
Cribrostommoides cf. trinitatensis
Heterohelix cf. moremani
> 100 specimens
Plate I: SEM photomicrographs of autochthonous Campanian deep-water agglutinated Foraminifera at the Pó³rzeczki section; Raèa Subunit,
Magura Nappe, Polish Western Carpathians: Fig. 1. ?Hyperammina cf. dilatata, sample Pó³-39/94. Fig. 2. Kalamopsis grzybowskii
(Dyl¹¿anka), sample Pó³-39/94. Fig. 3. Subreophax cf. splendidus (Grzybowski), sample Pó³-36/94. Fig. 4. Subreophax cf. scalaris (Grzy-
bowski), sample Pó³-39/94. Fig. 5. Caudammina gigantea (Geroch), sample Pó³-39/94. Fig. 6. Pseudonodosinella parvula (Huss), sample
Pó³-39/94. Figs. 7, 8. Subreophax splendidus (Grzybowski), sample Pó³-36/94. Figs. 9, 10. Caudammina ovulum (Grzybowski), sample Pó³-
35/94. Fig. 11. Caudammina cf. crassa (Geroch), sample Pó³-39/94. Fig. 12. Aschemocella grandis (Grzybowski), sample Pó³-34/94. Fig.
13. Caudammina ovulum (Grzybowski), sample Pó³-38/94. Figs. 14, 15. Saccammina grzybowskii (Schubert), Pó³-39/94.
LATE ALBIANCENOMANIAN REDEPOSITED FORAMINIFERA FROM RAÈA SUBUNIT 377
Plate II: SEM photomicrographs of autochthonous Campanian deep-water agglutinated Foraminifera at the Pó³rzeczki section; Raèa Sub-
unit, Magura Nappe, Polish Western Carpathians: Fig. 1. Ammodiscus cretaceus (Reuss), sample Pó³-39/94. Figs. 2, 3. Glomospira charoi-
des (Parker & Jones), sample Pó³-38/94. Fig. 4. Glomospira serpens (Grzybowski), sample Pó³-33/94. Fig. 5. Glomospira irregularis (Grzy-
bowski), sample Pó³-36/94. Figs. 6, 7. Paratrochamminoides sp., sample Pó³-39/94. Fig. 8. Trochammina sp., sample Pó³-38/94. Figs. 9, 10.
Cribrostommoides cf. trinitatensis Cushman, sample Pó³-39/94. Fig. 11. Recurvoides sp., sample Pó³-36/94. Fig. 12. Paratrochamminoides
cf. variolarius (Grzybowski), sampe Pó³-39/94. Figs. 13, 14. Gerochammina conversa (Grzybowski), sample Pó³-38/94. Fig. 15. Karreruli-
na coniformis (Grzybowski), sample Pó³-38/94. Fig. 16. Haplophragmoides sp., sample Pó³-39/94.
Plate III: SEM photomicrographs of planktonic Vraconian Foraminifera at the Pó³rzeczki section (sample Pó³-0/93); Raèa Subunit,
Magura Nappe, Polish Western Carpathians: Figs. 13. Planomalina buxtorfi (Gandolfi). Fig. 4. Heterohelix cf. moremani (Cushman).
Figs. 5, 6. Hedbergella delrioensis (Carsey). Figs. 7, 8. Hedbergella simplex (Morrow). Figs. 911. Rotalipora appenninica (Renz). Fig.
12. Globigerinelloides ultramicra (Subbotina). Figs. 13, 14. Praeglobotruncana delrioensis (Plummer). Fig. 15. Globigerinelloides ul-
LATE ALBIANCENOMANIAN REDEPOSITED FORAMINIFERA FROM RAÈA SUBUNIT 379
Plate IV: SEM photomicrographs of redeposited planktonic Cenomanian Foraminifera (sample Pó³-2/93; Rzehakina fissistomata Zone,
early Paleocene) and Vraconian Radiolaria (sample Pó³-0/93) at the Pó³rzeczki section; Raèa Subunit, Magura Nappe, Polish Wetern Car-
pathians: Figs. 1, 2. Rotalipora cushmani (Morrow). Figs. 37. Praeglobotruncana gibba Klaus. Figs. 8, 9. Praeglobotruncana delrioen-
sis (Plummer). Figs. 1014. Spherical tests of Radiolaria.
green claystones, whitish marls and limestones. They are in-
tercalated with carbonate-free clays of the Glomospira-
Rhizammina and Rhabdammina-Rzehakina biofacies, which
could be evidence of an environment below the CCD (váben-
ická et al. 1997).
Towards the Czorsztyn submerged ridge, these deposits
were replaced by the calcareous oozes, partly silicified (plank-
tonic foraminiferal-radiolarian microfacies) of the Pomiedznik
Formation and the Brynczkowa Marl Member (Jaworki For-
mation) (see Birkenmajer 1977; Birkenmajer & Jednorowska
1987) (Fig. 6). The foraminiferal associations suggest the shelf
and upper slope depth of the Czorsztyn Ridge (Birkenmajer &
Similar, upper Albian-lower Cenomanian facies occur in the
Ukrainian part of the Klippen Belt, described as the Tissalo
Formation (Vialov et al. 1988). These deposits are represented
by 145 m thick, light and dark-grey marls (partly fucoide),
with thin intercalations of black shales and grey-green lime-
stones. The Tissalo Formation is underlain by the Neocomian
cherty limestones and covered by the Late Cenomanian-Se-
nonian variegated marls of the Puchov Formation.
The Albian and Cenomanian deposits are also known in the
Ukrainian and Romanian Outer Carpathians, in their parts,
which are correlated with the Magura Unit (Fig. 6). According
to Sãndulescu (1988; see also Oszczypko 1992), the Silesian
Cordillera was a prolongation of the Middle and Outer
Dacides, which were tectonized during the Middle Cretaceous.
Fig. 5. Comparison of foraminiferal assemblages within the Pla-
nomalina buxtorfii-Rotalipora apeninnica Zone (Vraconian) from
the Pó³rzeczki section (Raèa Subunit, Magura Nappe, Polish West-
ern Carpathians) and from the Pieniny Klippen Belt (B¹k 1998). 1
tubular agglutinated foraminifers; Ammodiscus, Glomospi-
ra; 3 Saccammina, Trochammina, Haplophragmoides, Recur-
voides; 4 Reophax, Dorothia, Gaudryina, Tritaxia; 5 Globu-
lina, Dentalina, Lenticulina, Planularia, Marginulina; 6
Epistommina, Gavelinella, Gyroidinoides; 7 Planomalina bux-
torfii; 8 Rotalipora, Praeglobotruncana, 9 Hedbergella, Glo-
Thus, since that time, the Marmarosh (Maramuresh) Massif
could supply the material to the NE part of the Magura Basin
(Raèa sedimentary area; see ¯ytko 1999). The NW prolonga-
tion of the Marmarosh Massif is known as the Marmarosh
Klippen (Vezhany Nappe; ¯ytko 1999).
The Marmarosh Massif was transgressively overlapped by
the Late Albian-Cenomanian postectonic Sojmul Formation in
the SE part of the Ukrainian Carpathians (Vialov et al. 1988).
This formation, up to 120 m thick, overlaying the Triassic
folded deposits, includes the shallow-water, marine clastic de-
posits, coarse-grained in their lower part and fine-grained in
the upper ones. The formation includes also deep-water, basi-
nal turbidites, passing upward to the pelagic Puchov Marls
(Late Cenomanian-Maastrichtian; see Panomareva in: Vialov
et al. 1988) in the area of the Marmarosh Klippen (Dragovo
It should be stressed that there is a lack of the Aptian-Lower
Cenomanian deposits in the Poiana Botizei section (East Car-
pathians, Romania), the SE termination of the Pieniny Klippen
Belt and the Magura Nappe (Bombita et al. 1992). This is
probably an effect of a latter (or synsedimentary) erosion in
Source of the Cenomanian redeposited foraminifers
The source area for the Cenomanian redeposited foramini-
fers is reconstructed here on the basis of paleotransport mea-
surements in the upper part of the Ropianka beds. Flute casts
on soles of thin- to medium-bedded sandstones suggest the
ESE and SES (100160°) transport directions. These direc-
tions were similar to those during deposition of the Campa-
nian, thick-bedded, turbidite sandstones, belonging to the Sz-
czawina beds (transport also from SE). Thus, the clastic
material of the Ropianka and Szczawina beds derived, most
probably, from the peri-Pieninian source area (see Sikora
The presented micropaleontological data confirm that deep-
water sedimentation in the northernmost part of the Magura
Basin, in its Polish segment, started during the Late Albian.
The paleotransport directions of the mudstone layer (from W
and NW), in which the foraminifers have been found, and for
other turbidity layers of the Kanina beds, show that the Sile-
sian Ridge (or its southern slope) was the source area for the
redeposited material. The studied Vraconian foraminiferal as-
semblage resembles microfauna from the pelagic deposits of
the Pieniny Klippen Belt. Taking into account these similari-
ties, the lower neritic-upper bathyal depths and pelagic-type of
sedimentation are interpreted for this part of the Silesian Ridge
during the Late Albian.
Redeposited Cenomanian planktonic foraminifers, found in
the early Paleocene flysch of the Ropianka beds could also be
indicators of pelagic sedimentation, but on the southern periph-
ery of the Magura Basin, connected with the peripieninian area.
The published data, concerning the Late Albian-Early Cen-
omanian sedimentation in the Magura Basin, have been used
LATE ALBIANCENOMANIAN REDEPOSITED FORAMINIFERA FROM RAÈA SUBUNIT 381
here to reconstruct the main facial zones during this time. The
type of deposits and microfossil content show deep-water,
mostly pelagic and hemipelagic sedimentation below the cal-
cium compensation depth in the central part, and pelagic sedi-
mentation under lower neritic-upper bathyal depths in the
northern (Silesian Ridge) and southern (Czorsztyn Ridge) pe-
ripheries of the Magura Basin.
Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Marta
B¹k (Jagiellonian University) for help in preparation of chert
sample to micropaleontological analysis, and for information
about radiolarian fauna. Our thanks go also to Ewa Malata
(Jagiellonian University) for improving the English text.
Thanks are extended to Jadwiga Faber (Jagiellonian Univer-
sity) who made the SEM photographs and to anonymous re-
viewers for helpful suggestions.
This study was prepared using financial support of Project
No. DS/IG/3/99 funded by the Cracow Pedagogical Univer-
sity (K.B.) and Project No. DS/V/ING/99 funded by Jagiel-
lonian University (N.O.).
Fig. 6. Late Albian-Early Cenomanian paleogeography of the Outer Carpathians (Magura Basin this paper; Silesian/Subsilesian and
Skole basins after Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1962).
B¹k K. 1998: Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, Upper Cre-
taceous red pelagic deposits, Pieniny Klippen Belt, Car-
pathians. Stud. Geol. Pol. 111, 792.
B¹k K. (in print): Biostratigraphy of deep-water agglutinated Fora-
minifera in Scaglia Rossa-type deposits, the Pieniny Klippen
Belt, Carpathians, Poland. In: Hart M., Kaminski M.A. &
Smart C. (Eds.): Proceedings of the Fiftth International Work-
shop on Agglutinated Foraminifera. Grzybowski Foundation
Spec. Publ. 9, 124.
Beneová E., Hanzlíková E. & Matejka A. 1962: Contribution to the
geology of Kurovice Klippe. Zpr. Geol. Výzk. v Roce 1961,
185186 (in Czech).
Beneová E., Eliá M. & Matejka A. 1968: Geology of the Kurovice
klippe. Sbor. Geol. Vìd, Geol. 13, 736.
Birkenmajer K. 1965: Outlines of the geology of the Pieniny Klip-
pen Belt of Poland. Ann. Soc. Geol. Pol. 35, 3, 327356.
Birkenmajer K. 1973: Cretaceous. Stratigraphy and area of occur-
rence: Pieniny Klippen Belt. In: Geology of Poland, I
(Stratigraphy), 2 (Mesozoic). 669690 (in Polish).
Birkenmajer K. 1977: Jurassic and Cretaceous lithostratigraphic
units of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, Carpathians, Poland. Stud.
Geol. Pol. 45, 1159.
Birkenmajer K. 1986: Stages of structural evolution of the Pieniny
Klippen Belt, Carpathians. Stud. Geol. Pol. 88, 732.
Birkenmajer K. & Gasiñski M.A. 1992: Albian and Cenomanian
paleobathymetry in the Pieniny Klippen Belt Basin, Polish Car-
pathians. Cretaceous Research 13, 479485.
Birkenmajer K. & Jednorowska A. 1987: Late Cretaceous foramin-
iferal biostratigraphy, Pieniny Klippen Belt, Carpathians. Stud.
Geol. Pol. 92, 428.
Birkenmajer K. & Oszczypko N. 1989: Cretaceous and Paleogene
lithostratigraphic units of the Magura Nappe, Krynica Subunit,
Carpathians. Ann. Soc. Geol. Pol. 59, 145181.
Bombita G., Antonescu E., Malata E. & Jon J. 1992: Pieniny-type
formations from Maramures, Romanian (second part). Acta
Geol. Hung. 35, 2, 117144.
Bubík M. 1995: Cretaceous to Paleogene agglutinated foraminifera
of the Bile Karpaty Unit (West Carpathians, Czech Republic).
In: Kaminski M.A., Geroch S. & Gasiñski M.A. (Eds.): Pro-
ceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Agglutinated
Foraminifera. Grzybowski Foundation Spec. Publ. 3, 71116.
Bubík M., Stráník Z., vabenická L. & Vujta M. 1993: Find of the
Upper Albian in the Magura nappe of the Hostynske vrchy
Hills. Zpr. Geol. Výzk. v Roce 1991, 2021 (in Czech).
Burtan J. & £ydka K. 1978: On metamorphic tectonites of the
Magura Nappe in the Polish Flysch Carpathians. Bull. Acad.
Pol. Sci., Terre 26, 2, 95101.
Burtan J., Paul Z. & Watycha L. 1976: Detailed Geological Map of
Poland, scale 1:50,000; Mszana Górna sheet. Pañstwowy In-
stytut Geologiczny, Warszawa (in Polish).
Burtan J., Paul Z. & Watycha L. 1978: Detailed Geological Map of
Poland, scale 1:50,000; Mszana Dolna sheet. Pañstwowy In-
stytut Geologiczny, Warszawa (in Polish).
Cieszkowski M. & Sikora W. 1976: Geological results of Obidowa
IG-1 borehole (Polish Western Carpathians). Kwart. Geol. 2,
441442 (in Polish).
Cieszkowski M., Oszczypko N. & Zuchiewicz W. 1989: Upper Cre-
taceous siliciclastic-carbonate turbidites at Szczawa, Magura
Nappe, West Carpathians, Poland. Bull. Pol. Acad., Earth Sci.
Gasiñski M.A. 1988: Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Albian
and Cenomanian sediments in the Polish part of the Pieniny
Klippen Belt, Carpathians Mountains. Cretaceous Research 9,
Geroch S. & Nowak W. 1984: Proposal of zonation for the Late Ti-
thonian-Late Eocene, based upon arenaceous Foraminifera
from the Outer Carpathians, Poland. In: Oertli H.J. (Ed.):
Benthos 83; 2nd Intern. Symp. on Benthic Foraminifera (Pau,
France), April 1115, 1983. Elf Aquitane, ESSO REP and
TOTAL CFP, Pau & Bordeaux, 225239.
Ksi¹¿kiewicz M. (Ed.) 1962: Geological Atlas of Poland. Strati-
graphic-facial issues. Cretaceous and Paleogene in the Polish
Outer Carpathians. Instytut Geologiczny, Warszawa (English
Kuhnt W., Geroch S., Kaminski M.A., Moullade M. & Neagu T.
1992: Upper Cretaceous abussal claystones in the North Atlan-
tic and Western Tethys: current status of biostratigraphical cor-
relation using agglutinated foraminifers and paleoceanographic
events. Cretaceous Research 13, 467478.
Malata E. & Oszczypko N. 1990: Deep-water foraminiferal assem-
blages from Late Cretaceous red shales of the Magura Nappe,
Polish West Carpathians. In: Hemleben C. et al. (Eds.): Paleo-
ecology, Biostratigraphy, Paleceanography and Taxonomy of
Agglutinated Foraminifera. Kluwer Academic Publishers,
NATO ASI Series 327, 507524.
Olszewska B. 1997: Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Polish
Outer Carpathians: a record of basin geohistory. Ann. Soc.
Geol. Pol. 67, 23, 245256.
Oszczypko N. 1991: Stratigraphy of the Paleogene deposits of the
Bystrica subunit (Magura Nappe, Polish Outer Carpathians).
Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci., Earth Sci. 39, 4, 415431.
Oszczypko N. 1992: Late Cretaceous through Paleogene evolution
of Magura Basin. Geol. Carpathica 43, 6, 333338.
Oszczypko N., Malata E. & Oszczypko-Clowes M. 1999: Revised
position and age of the Eocene deposits on the northern slope
of the Gorce Range (Bystrica Subunit, Polish Western Car-
pathians). Slovak Geol. Mag. 5, 4, 235254.
Oszczypko N., Malata E., B¹k K. & Kêdzierski M. (sumbitted to
print): Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and paleoenviron-
ment of the Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene deposits in the Mo-
gielica Range; Bystrica and Raèa subunits of the Magura
Nappe, Polish Outer Carpathians. Submitted to Acta Geol. Pol.
Sãndulescu M. 1988: Cenozoik tectonics history of the Carpathians.
In: Royden L.H. & Horvath F. (Eds.): The Pannonian Basin a
study in basin evolution. AAPG Memoir 45, 748.
Sikora W. 1970: Geology of the Magura Nappe between Szymbark
Ruski and Nawojowa. Biul. Inst. Geol. 235, 5121 (in Polish,
Stráník Z., Bubík M., Krejèí O., Marschalko R., vábenická L. &
Vujta M. 1995: New lithostratigraphy of the Hluk development
of the Bilé Karpaty unit. Geol. Práce, Spr. 100, 5769.
vábenická L., Bubík M., Krejèí O. & Stráník Z. 1997: Stratigraphy
of Cretaceous sediments of the Magura Group of nappes in
Moravia. Geol. Carpathica 48, 3, 179191.
Vialov O.S., Gavura S.P., Danysh V.V., Lemishko O.D., Leschuch
R.I., Panomareva V.A., Romanov A.M., Smirnov S.E., Smolin-
skaya N.I. & Carnienko P.N. 1988: Strathotypes of the Creta-
ceous and Paleogene deposits of the Ukrainian Carpathians.
Naukova Dumka, 1202 (in Russian).
¯ytko K. 1999: Correlation of the main structural units of the West-
ern Carpathians. Prace Pañstw. Inst. Geol. 168, 135164 (En-