GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 51, 1, BRATISLAVA, FEBRUARY 2000
CALCULATIONS OF TECTONIC, MAGMATIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS
IN THE TIAVNICA STRATOVOLCANO, WESTERN CARPATHIANS:
IMPLICATIONS FOR MINERAL PRECIPITATION PATHS
, PATRIK KONEÈNÝ
and ONDREJ LEXA
Slovak Geological Survey, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Department of Geology and Paleontology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, 5010 Salzburg, Austria
Department of Petrology, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague, Czech Republic
(Manuscript received September 1, 1998; accepted in revised form September 28, 1999)
Abstract: This paper describes the dynamics controlling the development of the tiavnica stratovolcano and the distri-
bution of related ore deposits during the BadenianPannonian (16.56.2 Ma) using combined structural, geobarometric
and geothermometric analyses. During the early Badenianearlier late Badenian (16.515 Ma) the tiavnica area expe-
rienced NE-SW extension. It controlled NW-SE striking normal- and N-S trending sinistral strike-slip faults. Later,
during the early Badenianearlier late Badenian, the extension rotated to W-E and controlled N-S striking normal faults,
NE-SW striking sinistral and NW-SE striking dextral strike-slip faults. Later, the extension rotated to NW-SE. The tec-
tonic stress interacted with the rapid overburden removal and magmatic stress of the granodiorite intrusion, during the
late Badenianearly Sarmatian. The tectonic stress controlled NE-SW trending normal faults. Overburden reduction
input changed normal faulting to strike-slip faulting. Magmatic input caused the opening of subhorizontal veins above
the intrusion and anastomosing fracture pattern around its boundary. Later during the late Badenianearly Sarmatian, the
stress had a plane stress character (
), indicating neither collapse nor distinct regional extension. NE-SW
striking normal faults, ENE-WSW striking sinistral and N-S striking dextral strike-slip faults were active. Normal faults
and releasing bends of the strike-slip faults were places of ore deposit precipitation. During the SarmatianPannonian
(13.610.7 Ma), the stress progressively gained a strong oblate character (
), indicating strong regional NW-
SE extension, controlling the same fault pattern. Later during the Pannonian, counterclockwise stress rotation towards
and E-W oriented
led to NE-SW oriented sinistral strike-slip faulting.
Key words: Western Carpathians, tiavnica stratovolcano, stress, temperature, fault, vein.
During the Miocene, the Carpathian orogen migrated to-
wards the NE and E, synchronously with the subduction of
the remnant Carpathian Flysch Basin, underlain by an oce-
anic/paraoceanic crust and located between the overriding
Carpathians and European platform. This migration ceased
when the Carpathians made contact with the passive margin
of the European Platform (e.g. Royden & Baldi 1988) and
subduction stopped. Another control of the Carpathian de-
velopment was the eastward lateral extrusion of the Eastern
Alps after the Apulia-Europe collision (e.g. Ratschbacher et
al. 1991a,b; Csontos et al. 1992). The shortening in the fron-
tal, accretionary, parts of the Carpathians and subduction
rollback were compensated by the intra- and back-arc exten-
sion, accompanied by the asthenosphere elevation in the
back-arc region (e.g. Royden et al. 1982, 1983a,b; Bergerat
1989; Stegena et al. 1975). This geotectonic situation and
the distribution of the old continental crust in the Inner Car-
pathians controlled the space- and time distribution and com-
position of the Miocene-Quaternary Carpathian volcanism
(Lexa et al. 1993).
The temporal development of the tiavnica stratovolcano
(Fig. 1) is as follows (Lexa et al. 1999; Mao et al. 1996;
Koneèný et al. 1983; Koneèný & Lexa 1984; Kantor & Ïur-
kovièová 1985; Kantor et al. 1988).
The stratovolcano started to form during the early Bade-
nian (16.515.5 Ma) (Fig. 2a), built by pyroxene/horn-
blende-pyroxene andesite lava flows, extrusive domes, py-
roclastic flow deposits and epiclastic breccias. Andesite/
andesite porphyry sills and lacoliths were emplaced in its
central and basal parts. Related alterations comprised chlor-
itization and hematitization of intrusions. The stratovolcano
then underwent denudation roughly synchronous with em-
placement of the quartz-diorite body in its center during the
Badenianearly Sarmatian (16.512.7 Ma) (Fig. 2b).
During the late Badenianearly Sarmatian (1512.7 Ma),
activity of the high sulphidation fluids began causing the
argillitic alteration of host rocks and mezothermal mineral-
izing events. Denudation of the stratovolcano further con-
tinued roughly synchronous with the emplacement of the
large granodiorite intrusion (Fig. 2c). The intrusion, which
had flat roof and outward dipping margins, was situated in
the crystalline basement and its Mesozoic sedimentary cover.
A number of related porphyritic granodiorite apophyses were
emplaced into the Mesozoic rocks. At the contact of the gra-
nodiorite and the Mesozoic carbonates, magnetite skarns
were formed. Local fluids in the upper central parts of the
*Present address: Energy and Geoscience Institute, University of Utah, 423 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA;
20 NEMÈOK, KONEÈNÝ
CALCULATIONS OF TECTONIC, MAGMATIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS 21
granodiorite intrusion and surrounding andesite led to the
formation of the stockwork base metal mineralization ac-
companied by quartz, pyrite, pyrophylite and kaolinite al-
D values of inclusion fluids in the quartz and
sphalerite ranging from 52 to 67 SMOW, about 75
in chlorite and kaolinite; isotopic composition of the Pb-rich
Pb = 18.81018.839,
Pb = 15.659
Pb = 38.92239.011) indicate an important
role of magma-derived fluids (Háber et al. 1997). Later on,
during the continuing denudation of the stratovolcano, gran-
odiorite/quartz diorite porphyry stocks and dyke clusters
were emplaced around the granodiorite intrusion (Fig. 2d).
Some of the dykes penetrated by bore hole B-1 (Fig. 3) were
re-opened either through their median lines or along their
margins (tohl et al. 1990a). Fluids related to different
stocks/dyke clusters gave rise to copper porphyry/skarn ore
deposits and host rock alterations.
Later, during the late Badenianearly Sarmatian (1512.7
Ma), it has been postulated that a caldera was formed
(Koneèný & Lexa 1984), filled by sediments, reworked tuffs,
biotite-hornblende andesite/dacite extrusive domes, dome
flows and pyroclastic flows and was accompanied by the em-
placement of quartz-diorite porphyry sills and dykes (Fig. 2e).
During the Sarmatian (13.611.5 Ma), andesitic volcanic
activity from dispersed centers on the slopes of the strato-
volcano revived and the uplift of the horst structure in the
central parts began (Fig. 2f). The continuing uplift was ac-
companied by the emplacement of rhyolitic and granite por-
phyry bodies along the horst boundary faults, during the late
Sarmatianearly Pannonian (1210.7 Ma). Low sulphida-
tion fluids gave rise to base and precious metal vein-type
mineralization and adularia, sericite alterations. K/Ar ages
of 12.313.3 Ma (±0.4 ±1.2) from various sericite samples
constrain the time of this ore deposition (Tschernyschev et
D values of inclusion fluids in the quartz, baryte
Fig. 1. a) Structural scheme of the central zone of the tiavnica stra-
tovolcano (after tohl et al. 1990b) with localities of kinematic data
collection and fault pattern. 1 rhyolite dyke and extrusive dome,
upper Sarmatianlower Pannonian; 2 rhyolite volcanoclastic
rock, upper Sarmatianlower Pannonian; 3 post-caldera andesite
and volcanoclastic rock, Sarmatian; 4 hornblende-biotite andes-
ite caldera filling and hornblende-biotite andesite porphyry-dyke,
upper Badenianlower Sarmatian; 5 quartz-diorite porphyry
sill, upper Badenianlower Sarmatian; 6 quartz-diorite porphy-
rydyke, upper Badenianlower Sarmatian; 7 cluster of dykes
and stock of granodiorite porphyry, upper Badenianlower Sarma-
tian; 8 granodiorite, Badenianlower Sarmatian; 9 diorite,
Badenianlower Sarmatian; 10 pre-caldera propylitized andesite,
Badenian; 11 pre-caldera andesite and volcanoclastic rock, Bade-
nian; 12 pre-volcanic basement, CarboniferousKarpatian; 13
secondary quartzite, upper Badenianlower Sarmatian; 14
caldera marginal fault; 15 fault; 16 locality. b) Main structures
with ore deposits with original names. caldera marginal fault,
NW-dipping fault, ! SE-dipping fault, " NE-dipping fault,
# subvertical fault. Note the use of classical vein names, used
traditionally but incorrectly for ore deposit bodies formed along
normal and strike-slip faults.
Fig. 2. Cartoon of the development of the tiavnica stratovolcano from 16.5 to 10.5 Ma (after Lexa et al. 1999). Explanation in text.
22 NEMÈOK, KONEÈNÝ
configurations against the fault population from each loca-
tion. Each stress tensor causes certain reactivation of faults,
that is calculated displacement vectors. Calculated displace-
ment vectors are compared with the measured striations after
each test cycle. The stress tensor compatible with a fault
population is accepted as the stress configuration which
caused their activity. It has a form of reduced stress tensor
(Angelier 1989), providing only vectors of principal stresses
and the ratio of their magnitudes. The coefficient of internal
friction and cohesion (0.4 and 0 MPa) for the purpose of this
calculation for ruptures were taken from the literature (e.g.
Jaeger & Cook 1976; Hardcastle 1989). Friction and cohe-
sion for fractures were derived by our own rock mechanics
However, measured fault data from the outcrops were fre-
quently a mixture of several sub-sets, each of them related to
a different stress tensor, characterized by principal stress ori-
entations and the ratio of their magnitudes. In such a case, in-
compatible faults with first resulting stress tensor were sepa-
rated and testing repeated. This continued until all subsets
were separated and related tensors calculated. The separation
was controlled by the field observations of the structures of
various relative ages. The relative chronology of tectonic
events, represented in our study by their driving force-stress
tensors, at each location was indicated either by cross-cutting
relationships of different faults and veins or by cross-cutting
relationships of different striations on the same fault plane.
All relative chronologies of stress tensors from locations
were correlated and compared with the stratigraphy of the af-
fected rocks in order to infer time periods when the stresses
were large enough to cause veining and/or faulting. Each ten-
sor was interpreted as the cause of the deformation which oc-
curred during the certain time interval.
Separated tectonic events, unlike in sedimentary terrains,
slightly overlap, due to the broader, and occasionally overlap-
ping, age intervals of studied formations (see Koneèný & Lexa
Fig. 3. Profile of the eastern part of the tiavnica stratovolcano (after tohl et al. 1990b). The figure shows the 14
floor of the Rozália
Mine in Banská Hodrua, which is shown in more detail in Fig. 6g.
and carbonates ranging from 94 to 113 SMOW, calcu-
lated oxygen isotope composition of water in equilibrium
with carbonate and barite varying between 3 and 11
indicate aqueous solutions of predominantly meteoric origin
(Háber et al. 1997).
Previous studies, with the exception of the local study of
Mao et al. (1996) in the Rozália Mine, have not used any
structural data to infer either ore deposition models or the
development stages of the stratovolcano. The structural re-
connaissance has shown that collected structural data do not
always support the existing models. The combined structur-
al, geobarometric and geothermometric analyses presented
in this paper aim to test the existence of the postulated
caldera (Koneèný & Lexa 1984), to determine the tectonic
stress configurations active during the activity of ore fluids,
to determine how the magmatic stress interfered with the
tectonic stress, to determine how the overburden changes
due to fast erosion interfered with the tectonic stress and to
determine which faults were active in certain time periods,
that is potential migration paths during the activity of cer-
tain ore fluids.
Fault-striae data and extensional vein readings were col-
lected and used to determine paleostress configurations us-
ing the computer programs of Sperner et al. (1993) and
Hardcastle & Hills (1991). The former is a Pascal program
for IBM PC compatible computers. The software is based on
Turner (1953) and constructs P and T axes lying in the plane
comprising the fault plane normal and striation vector. The P
axis is inclined 45° from the fault plane and the T axis is per-
pendicular to the P axis. The latter program is a Quickbasic
program. It requires at least 4 faults with determined dis-
placement sense. The method tests a large variety of stress
CALCULATIONS OF TECTONIC, MAGMATIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS 23
Fig. 4. Mohr-circle envelope determined by triaxial testing of the
upper Badenian-lower Sarmatian granodiorite. The determined co-
hesion is 38.9 MPa, the angle of internal friction varies from 40 to
20°, depending on the confining pressure.
1984). This does not mean that separated tectonic events over-
lap, only that their limits are understood as broader bound-
In order to determine the angle of the internal friction and
cohesion for the reduced stress tensor calculation and the
stress relationship for the calculation of stress magnitudes,
the rock mechanics tests have been carried out on granodior-
ite samples. The samples were cylindrical, 3.78 cm in diame-
ter and 5.755.98 cm in height.
The principal stress magnitudes were computed applying
the following equations of Angelier (1989):
R = (
where R is a stress ratio, calculated by the Hardcastle & Hills
(1991) method. For a given lithology, the
derived from the Mohr circle envelope graph. The Mohr en-
velope was constructed as a line inclined to the x axis (nor-
mal stress) at the angle of internal friction, and cutting the y
axis (shear stress) at the value of cohesion. For normal fault-
ing, the value for
equalled the overburden load
, which is
is the density of stratovolcanic rocks,
g the acceleration of gravity (rounded to 9.812 ms
), and h
the thickness of overburden. This thickness was given by the
height of the stratovolcanic cone, reconstructed on the basis
of inclinations of preserved lava and pyroclastic flows, and
estimated at about 3000 m (V. Koneèný & J. Lexa 1995, pers.
commun.). The central parts of the missing stratovolcanic
cone were built by intrusive rocks, lava flows and minimally
by volcanoclastics (1520 %; V. Koneèný 1996; pers. com-
mun.). The density of the volcanic basement composed domi-
nantly of calcic dolomite is 27502850 kgm
, density of
andesite 25002600 kgm
, density of volcanoclastics 2000
, density of quartz-diorite porphyry 2630 kgm
density of diorite porphyry 2630 kgm
, density of diorite
and density of granodiorite 2640 kgm
et al. 1976; Ibrmajer et al. 1989). The mineralogical densities,
corrected for porosity, are 2700 kgm
for quartz-diorite por-
phyry, 2680 kgm
for diorite porphyry, 2730 kgm
ite and 2710 kgm
was calculated by
combining equations 1 to 3:
), where R, de-
termined from reduced stress calculation, is 0.4 and
termined from Mohr circle envelope graph (Fig. 4), is
Having calculated the principal stress magnitudes of the
tectonic stress, the interplay of the tectonic stress, overbur-
den removal and magmatically induced stress was studied.
Increments of overburden removal by erosion were directly
subtracted from the
value. Vertical magmatic stress, cal-
culated by buoyancy equation (e.g. Price & Cosgrove
1991), was also subtracted directly from
. Subtractions of
load and magmatic pressures from
were equal to
)) following Jaeger & Cook (1976), where
is the density, g is the acceleration of gravi-
ty and h is the depth. Calculations, which used magmatic
stress, were also made to test the values provided by
geobarometric and geothermometric study, the precision of
which is at the limits of the applied methods.
The effect of the temperature change, related to the over-
burden removal, on the development of the residual stress
was calculated from the equation following Suppe (1985):
)] * (dT/dz)
is the linear thermal expansion coef-
ficient, E is the Youngs modulus, dT/dz is the thermal gradi-
z is the change in depth. The volume change was
dT = v/(100-v)
where v is the volume change of the intrusion in %.
The T-t path modeling of the contact aureole of the grano-
diorite intrusion was made by the software of Peacock
(1990), using an explicit finite difference algorithm to solve
the one-dimensional heat transfer problem. Granodioritic
magma was assumed to be intruded instantaneously, at tem-
perature 750 °C (own data) and crystallized over a 100 °C
temperature interval. Other assumptions for the modeling are:
during crystallization, the magma released 100 kJkg
temperature of the country rock was 100 °C, the width of the
intrusion is 5 km, the thermal conductivity was 2.75 Wm
(taken from Cermak & Rybach 1982), the heat capacity was
K (taken from Cloetingh et al. 1995). Following the
T-t path modeling, the temperature gradient that develops the
cooling-related residual strength higher than the tensional
strength of the granodiorite/andesite was calculated from:
T > [
is the tensional strength. Fracturation events were
determined at each point of T-t cooling paths where the ten-
sional strength of the rock was overcome.
In order to determine the magmatic pressures in the mag-
ma chamber and in the upper parts of the granodiorite intru-
sion and the depths of the chamber and top of the intrusion,
24 NEMÈOK, KONEÈNÝ
CALCULATIONS OF TECTONIC, MAGMATIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS 25
geobarometric and geothermometric analyses of granodiorite
samples were made. Unpublished data of Koneèný (1996,
pers. commun.), made by projections of volcanic structures
in cross-sections, were used to correct the data on top of the
intrusion. These data together were used for the calculation
of the tectonic and magmatic stress interplay. Mineral phases
were analyzed using a JEOL-733 microprobe. A set of natu-
ral and synthetic (pure oxide) standards were used for the
calibration. The operating conditions were: accelerating volt-
age 15 kV, probe current 20 nA and counting time 20 s.
Points in the amphibole were placed within the central parts
of grains to avoid subsolidus changes. Plagioclases were ana-
lyzed roughly at one third of their diameter from the rims.
The application of geobarometer required several condi-
tions to be met. The mineral assemblage, besides amphibole,
must involve the following phases: biotite, plagioclase, or-
thoclase, quartz, magnetite and titanite. Oxygen fugacity
should have no effect on amphibole composition because it
is buffered by the magnetite-ilmenite pair. Pure water (no
) is supposed to constitute a fluid phase. Only the rims
of amphiboles should be analyzed to obtain a narrow inter-
val of pressures during the final crystallization.
Fig. 5. (a, b) Fault-striae data, prior to separation, from the surface localities from Fig. 1 projected in stereonet. The displacements shown
by one arrow indicate movement of the hanging wall. Note that only locations with 4 or more faults, those used for a numeric stress inver-
sion calculation (Hardcastle & Hills 1991), are shown. (c) Poles of the extensional veins from the localities from Fig. 1.
26 NEMÈOK, KONEÈNÝ
CALCULATIONS OF TECTONIC, MAGMATIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS 27
The data comprise fault-striae, extension vein readings
(Fig. 5) and granodiorite sample analyzes.
Most of the extensional veins are filled by idiomorphic
minerals (stretched type sensu Ramsay & Huber 1983) origi-
nated by elastic fracturation accompanied by insufficient flu-
id flow. This type indicates only a rough direction of
allel to their opening vector, assumed to be perpendicular to
vein walls. Stretched-type veins are not present in the Sarma-
tian andesites, rare in upper Sarmatian-lower Pannonian
rocks (only at location 4 with NW-SE strikes), frequent in
upper Badenian-lower Sarmatian rocks (locations 6e, 33,
39a, 72, 98 with usually NE-SW oriented veins) and abun-
dant in lower Badenian-early upper Badenian rocks (loca-
tions 6a, b, c, 16, 20, 22, 24b, 34b, 35, 47, 74, 75b, 87 with
dominantly NE-SW oriented and subordinate NW-SE veins).
The only fibrous veins, which indicate opening with suffi-
cient fluid flow, and which indicate the opening vector exact-
ly, are present at location 87 (Badenian rocks) and along the
Rozália vein (Figs. 1, 3) having W-E to WNW-ESE oriented
fibers (parallel to
All faults were formed and/or reactivated in the brittle en-
vironment, with the exception of narrow zones, which under-
went a temporal ductile regime due to the thermal and chem-
ical activity of migrating fluids. Faults along the NW and SE
side of the central tiavnica zone dip to the NW and SE, re-
spectively (Figs. 1, 3). The central zone itself is deformed by
a complicated fault pattern containing faults with NW, SE
and vertical dips. Meso-scopic faults from locations are
shown in Fig. 5.
The cross-cutting relationships of various structures in the
field indicate that the oldest fracture pattern is formed by
the anastomosing vein pattern, the network of small frac-
tures with quartz fill, without any preferred orientation (Fig.
6ae). It is accompanied by quartz, pyrite, pyrophylite and
kaolinite alterations. The anastomosing vein system is
cross-cut by a subhorizontal system of quartz and carbonate
veins (Fig. 6ac), called the Svetozár vein system (sensu
Mao et al. 1996). Some of them show evidence of cycles of
increased fluid pressure (Fig. 6f), indicated by repeated epi-
sodes of hydraulic fracturing. Fig. 6f indicates that the
andesite host rock was opened by hydraulic fracturing.
Fracture patterns were conduits for fluids, which migrated
away from the area of the fluid overpressure and caused its
decrease. Decreased fluid pressure triggered mineral precip-
itation, which sealed rock fragments in precipitated quartz
fill (Fig. 6f). Sealing of the escape paths caused a second
cycle of the overpressure that triggered the second fractura-
tion event. It is indicated by pieces of rock lined by quartz
fill that remained in precipitated Mn-carbonate and ame-
thyst fill (Fig. 6f). Sometimes subvertical quartz veins
opened by W-E extension cross-cut the pre-existing subhor-
izontal quartz and carbonate vein system and are cross-cut
by younger subhorizontal quartz-sulphidic vein system
(Fig. 6d). All these structures are older than the quartz dior-
ite porphyry sills and dykes. This is indicated by the intru-
sive contact of the quartz-diorite porphyry with pre-existing
silicified andesite deformed by the anastomosing vein sys-
tem and subhorizontal (Svetozár system-type sensu Mao et
al. 1996) veins (Fig. 6b,c). The relationship of the various
petrographic rock types in dykes indicates multiple intrusion
from differentiated magma chamber. All above mentioned
structures are deformed by the NE-SW normal faults. The
dip of normal faults varies between 50° and 90°. They are
connected by subhorizontal detachments, as is documented
in a few cases (Fig. 6ce). Subhorizontal detachments fre-
quently formed along earlier subhorizontal veins, causing
their boudinage in zones wrapped in mylonite (Fig. 6e).
Two samples were taken from the central part of the gran-
odiorite body, with a coarse granular texture. One was col-
lected from the bore hole (B1/1368) and the other one from
the outcrop. Both samples do not indicate any alteration.
Granodiorite consists of plagioclase, orthoclase, amphibole,
biotite, quartz and Fe-Ti oxides. Some euhedral minerals of
plagioclase have zone of resorption near their rims. Inten-
sive resorption edges are present in amphiboles, less in bi-
otites, indicating that the magma was not oversaturated with
water (only 25 %).
The parameters of the granodiorite determined by the rock
mechanics tests (Fig. 4) are as follows: tensional strength =
2.54.9 MPa, cohesion = 38.9 MPa, angle of the internal fric-
tion = 4020°, Youngs modulus = 6.5 * 10
ratio = 0.22. It has to be said that the tensional strength of the
granodiorite is very low due to its alteration. That is why the
fresh-rock value of 20 MPa (taken from Suppe 1985) was used
for the modeling of fracturation developed by the residual
stress due to cooling.
Amphibole and plagioclase from granodiorite samples are
mineral phases, which crystallized in the early stages of so-
lidification of granodiorite and hence yield information re-
garding physical conditions in the magma chamber. Depen-
dence of the aluminium content on pressure has been used for
the formulation of the amphibole geobarometer (Hammar-
strom & Zen 1986; Hollister et al. 1987; Johnson & Ruther-
ford 1988; Schmidt 1992; Anderson & Smith 1995). Amphib-
ole barometer application was limited by several conditions.
The mineral assemblage had to involve all nine mineral phas-
es: amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, orthoclase, quartz, mag-
netite and titanite. tiavnica granodiorite is pure on titanite
which otherwise has a negligible impact on amphibole com-
position. The anorthite content in plagioclase outer zones
should be in the range An
. The bazicity of studied
plagioclases apparently decreases from core to rim from An
. The role of iron and its ferric/ferrous ratio is funda-
mentally important. More reduced amphiboles with Fe
) less then 0.25 were not utilized as well as Fe
+Mg) outside the 0.40.65 range. Using the equation of
Anderson & Smith (1995) and an average temperature of
about 730 °C, the pressures were found to range from 1.5 to
4.1 kbar with average 2.8 kbar (18 estimations).
Assuming that the total pressure equals the fluid pressure
in a fluid saturated system, the depth of the magma chamber
was estimated. In the case of the tiavnica granodiorite, the
28 NEMÈOK, KONEÈNÝ
system did not achieve a fluid saturated state, indicated, for
example, by resorption of phenocrysts in the late stages of
crystallization. The probable magma chamber is estimated to
be located at depths greater then 10 km. The essential part of
the magma chamber passively intruded to a level about 2.5
km below the surface including the eroded cover (V.
Koneèný & J. Lexa 1999, pers. commun.), determined by
Temperatures in the magma chamber have been evaluated
using the amphibole-plagioclase semi-empirical geother-
mometer of Blundy & Holland (1990). The use of this geo-
thermometer places some limitations on the composition of
the mineral phases. Amphiboles cannot exceed 7.8 silica at-
oms pfu and the plagioclases must be less calcic then An
This thermometer is valid over the temperature range 500
1100 °C with deviation of around 75 °C. The fundamental
condition is to determine equilibrium pairs. The anorthite
content of plagioclases decreases more or less from core to
rim. Small euhedral plagioclases around An
ten enclosed in amphiboles which crystallized together with
amphiboles. Calculated equilibrium temperatures range
from 690 to 790 °C, indicating crystallization above water
saturated granitoid solidus (
700 °C, Piwinski 1975).
The calculated paleostress configurations were separated
into four groups representing four tectonic regimes during
the: early Badenianearlier late Badenian (16.515 Ma),
late Badenianearly Sarmatian (1512.7 Ma), Sarmatian
(13.611.5 Ma) and late Sarmatianearly Pannonian (12
10.7 Ma) (Table 1). The limits of several of these periods
overlap, which is a consequence of the overlapping ages of
the studied rocks.
The early Badenianearlier late Badenian (16.515 Ma) pe-
riod was characterized by stress changes, that is clockwise ro-
tation of the maximum horizontal stress. NE-SW oriented ex-
tension acted at the beginning of this period (Fig. 7). Evidence
of its activity is recorded at locations 6d, 23, 64 and 72 (Table
1). The stress configuration is characterized by the oblate
stress ellipsoid (
). The magnitude of
and the magnitude of
was distinctly lower than
. This caused a distinct regional extension driven by the
active subduction in front of the Carpathians to the NE of the
tiavnica region (Jiøíèek 1979; Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1960; Vialov
1974). Subvertically oriented
enough magnitudes to experience the
exchange in the
case of regional stress pulses and/or the subtraction of the
overburden load. Regional stress pulses or the regional stress
interplay with varying vertical forces occasionally activated
strike-slip faulting, (e.g. evidence at location 47, Table 1).
Varying vertical forces were caused by episodes of magma
emplacement (Fig. 2) and/or geologically fast changes of the
stratovolcanic relief, that is fast development of volcanic
cones and fast selective erosion.
Later, during the early Badenianearlier late Badenian,
both mentioned stress configurations, with NE-SW oriented
extension, progressively rotated towards the configuration
with W-E oriented
(Fig. 7). Evidence
of such a changed stress is present at locations 6c, 27, 30, 55,
84b, 84d and 109 (Table 1). Calculated stress ellipsoids from
data allowing the use of the Hardcastle & Hills (1991) meth-
od have either an oblate (sites 6c, 55) or prolate character (
) (site 109). At the end of the early Badenianearli-
er late Badenian period, the stress field further rotated clock-
wise towards the position with NW-SE oriented
(Fig. 7). Evidence of its activity is recorded at
locations 6a, 24a, 27, 68, 74, 75, 88a, 107 (Table 1). Stress
ellipsoids determined from locations 74, 88a and 107 have
prolate shapes. Pulses of the regional stress or its interplay
with varying vertical forces caused the
occasionally activated strike-slip faulting, (e.g. evidence at
Fig. 7 shows which faults were active during the early
Badenianearlier late Badenian. To discuss its value, we
emphasize that the activity of faults is indicated by field evi-
dence and non activity is indicated by lack of evidence. This
means that, despite the study of all suitable outcrops along
faults in Fig. 7, the small chance remains that some faults
could have been active. The same applies to Figs. 8, 9, 10
The late Badenianearly Sarmatian (1512.7 Ma) period
was characterized by the lack of distinct regional tectonic
stress changes. Extension was W-E to NW-SE oriented
(Fig. 8) and this dominantly controlled the normal faulting.
was vertical. Stress ellipsoids, calculated for loca-
tions 10, 16, 36, 78, 92, 109, 121, 122 and 123 (Table 1) have
shapes close to the plane stress ones (
Fig. 7. Structural scheme of the central zone of the tiavnica stra-
tovolcano (after tohl et al. 1990b) with paleostress configurations
and faults determined as active during the early Badenian to earli-
er late Badenian. Divergent arrows indicate normal faulting, diver-
gent arrows coupled with convergent ones indicate strike-slip re-
gime. Arrows show the exact orientation of related principal
stresses, unlike the Table 1.
CALCULATIONS OF TECTONIC, MAGMATIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS 29
value is close to the mean of the remaining two. Locations
29, 33, 46, 60 and 98 indicate activity of the strike-slip fault-
ing. The location 33 with NW-SE oriented compression and
NE-SW extension (Table 1) is anomalous. It may indicate
stress rotation inside a strike-slip fault zone as known from
other regions (e.g. Bogen & Seeber 1986; Freund 1970,
1971, 1974; Nur et al. 1986; Ron et al. 1984; Scoti et al.
1991). Fig. 8 shows active faults of this period.
Stress magnitude calculation, using the stress ratio of
Hardcastle & Hills (1991) (equal to 1-R ratio of Angelier
1989) R = 0.4 and
= 0.0062893, yields values of subverti-
= 75.8 MPa, subhorizontal
= 45.7 MPa and
0.47 MPa. The fast removal of the upper parts of the strato-
volcanic cone above the intrusions (Fig. 2ac) would remove
roughly 42.5 MPa of the load during the late Badenianearly
Sarmatian. This would result in subhorizontal
= 45.7 MPa
= 0.47 MPa and subvertical
= 33.3 MPa, changing
the stress ellipsoid from the plane stress to an oblate one and
(locations 29, 46, 60, 98 in Fig. 8).
Thus, the related kinematic regime changed from normal to
strike-slip faulting. During the same time an emplacement of
the granodiorite intrusion occurred.
Taking the density of the load (calculated proportionally to
the content of lava flows, volcanoclastics and intrusives) to
equal 2577 kgm
, the density of magma 2585 kgm
(load) 33.3 MPa and the magmatic pressure and intrusion
height estimates mentioned earlier, the resulting magmatic
pressure in the top of the intrusion by buoyancy calculation
(Price & Cosgrove 1991) was about 37.7 MPa, nearly equal to
the addition of s
and the tensional strength of the sur-
Table 1: Paleostress configurations determined from rocks in the Banská tiavnica area. Note that the table does not show the result of a
tectonic event separation. It is a list of available stratigraphies with inventory of all paleostress configurations determined from these
stratigraphies at related locations. The decrease of the number of paleostress configurations in younger stratigraphies is caused by the
fact that they were deformed by a smaller number of tectonic events than older stratigraphies. Note that the orientations of paleostresses
are generalized in order to demonstrate regional correlation. Codes S and H indicate the use of stress inversion software of Sperner et al.
(1993) and Hardcastle & Hills (1991). The numbers in parentheses indicate the ratio of paleostress magnitudes. Divergent arrows indicate
normal faulting, divergent arrows coupled with convergent ones indicate strike-slip regime.
30 NEMÈOK, KONEÈNÝ
rounding rocks. Magmatic pressure further reduced the prin-
cipal stresses in the surroundings of the intrusion and
= 33.3 MPa to
= 4.4 MPa. Said dif-
ferently, taking the determined tensional strength of the gran-
odiorite = 2.54.9 MPa, the magmatic pressure was in most
places larger than the sum of the vertical
strength. The change of subhorizontal
= 45.7 MPa and
= 0.47 MPa is neglectable, only
. The calculated effective subvertical extension was
large enough to open a subhorizontal Svetozár-type vein sys-
tem above the intrusion, that is in accordance with field evi-
dence (e.g. Fig. 6ac). The intrusion was fed for some time
as indicated by the fact that: 1) subhorizontal veins under-
went several overpressure cycles/episodes of reopening con-
trolled by fluids escaping from the intrusion (Fig. 6f) and flu-
ids were of magmatic origin, as shown by the isotopic data of
Háber et al. (1994), 2) subhorizontal veins are cross cut by
veins opened by tectonic W-E oriented extension, which are
later cross cut by subhorizontal veins (Fig. 6d).
Previous calculations show that the hydrostatic stress state,
which opened the anastomosing vein system (Fig. 6ae), the
oldest fracture system, could not have been created by tec-
tonic stress/overburden removal stress/magmatic stress inter-
play. The calculated differential stress was too high to open
fractures without a preferred orientation (see Cosgrove 1995
for details). The anastomosing vein system had to be opened
by residual stress. It could be accumulated either by an
abrupt temperature drop due to fast overburden removal (Fig.
2ac) or by rather fast temperature drop during cooling and
was independent of the stresses discussed above. Using the
equations (4) and (5), the residual stress
would be larger
than the strength of rock after the fast uplift of several tens of
meters if there was no cooling of the intrusion. Taking cool-
ing into account the uplift has to be larger. 0.5 % volume loss
of the intrusion due to cooling would be large enough to gen-
erate this residual stress. However, there is a faster process
of developing the residual stress available. Fig. 11a shows
the modeled cooling T-t paths of points at various distances
from the granodiorite intrusion/andesite country rock bound-
ary. The most dramatic temperature changes, during the first
200,000 years after the intrusion, are recorded by the 1 km
thick granodiorite and andesite zones at their boundary (Fig.
11b,c). Wherever fast cooling occurs over a temperature gra-
dient of more than 35 °C, sufficient residual stress is built up
to overcome the tensile strength of the rock (11d).
Later stages of the late Badenianearly Sarmatian (15
12.7 Ma) are characterized by the lack of distinct influence of
either magmatic stress or overburden removal stress. The em-
placement of quartz-diorite porphyry dykes (see Figs. 1, 3, 6b,c)
postdates the granodiorite intrusion. Calculation of the average
width and length of 128 dykes yields 1:5 ratio; 106 m:36 m.
The dykes are inclined at angles of about 5060° (Fig. 3), indi-
cating that they are hybrid structures not formed by 100 % hy-
draulic fracturing (see Price & Cosgrove 1990). Their driving
stress difference is 19.624.5 MPa, i.e. 4T5T, where T
is the tensile strength of the rock. Taking the calculated value of
as roughly equal to 45.7 MPa,
becomes at least 4.3 times
larger than the tensile strength of granodiorite. Fig. 3 shows that
inclined dykes intruded upwards, experiencing decrease of the
Fig. 9. Structural scheme of the central zone of the tiavnica stra-
tovolcano (after tohl et al. 1990b) with paleostress configurations
and faults determined as active during the Sarmatian. For further
explanations see Fig. 7.
Fig. 8. Structural scheme of the central zone of the tiavnica stra-
tovolcano (after tohl et al. 1990b) with paleostress configurations
and faults determined as active during the late Badenian to early
Sarmatian. For further explanations see Fig. 7.
CALCULATIONS OF TECTONIC, MAGMATIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS 31
vertical load, until conditions for the formation of sills were
met. At the junction of the dykes with sills, it has to be valid that
), where T
is the strength of the host rock test-
ed in the vertical direction and T
is the strength of the host rock
tested in the horizontal direction.
The Sarmatian (13.611.5 Ma) period was also character-
ized by W-E to NW-SE oriented extension (Fig. 9), which
produced dominantly normal faulting. However, the stress
ellipsoid shape, calculated for locations 6b, 15, 20, 24b, 69,
77, 80 and 95 (Table 1), changed to oblate, indicating pro-
gressively stronger regional extension. This is supported by
the fact that there was not any significant erosion, except
the local one of 400 m in the horst region (Háber et al.
1997), but rather the addition of new material on top of the
pre-existing structures (Fig. 2e). It should change the ellip-
soid to prolate, but the value of the R ratio decreased to in-
dicate the oblate ellipsoid. Stress determined for location 40
shows the dextral strike-slip reactivation of suitably orient-
ed faults. Fig. 9 shows active faults of this time period.
During the late Sarmatianearly Pannonian (1210.7 Ma)
period, the W-E to NW-SE oriented extension continued, later
during the Pannonian it was replaced by N-S and E-W com-
pression and extension, respectively (Fig. 10, Table 1). Late
Sarmatianearly Pannonian stress ellipsoids calculated for lo-
cations 114, 116 and 117, with NW-SE oriented extension
(Fig. 10, Table 1), have an oblate character, indicating strong
regional extension. Subsequent fast erosion caused the
exchange, reactivating pre-existing normal faults as strike-slip
faults (location 4 in Fig. 10, 117 in Table 1). A younger stress
pattern, resembling the present stress field (e.g. Gutdeutsch &
Aric 1988), was determined from strike-slip faults at locations
4, 117 and 119. Fig. 10 shows active faults of this time period.
During the early Badenianearlier late Badenian (16.515
Ma), the tiavnica stratovolcano composed of andesite lava-,
pyroclastic-, epiclastic flows and related sills and lacoliths
formed (Fig. 2a). The volcanic cone underwent rather fast
erosion. Synchronously, a quartz-diorite body was emplaced
in its center, during the Badenianearly Sarmatian (1512.7
Ma) (Fig. 2b). During the Badenian, the minimum horizontal
rotated clockwise roughly 90° from NE-SW to NW-
SE (Table 1, Fig. 7). Denudation of the stratovolcano contin-
ued contemporaneously with the emplacement of the grano-
diorite body, 10 km in diameter and 7 km high (Fig. 2c). The
rapid cooling experienced by the upper parts of the intrusion
and adjacent zone of the andesite (Fig. 11) accumulated re-
sidual stress which opened an anastomosing pattern of frac-
tures by hydraulic fracturing (Fig. 6ae). The granodiorite
body was not free to contract soon after releasing fluids due
to its confinement provided by 2 mechanisms. The first one
was the inhomogeneous cooling because the intrusion was
welded to the country rock and the net temperature change
was heterogeneous. The second one was imposed by the fact
that granodiorite is a heterogeneous intergrowth of minerals
of different thermal expansion coefficients and elastic con-
The theoretical time-position zone of fracturation events
(Fig. 11) does not fit the observation. The system of mineral-
ized anastomosing tensional fractures seems to be present
only in the outermost parts of the granodiorite and adjacent
parts of the andesite. It implies that the fracturation took part
during the earlier stages of the cooling and in the areas of the
most dramatic temperature changes. The fracturation would
be allowed during the small initial volume change due to the
release of mineralized fluids. This would be further support-
ed by the magmatic origin of the fluids recorded in these
fractures, discussed earlier. It should be said that the model-
ing in Fig. 11 was done assuming no heat transfer by fluids,
which makes the problem even more complex.
Removal of the overburden above the intrusion by the fast
erosion interfered with the regional stress pattern changing the
normal faulting regime driven by W-E to NW-SE oriented ex-
tension (Table 1, Fig. 7) to the strike-slip faulting regime. The
input of magmatic stresses during the granodiorite emplace-
ment affected the regional tectonic stress/overburden removal
stress interplay, making
stress vertical. Magmatic pressure
occasionally exceeded the sum of the
plus vertical strength.
During related short time periods, this opened a subhorizontal
Svetozár-type vein system cross-cutting the anastomosing vein
system (Fig. 6ac). The
stress become vertical few times as
indicated by NE-SW oriented vertical veins cross-cutting sub-
horizontal veins and being cross-cut by younger subhorizontal
veins (Fig. 6d). Later on, during the late Badenianearly Sar-
Fig. 10. Structural scheme of the central zone of the tiavnica
stratovolcano (after tohl et al. 1990b) with paleostress configura-
tions and faults determined as active during the late Sarmatian to
early Pannonian. For further explanations see Fig. 7.
32 NEMÈOK, KONEÈNÝ
matian (1512.7 Ma), during the continuing denudation of the
volcano, quartz-diorite porphyry sills and dykes were em-
placed (Fig. 2e). Dykes pass to sills at the depth around the top
of the granodiorite body, where the (
) value meets the
condition for sill formation, outlined earlier. Dense dyke spac-
ing, general NE-SW trend and dyke dips around 60° indicate
stronger NW-SE oriented regional tectonic extension, also in-
dicated by paleostress calculations (Table 1). Lack of any ring
and/or radial dykes does not support the collapse origin of the
postulated caldera during the late Badenianearly Sarmatian.
Paleostress calculation also does not indicate the existence
of strong vertical
stress and subhorizontal polydirectional
extension (Table 1). On the contrary, the subsiding central
parts of the stratovolcano were controlled by faulting driven
by regional W-E to NW-SE extension (Table 1, Fig. 8) and
filled by sediment, tuffs, pyroclastic- and lava flows. The
same stress configuration gained progressively stronger ex-
tension during the Sarmatian (13.611.5 Ma) (Table 1, Fig.
9). During this period, the horst structure developed in the
central zone of the tiavnica stratovolcano, synchronous
with renewed andesite activity. The extension controlled NE-
SW trending normal faults and extensional veins migra-
tion paths of the base and precious metal mineralization flu-
ids. Normal faults, dissecting any older structures, were
Fig. 11. (a) The T-t path diagram related to the cooling of the granodiorite intrusion. Each curve is made for a rock point localized at the
specified distance from the intrusion/andesite country rock boundary. Explanation in text. (b-c) The same diagrams for the early stages of
cooling around the intrusive contact. (d) Fracturation events triggered when the residual stress developed by the fast cooling overcomes
the tensile strength of the host rock. Explanation in text.
CALCULATIONS OF TECTONIC, MAGMATIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS 33
detached along the subhorizontal faults, which frequently
utilized pre-existing subhorizontal veins. Fig. 6e shows an
example of the boudinage related to such a reactivation. The
distinct change of the stress configuration in the course of the
Pannonian (11.56.2 Ma) reactivated pre-existing normal
fault pattern as strike-slips (Fig. 10). This event is indicated
by the occurrence of the youngest, ore deposits in the strike-
slip related horse-tail structures at the southern ends of some
pre-existing normal faults.
Discussion and conclusions
The data discussed in this paper indicate distinct regional
tectonic stress changes during the Badenian (Table 1,
Fig. 7). It was the period when the sinistral transpression
characteristic for the NW boundary of the Inner Western Car-
pathians during the early Miocene changed to transtension.
Areas located further towards the hinterland experience the
clockwise rotation of the minimum and maximum horizontal
stresses. The central zone of the tiavnica stratovolcano ex-
perienced this rotation during the Badenian. This rotation in
different areas has been suggested in numerous papers (e.g.
Nemèok et al. 1989; Fodor et al. 1990; Csontos et al. 1991).
The first and last stage of this rotation is also identified by
Mao et al. (1996) in the Rozália Mine.
The authors did not have sufficiently complete stratigraphy
and sophisticated paleostress methods for a complete identi-
fication. This rotation caused the dextral reactivation of the
pre-existing sinistral strike-slip in the area to the N of the
tiavnica stratovolcano (Kováè & Hok 1993) during the
Badenian. Similar rotation, only relatively dated, was indi-
cated by Sasvári & Schmidt (1994) in the Rozália Mine in
The discussed clockwise
stress rotation can be dated to
the middle-late Badenian by comparison with regional stress
studies (e.g. Nemèok & Lexa 1990; Nemèok et al. 1993). The
NW-SE oriented extension had to be already active during the
late Badenian as indicated by the age of basal transgressive fa-
cies in the surrounding Turiec, iar Depressions and the
Kremnica Graben, which were opened by this extension (e.g.
Gaparik 1980, 1985; Gaparik et al. 1974; Koneèný et al.
1983; Lexa et al. 1979, 1982). The same extension continued
during the Sarmatian, as shown by the northern parts of the
Turiec Depression where the Sarmatian sequence of the
downthrown hanging wall thickens towards the normal fault,
indicating its synsedimentary activity (Nemèok & Lexa 1990).
These authors describe the same evidence from the Horná Ni-
tra Depression. Sarmatian synsedimentary activity of the nor-
mal fault along the western margin of the Turiec Depression is
indicated by coarse clastic horizons, abruptly pinching out in
direction towards the basin (Gaparik 1985; Gaparik et al.
1974). The end of subsidence in these basins can be implied
from the redeposited kaoline clay horizons in upper Pannonian
and Pontian sediments of the Turiec Depression (Kraus 1986).
This tectonic event was also recognized in the Rozália Mine
by Mao et al. (1996). The authors also distinguished a strike-
slip event, which is not dated, so it is difficult to discuss its un-
Another interesting problem is the evolution of the stress
configuration comprising NW-SE oriented extension. This
became progressively more oblate in character during the
Sarmatian (Table 1). This indicates a progressively stronger
regional tectonic extension. If this stress configuration is
driven by plate movements, the timing and orientation of
these extensional events should be in accordance with the
timing and orientation of thrust movements recorded in the
Outer East-Carpathian accretionary wedge. They are in ac-
cordance, because this is the time when the thrusting in the
Outer Western Carpathians ceased (e.g. Buday 1965; Jur-
ková 1971; Vass et al. 1983; Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1960) and re-
mained active only in the Outer Eastern Carpathians during
the Sarmatian and late Sarmatianearly Pannonian (e.g. Via-
lov 1974; Saulea 1969, Jiøíèek 1979), which should increase
the NW-SE extension in the hinterland.
It is interesting to note that no structural evidence has been
found for collapse along the caldera fault. There are no circu-
lar and radial dyke intersections with the surface, which would
indicate a prolate stress with vertical maximum compression
and polydirectional subhorizontal extension. The caldera fault
was specially studied in the field and none of the locations in
its vicinity provide Late Badenianearly Sarmatian paleostress
indicating either gravity collapse or vertical tension (Table 1,
Fig. 7), unlike, for example the stresses determined at Sierra
Negra volcano, Galapagos (Reynolds et al. 1995). Gravity
collapse would have been proved by a stress ratio R equal to
0.9, that is nearly uniaxial compression and perpendicular
During the early Badenianearlier late Badenian (16.515
Ma), the minimum horizontal stress
roughly 90° from the NE-SW to NW-SE orientation. Denuda-
tion of the stratovolcano started earlier in this time period and
continued contemporaneously with the emplacement of the
granodiorite body. The rapid cooling of the upper parts of the
granodiorite intrusion accumulated residual stress which
opened the anastomosing vein pattern (Fig. 6ae). The inter-
play between the erosional overburden removal from above
the intrusion and the regional stress changed the normal fault-
ing regime to the strike-slip faulting one, both driven by W-E
to NW-SE oriented extension (Table 1, Fig. 7). Magmatic
stresses during the granodiorite emplacement interfered with
both regional tectonic stress and overburden removal stress,
stress vertical and controlling the development of
subhorizontal veins in the areas where the sum of
rock strength was exceeded (Fig. 6ac).
During the late Badenianearly Sarmatian (1512.7 Ma),
N-S to NNE-SSW striking faults were reactivated as dextral
strike-slip faults, NE-SW ones as normal faults by the stress
comprising NW-SE extension (Fig. 8). Normal faults and
extensional bridges along the strike-slip faults were the
places of the ore deposition.
The same stress configuration gained progressively stron-
ger extension during the Sarmatian (13.611.5 Ma) (Ta-
ble 1). During this period, the horst structure developed in
the central zone of the tiavnica stratovolcano. Normal
faulting along N-S to NE-SW trending faults was dominant
in the central zone of the tiavnica stratovolcano (Fig. 12)
and was the place of the ore deposition.
34 NEMÈOK, KONEÈNÝ
A distinct change of the stress configuration happened dur-
ing the Pannonian (11.56.2 Ma) (Table 1, Fig. 10). Pre-ex-
isting NE-SW normal faults were reactivated as sinistral
strike-slip faults (Fig. 10). Their extensional bridges were
the place of the ore deposition.
Acknowledgements: The follow-up work of MN, after the
end of the Slovak Geol. Survey Project, has been carried un-
der the financial support of the Lise Meitner Fund, Austria,
later by the Alexander von Humboldt Fund. Authors are
grateful for rock mechanics tests made by L. Sterba and S.
Urban. This paper benefited from the help with field work
and discussions with J. Lexa, D. Onaèila, J.-P. Petit, J. tohl,
V. Koneèný, R. Gazdik and number of other people. The ob-
servations shown in Fig. 6 were made during a short field
trip with J. Lexa and J. tohl. We thank L. Fodor, K. Schul-
mann, J. Cosgrove and anonymous reviewers whose com-
ments improved the paper.
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