GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 50, 4, BRATISLAVA, AUGUST 1999
LITHO- AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY (CALCAREOUS NANNOPLANKTON)
OF THE MIOCENE DEPOSITS FROM THE OUTER MOLDAVIDES
Geological Institute of Romania, Caransebes 1, 78344 Bucharest 32, Romania
(Manuscript received August 24, 1998; accepted in revised form March 17, 1999)
Abstract: The studies of the Neogene nannoplankton assemblages, identified in the Outer Moldavides, permitted us:
to date and to correlate the lithostratigraphic units developed in the Tarcãu, Marginal Folds and Subcarpathian nappes
of the East Carpathians; to define more nannofossil subzones and to observe a lot of nannofossil bioevents (FAD or
LAD), which may characterize the chronostratigraphic units. It was remarked that the boundaries between the Egerian
Eggenburgian, KarpatianBadenian and BadenianSarmatian stages can be characterized by the first occurrences of
Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus, Discoaster exilis and Discoaster kugleri species. The boundary between the Oli-
gocene and Miocene can also be approximated, in the Outer Moldavides area, by the first occurrences of Helicosphaera
Key words: Miocene, East Carpathians, Tarcãu, Marginal Folds and Subcarpathian nappes, nannoplakton zonation,
In the Outer Carpathian area, the Miocene sedimentary suc-
cession is entirely developed only in the Outer Moldavides.
The Outer Moldavides represent the external folded zone of
the East Carpathians, being constituted, from the West (in-
side) to the East (outside) by the Tarcãu, Marginal Folds and
Subcarpathian nappes. Each tectonic unit presents a specific
lithofacies (Fig. 1).
The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene formations of the
Tarcãu Nappe are represented by the upper parts of the Pucio-
asa-Fusaru and bituminous lithofacies (Sãndulescu et al.
1995), developed in the internal, or external areas of this tec-
tonic unit (Fig. 1).
The first lithofacies includes, in normal stratigraphic suc-
cession, the Vineþiºu and Upper Dyssodilic Shales and Meni-
lites formations (Fig. 2).
The Vineþiºu Formation, OligoceneEarly Eggenburgian
in age, shows a constant lithological composition, including
grey marls or clays and calcareous sandstones, with oblique
to convolute laminations. Two or three cineritic levels occur
within the lower half of this formation. Different mechanical
structures, such as flute-casts, groove-casts and brush-casts,
in the arenitic rocks were observed.
The Upper Dyssodilic Shales and Menilites Formation, be-
longing to the Eggenburgian (or Early Burdigalian), is com-
posed of bituminous argilitic shales (or dyssodiles) and bitu-
minous silicolitic rocks, with one or two benthonized tuff
beds interlayered. The absence of the bioglifs in this bitumi-
nous deposits is a result of the anoxic conditions, that charac-
terize the sedimentation environment.
Very well exposed in the Muntenian Subcarpathians is the
second bituminous lithofacies, composed, in the normal strati-
graphic succession, of the Podu Morii, Upper Kliwa Sand-
stones (or Buºtenari Sands), Upper Menilites and Goru Miºina
The Podu Morii Formation, Late OligoceneEarly Eggen-
burgian in age, consists of a rhytmic alternation of sand-
stones and clays. In its uppermost part, dyssodilic shales may
be interbedded. Two cineritic interlayerings, that occur in
this formation, may be used for stratigraphic correlations.
The Upper Kliwa Sandstones, Eggenburgian (or Early
Burdigalian) in age, are represented by massive siliceous
sandstones or sands with thin bituminous shales interbedded.
In these deposits, flame shaped deformation structures sug-
gesting rapid sedimentation, often appear.
The bituminous lithofacies ends with Upper Menilites,
consisting of bituminous silicolits and dyssodilic shales and
with Goru Miºina Formation, developed especially in the
Marginal Folds Nappe.
Both above mentioned lithofacies are followed by the Cor-
nu Formation, belonging to the Late EggenburgianOttnan-
gian (or EarlyMiddle Burdigalian). The formation is very
well exposed (Figs. 1I-1,-3,-6,-7) only in the Muntenian Sub-
carpathians. The Cornu Formation starts with the Lower
Gypsum Member, constituted of decimetric gypsum beds
with centimetric gipsiferous sandstones or clays interlayer-
ings (Fig. 2). Above this member, a sequence consisting of
middle-size conglomerates to microconglomerates, breccias,
glauconitic sandstones, silty-clays and clays, is developed. In
the arenitic and lutitic rocks, flute-marks, crescent-marks and
erosion channels were observed.
The overlying formation, Doftana Molasse (Stefãnescu &
Mãrunþeanu 1980), OttnangianKarpatian (or Late Burdiga-
lianEarly Langhian) in age, is developed only in the Tarcãu
Nappe (Figs. 1I-1,-2,-6,-7). It starts with the Brebu Conglom-
erates, a pile of polymictic weakly cemented conglomerates.
The ruditic elements are the result of the transport of two pa-
leorivers, which deposited the detrital material in two alluvi-
al fans (Grujinski 1971). The rest of the Doftana Molasse
consists of microconglomerates and coarse- to fine-grained
sandstones alternating with grey or reddish clays or marls. At
several levels, thin gypsum or cineritic beds and laminated
dolomitic or calcareous shales are interbedded. Among all
these lithostratigraphic elements only one, namely a gypsum
level (Cireºu Gypsum), located in the middle part of the
Doftana Molasse and preceded by a cineritic sequence, may
be considered as a geometric marker level.
A classical lithostratigraphic succession (Popescu 1951) of
the Badenian deposits is exposed in the axial part of the
Slãnic Syncline (Figs. 1I-3,-5). It consists of: Slãnic Tuff
(composed of tuffs and tuffites, interbedded with Globigerina
Marls), Evaporitic Formation (with salt breccias, gypsum
beds or lens, salt acummulations and very thin silty-clay in-
terlayerings), Radiolarian Shales (represented by argilla-
ceous shales, rich in radiolarians, sands and sandstones) and
Spirialis Marls (developed in a predominant lutitic facies).
Marginal Folds Nappe
In this tectonic unit, the Miocene deposits start with the up-
per part of the Dyssodilic Shales, followed by the Upper Me-
nilites and Goru Miºina Formation. The Goru Miºina Forma-
tion (Dumitrescu 1952), Late Eggenburgian (or Early
Burdigalian) in age, is very well exposed on the Feschi Creek
(Figs. 1I-3). It consists of argillaceous and bituminous shales,
silty-clays, clays, sandstones and microconglomerates (Fig. 2).
A peculiar feature of this formation is the presence of the
shaped-lens gypsum. The evaporites were considered to be re-
deposited from a shallow water area, situated in the litoral
proximity of the sedimentary basin (Sãndulescu et al. 1995).
The overlying Salt Formation, also Late Eggenburgian in
age, outcrops (Figs. 1I-8,-10) in the Vâlcele Tectonic Window
(Sãndulescu et al. 1995). It is composed of massive argilla-
ceous breccias (containing Green Schists, Jurassic or
Eocene limestones, conglomerates, sandstones elements),
gypsum and thin clay interlayerings. Salt masses are fre-
quently developed in these breccias. Overlying the Salt For-
mation, the Condor Sandstones (Dumitrescu 1952) is repre-
sented by an alternation of microconglomerates (with Green
Schists element, that prove a foreland-source), arkosian
sandstones, clays and marls (Fig. 2).
These sequence of sedimentation continues with the Hârja
Formation (Dumitrescu 1952), belonging to the Late Eggen-
burgianOttnangian (or Middle Burdigalian). In the geologi-
cal type sections (Figs. 1I-8,-11), it consists of a pararythmic
alternation of reddish or grey clays and sandstones. The sedi-
mentological features, as ripple-marks, rain-prints and foot-
prints of birds or mammals, suggest a shallow water deposi-
tional environment. The presence of the Green Schists
(Dobrogean type) as elements in the arenitic rocks proves a
foreland-source for the detrital material.
The Grey Schlier Formation, OttnangianKarpatian (or
Late Burdigalian) in age, overlies the previous formation in
the continuous sedimentation. This formation outcrops in
Vâlcele Brook (Fig. 1I-11), where is incompletely developed,
being represented by several gypsum beds, separated by
gipsiferous sandstones or marls (an equivalent of the Perchiu
Gypsum from Subcarpathian Nappe). In other places of the
Marginal Folds Nappe, an alternation of grey marls or clays,
sands and sandstones with the Valea Calului Marls interlay-
erings is developed.
The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene deposits of this tecton-
ic unit contain the same formations (Upper Dyssodilic
Fig. l. Geological section positions in the Outer Moldavides (Tec-
tonic sketch according to Sãndulescu 1984). A. Inner Moldavides;
B. Outer Moldavides: aTarcãu Nappe, bMarginal Folds
Nappe, cSubcarpathian Nappe; C. foredeep and Neogene mo-
lasse depressions; D. platforms; E. North Dobrogea orogen; F.
thrust-sheets; G. faults; H. flexure; I. geological sections (1. Pra-
hova ValleyBreaza town; 2. Telega ValleyTelega village; 3.
Lupa ValleyBrebu village; 4. Teleajen ValleyVãlenii de
Munte town; 5. Piatra Verde HillSlãnic Prahova town; 6. Te-
leajen ValleyHomorâciu village; 7. Muscelu BrookPãtârlage
village; 8. Pârâul lui PãtruHârja village; 9. Feschi CreekHârja
village; 10. Oituz Valleybetween Grozeºti and Bogdãneºti vil-
lages; 11. Vâlcele village; 12. Haloºu Mare ValleyCaºin village;
13. Caraclãu Valleybetween Caraclãu and Brãteºti villages; 14.
Bârsãneºti Valleybetween Bârsãneºti and Glodosu villages; 15.
Scãriga Valleybetween Scãriga and Butucari villages; 16. Poi-
ana Valleybetween Poiana and Albele villages; 17. Tescani lo-
cality; 18. Drãgugeºti Valleybetween Helegiu and Drãgugeºti
villages; 19. Brãtila Valleybetween Ciortea and Brãtila villages;
20. Tazlãu Valley and Trotuº ValleyOneºti town).
LITHO- AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE MIOCENE DEPOSITS FROM OUTER MOLDAVIDES 315
Fig. 2. Neogene stratigraphy in the East-Carpathian Outer Moldavides. Upp. Dys. Shales Upper Dyssodilic Shales; Upp. M. Upper
Menilites; GM.Fm Goru Miºina Formation; U.K.S. Upper Kliwa Sandstones; U.DM Upper Dyssodils and Menilites; pr.Gy.
Perchiu Gypsum Member; Po.B. Poiana Beds; VC.B. Valea Calului Beds; C.Gy. Cireºu Gypsum Member; S.Gy. Stufu Gyp-
sum Member; Cl.Lim. Clenciu Limestones; Ev.Lev. Evaporic Level. 1 salt; 2gypsum; 3 gypsiferous clays; 4 limestones;
5 calcareous shales; 6 marls; 7 clays; 8 argillaceous shales; 9 tuffs; 10 tuffites; 11 siltitestones; 12 breccious clays; 13
sands; 14 sandstones; 15 microconglomerates; 16 conglomerates; 17 dyssodils; 18 menilites; 19 unconformity; 20 first
occurrence of nannofossils; 21 last occurrence of nannofossils; 22 biostratigraphic (nannoplankton) correlations.
Shales, Upper Menilites, Goru Miºina, Salt formations and
Condor Sandstones) as the Marginal Folds Nappe. In the
Subcarpathian Nappe (constituted by Mãgireºti-Perchiu, Pi-
etricica and Valea Mare digitations), the Miocene succession,
deposited after the Condor Sandstones sedimentation, is rep-
resented in two lithofacies (Sãndulescu et al. 1980): internal,
Fig. 3. Stratigraphic distribution of nannofossils in the Miocene deposits from the Outer Moldavides.
LITHO- AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE MIOCENE DEPOSITS FROM OUTER MOLDAVIDES 317
developed in the Mãgireºti-Perchiu digitation (Figs. 1I-10,
1I-1316) and external, typical for the Pietricica digitation
(Figs. 1I-12, 1I-1820).
The first lithofacies starts with the Mãgireºti Formation,
Ottnangian (or Middle Burdigalian) in age, represented by
irregular alternations of conglomerates, sandstones, reddish
or green clays and marls (Fig. 2). The conglomeratic interly-
ers are a distal effect of the Pietricica Conglomerates from
the Pietricica digitation. The Poiana Marls level was distin-
guished in the uppermost part of this formation (Olteanu
1953). The same sedimentological structures, as in the Hârja
Formation, were observed. The sedimentation continues with
the Grey Schlier Formation, Late OttnangianKarpatian (or
Late BurdigalianEarly Langhian) in age, and presents a
great lithological variability (clays, marls, sands, sandstones,
gypsum beds or lenses, tuffs, tuffites and thin laminated do-
lomitic or calcareous shales Fig. 2). In its succession,
some lithostratigraphic marker levels were distinguished
(Olteanu 1953; Sãndulescu 1962): the Perchiu Gypsum in the
base; two Valea Calului Marls levels (represented by reddish
clays) in the lower part of the succession and the Stufu Gyp-
sum (a massive evaporitic sequence) in the upper part of the
Grey Schlier Formation. Between the Valea Calului levels
and just below the Stufu Gypsum, two cineritic levels, very
important in the lithostratigraphic correlation, can be ob-
served (Fig. 2). The sedimentological features (flute marks,
crescent-marks, detritic ridge moulds, current ripples, mud-
cracks, rain-prints, etc.) together with the presence of the
evaporitic rocks and the rarity of the marine nannofossils
suggest the alternation of continental and marine sedimenta-
tions, in a sea shore environment.
Transgressively deposited above the Grey Schlier Forma-
tion, the Badenian sequence is composed, in the normal
stratigraphic succession, of the Slãnic Tuff (which differs
from its equivalent developed in the Tarcãu Nappe only
through the glauconitic sandstones intercalations), the
Evaporitic Level (consisting of gypsum beds associated with
thin laminated calcareous shales), the Brãteºti Formation (an
irregular alternation of clays, sands and sandstones) and the
Clenciu Limestones (constituted of organogeous limestones
interbedded with tuffs and tuffites).
The last lithostratigraphic unit of the Mãgireºti-Perchiu digi-
tation is represented by the Sipoþel Formation, Early Sarma-
tian in age. It consits of clays, marls and sandstones (Fig. 2).
The external lithofacies of the Subcarpathian Nappe, de-
veloped in the Pietricica digitation and very well exposed in
the Central Moldavian Subcarpathians (Figs. 1I-12,-18,-19,
-20), starts with the Pietricica Conglomerates, which cover in
discontinuity of sedimentation the older deposits. This for-
mation is represented by massive conglomerates with Green
Schists, Eocene and Jurassic limestones, red sandstones,
quartz and quartzite elements. Some sandstones or silty-clay
levels are interbedded into the upper part of the conglomerat-
ic succession (Fig. 2). The petrographic and sedimentologi-
cal studies (Mãrunþeanu 1985) prove that the conglomerates
are the result of the paleoriver transport, which deposited the
detrital material, coming from the foreland-sources, in the
great alluvial fans.
Seated in continuity of sedimentation over Pietricica Con-
glomerates, the Tescani Formation, belonging to the Ottnan-
gianEarly Karpatian (or MiddleLate Burdigalian), is devel-
oped. It consists of reddish or grey-greenish clays interbedded
with coarse- to fine-grained sandstones. The uppermost part of
this formation, contains a cineritic level, stratigraphically
equivalent to the first cineritic level of Grey Schlier Formation
from the Mãgireºti-Perchiu digitation (Fig. 2).
The next lithostratigraphic unit, the Grey Schlier Forma-
tion, Late Karpatian (or Early Langhian) in age, presents a
similar lithological composition to the upper part of the Grey
Schlier Formation from the Mãgireºti-Perchiu digitation
Overlying these deposits, after a sedimentary gap, the Bad-
enian sequence (Fig. 2) is represented (in the normal strati-
graphic succession) by the Rãchitaºu Sandstones (composed
of glauconitic sandstones with Lithothamnium, Globigerina
Marls and dacitic tuffs and tufittes), the Evaporitic Level
(with a similar lithological composition to the Mãgireºti-Per-
chiu digitation) and Haloº Formation. The last lithostrati-
graphic unit, Kossovian in age, is represented by an irregular
alternation of clays, sands (more frequent in the lower part of
the succession) and sandstones.
In the external lithofacies of the Subcarpathian Nappe, the
sedimentation ceased at the end of the Kossovian or the low-
er Sarmatian deposits were eroded. The Suºiþa Formation,
Middle Sarmatian in age, is represented by post-tectonic de-
posits, which cover the external part of the Subcarpathian
Nappe. It consists of conglomerates, clays and sands.
Biostratigraphy calcareous nannoplankton
For the stratigraphic study of the Early and Middle Mi-
ocene deposits, a lot of representative geological sections in
the Muntenian (for Tarcãu Nappe) and Central Moldavian
(for Marginal Folds and Subcarpathian nappes) Subcar-
pathians were selected (Fig. 1).
In the deposits of the Outer Moldavides, the whole biozone
succession, from NN 1 to NN 9 zones, of the Standard Nan-
noplankton Zonation (Martini 1971; Martini & Müller 1986)
The Triquetrorhabdulus carinatus-NN 1 Zone was remarked
only in the Vineþiºu and Podu Morii formations. The nanno-
plankton assemblages of this zone (Pl. IA) consist of species
with OligoceneMiocene ranges, as Coccolithus pelagicus, C.
eopelagicus, Cyclicargolithus abisectus, Cy. floridanus, Dis-
coaster adamanteus, D. deflandrei, Helicosphaera euphratis,
H. intermedia, H. paleocarteri, Sphenolithus conicus, Reticu-
lofenestra minuta, R. minutula and rare appearances of Tri-
quetrorhabdulus carinatus. Helicosphaera mediterranea also
has its first occurrence in these communities. It was supposed
that this bioevent marks the boundary between the NP 25
NN 1 zones (or between Oligocene and Miocene), because: (1)
the disappearances of Helicosphaera recta, Sphenolithus cipe-
roensis and Zygrablithus bijugatus are not simultaneous (Fig.
3) and consequently the lower boundary of NN 1 Zone cannot
be marked by the above mentioned bioevents; (2) the first oc-
currences of Helicosphaera mediterranea are simultaneous
with the first appearances of Globigerinoides primordius (For-
aminifera), the last one marking the Oligocene-Miocene
boundary (Bizon & Bizon 1972; Cita 1976; Berggren et al.
The Discoaster druggii-NN 2 Zone was subdivided
(Mãrunþeanu 1992) into the Sphenolithus dissimilis-NN 2a
and Helicosphaera kamptneri-NN 2b subzones, on the basis
of the first occurrence of Helicosphaera ampliaperta, which
corresponds to the disappearance of Sphenolithus dissimilis.
The NN 2a Subzone, identified in the Vineþiºu and Podu
Morii formations, contains Reticulofenestra pseudoumbili-
cus, Discoaster druggii, Sphenolithus dissimilis (Pl. IB) and
the whole species community of the NN 1 Zone (Fig. 3).
The NN 2b Subzone, with Helicosphaera ampliaperta, H.
kamptneri (Pl. IB) and all species, excepting Sphenolithus
dissimilis, of the NN 2a Subzone (Fig. 3), in the Vineþiºu,
Podu Morii, Upper Kliwa Sandstones, Goru Miºina forma-
tions, Lower Gypsum Member, Salt Formation and in the
lower part of Condor Sandstones. It is very probably that the
boundary between NN 2 and NN 3 zones is situated within
the Lower Gypsum Member or within the Condor Sand-
The Sphenolithus heteromorphus-NN 3 Zone is character-
ized by Sphenolithus belemnos, Helicosphaera ampliaperta,
H. kamptneri, H. intermedia, Coccolithus pelagicus, C. mio-
pelagicus, Cyclicargolithus abisectus, Cy. floridanus, Dis-
coaster adamanteus, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus, R.
gelida, etc. (Fig. 3; Pl. IIA). These nannofossils were identi-
fied only in the lower parts of the Cornu, Hârja and Mãgireºti
The Helicosphaera ampliaperta-NN 4 Zone was subdivid-
ed (Mãrunþeanu 1992) into two subzones: Discoaster ada-
manteus-NN 4a and Calcidiscus leptoporus-NN 4b subzones.
The boundary between these two subzones is marked by the
first occurrence of Calcidiscus leptoporus. Assemblages
with Helicosphaera ampliaperta, H. kamptneri, H. paleocar-
teri, Discoaster adamanteus, D. deflandrei, Cyclicargolithus
floridanus, Pontosphaera multipora, Braarudosphaera big-
elowii, Coccolithus pelagicus, C. miopelagicus, Sphenolithus
moriformis, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus, etc. (Fig. 3),
belonging to the NN 4a Subzone, are developed in the
Doftana Molasse (just below Cireºu Gypsum), in the lower
part of the Grey Schlier Formation and in the Tescani Forma-
tion (below the first cineritic level). The NN 4b Subzone was
identified only in the Doftana Molasse (above Cireºu Gyp-
sum) and in the upper part of the Grey Schlier Formation
(above the first cineritic level). It is characterized by a nan-
noplankton content with Calcidiscus leptoporus, Heli-
cosphaera ampliaperta, Calcidiscus macintyrei, C. annula,
Discoaster musicus, Discoaster variabilis and Sphenolithus
heteromorphus (Fig. 3; Pl. IIB).
The Sphenolithus heteromorphus-NN 5 Zone was recog-
nized in the top of the Doftana Molasse or in the top of the
Grey Schlier Formation and in the Slãnic Tuff or Rãchitaºu
Sandstones. Its very rich nannofossil content (Pl. IIIA) con-
sists of Sphenolithus heteromorphus, Discoaster exilis, D.
variabilis, D. formosus, D. musicus, Holodiscolithus
macroporus, Calcidiscus annula, etc. (Fig. 2). Discoaster
brouweri, Helicosphaera wallichii and Sphenolithus abies
have simultaneous first occurrences before the disappearence
of Sphenolithus heteromorphus, that is in the upper part of
NN 5 Zone. It was observed that these nannofossil bioevents
correspond to the first appearances of Globigerina druggii
(Foraminifera), index fossil for the Moravian-Wieliczian
boundary (Popescu & Gheþa 1984). Consequently the NN 5
Zone can be subdivided, at least in the extra-Carpathians
area, into two subzones: the Calcidiscus annula-NN 5a Sub-
zone, developed between the FAD of Discoaster exilis and
the FAD of Discoaster brouweri or of Helicosphaera walli-
chii, characterizing the top of Karpatian Stage and the Mora-
vian Substage; the Helicosphaera wallichii-NN 5b Subzone,
defined between the FAD of Discoaster brouwerii or of Heli-
cosphaera wallichii and the LAD of Sphenolithus hetero-
morphus, corresponding to the lower part of the Wieliczian
The Discoaster exilis-NN 6 Zone with Discoaster brouweri,
D. variabilis, D. exilis, Helicosphaera wallichii, Sphenolithus
Plate I: Nannoplankton assemblages of the NN 1 and NN 2 zones.
Nannofossils from the Vineþiºu FormationNN 1 Zone. Fig.
1. Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich); 1a-NII, 1b-N+; Lupa Valley.
Fig. 2. Helicosphaera intermedia Martini; N+; Lupa Valley. Fig. 3.
Helicosphaera euphratis Haq; N+; Lupa Valley. Fig. 4. Heli-
cosphaera mediterranea Müller; 4a-N+, 4b-NII; Teleajen Valley
Homorâciu. Fig. 5. Reticulofenestra lockeri Müller; N+; Teleajen
ValleyHomorâciu. Fig. 6. Helicosphaera scissura Müller; N+;
Teleajen ValleyHomorâciu. Fig. 7. Cyclicargolithus abisectus
(Müller); 7a-NII, 7b-N+; Lupa Valley. Fig. 8. Triquetrorhabdulus
carinatus Martini; 8a-NII, 8b-N+; Lupa Valley.
from the Podu Morii FormationNN 2 Zone. Fig. 1. Discoaster de-
flandrei Bramlette & Riedel; Teleajen ValleyValenii de Munte.
Fig. 2. Discoaster druggii Bramlette & Wilcoxon; Teleajen Val-
ley Valenii de Munte. Fig. 3. Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus
(Gartner); 3a-NII; 3b-N+; Teleajen ValleyValenii de Munte. Fig.
4. Helicosphaera ampliaperta Bramlette & Wilcoxon; 4a-NII; 4b-
N+; Teleajen ValleyValenii de Munte. Fig. 5. Helicosphaera ka-
mptneri Hay & Mohler; 5a-NII, 5b-N+; Teleajen ValleyValenii de
Munte. Fig. 6. Helicosphaera mediterranea Müller; N+; Teleajen
ValleyValenii de Munte. Fig. 7. Sphenolithus dissimilis Bukry &
Percival; 7a-NII, 7b,c-N+; Teleajen ValleyValenii de Munte.
Plate II: Nannoplankton assemblages of the NN 3 and NN 4 zones.
Nannofossils from the Hârja FormationNN3 Zone. Fig. 1.
Sphenolithus cf. belemnos Bramlette & Wilcoxon; 1a-NII, 1-bN+;
Pârâul lui Patru. Fig. 2. Helicosphaera ampliaperta Bramlette &
Wilcoxon; N+; Pârâul lui Patru. Fig. 3. Reticulofenestra minuta
Roth; N+; Pârâul lui Patru. Fig. 4. Helicosphaera kamptneri Hay &
Mohler; 4a-NII, 4b-N+; Pârâul lui Patru. Fig. 5. Reticulofenestra
pseudoumbilicus (Gartner); 5a-NII; 5b-N+; Pârâul lui Patru. Fig. 6.
Braarudosphaera bigelowii (Gran & Braarud); 6a-NII, 6b-N+;
Pârâul lui Patru. Fig. 7. Pontosphaera multipora (Kamptner); 7a-
NII, 7b-N; Pârâul lui Patru.
Nannofossils from the Grey Schli-
er FormationNN 4 Zone. Fig. 1. Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich);
1a-NII, 1b-N+; Bârsaneºti ValleyBârsaneºti. Fig. 2. Calcidiscus
leptoporus (Murray & Blackmann); 2a-NII, 2b-N+; Drãgugeºti Val-
leyHelegiu. Fig. 3. Calcidiscus macintyrei (Bukry & Bramlette)
3a-NII, 3b-N+; Drãgugeºti ValleyHelegiu. Fig. 4. Helicosphaera
ampliaperta Bramlette & Wilcoxon; 4a-NII, 4b-N+ ; Bârsaneºti Val-
leyBârsaneºti. Fig. 5. Cyclicargolithus floridanus (Roth & Hay);
6a-NII, 6b-N+; Drãgugeºti ValleyHelegiu.
PLATE I 319
320 PLATE II
PLATE III 321
322 PLATE IV
LITHO- AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE MIOCENE DEPOSITS FROM OUTER MOLDAVIDES 323
Plate III: Nannoplankton assemblages of the NN 5 and NN 6
Nannofossils from the Rãchitaºu Sandstone and Slãnic
TuffNN 5 Zone. Fig. 1. Sphenolithus heteromorphus Deflandre;
1a-NII, 1b,c-N+; Rãchitaºu Sandstone; Tazlau ValleyOneºti.
Fig. 2. Calcidiscus annula (Cohen); NII; Rãchitaºu Sandstone;
Tazlau ValleyOneºti. Fig. 3. Discoaster variabilis Martini &
Bramlette; Rãchitaºu Sandstone; Tazlau ValleyOneºti. Fig. 4.
Discoaster exilis Martini & Bramlette; Slãnic Tuff; Caraclãu Val-
leyBrãteºti. Fig. 5. Discoaster brouweri Tan; Slãnic Tuff; Cara-
clãu ValleyBrãteºti. Fig. 6. Holodiscolithus macroporus (De-
flandre); Slãnic Tuff; Caraclãu ValleyBrãteºti. Fig. 7.
Helicosphaera wallichii (Lohmann); 7a-NII, 7b-N+; Slãnic Tuff;
Caraclãu ValleyBrãteºti. Fig. 8. Sphenolithus abies Deflandre;
8a-NII, 8b-N+; Rãchitaºu Sandstones; Tazlau ValleyOneºti.
Nannofossils from Brãteºti, Haloº and Clenciu formations
NN 6 Zone. Fig. 1. Triquetrorhabdulus farnsworthi (Gartner); NII;
Haloº Formation; Haloºu Mare Valley. Fig. 2. Discoaster musicus
Stradner; Haloº Formation; Haloºu Mare Valley. Fig. 3. Discoast-
er brouweri Tan; Haloº Formation; Haloºu Mare Valley. Fig. 4.
Umbilicosphaera jafari Müller; NII; Haloº Formation; Haloºu
Mare Valley. Fig. 5. Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus (Gartner);
5a-NII, 5b-N+; Haloº Formation; Haloºu Mare Valley. Fig. 6.
Helicosphaera walbersdorfensis Müller; 6a-NII, 6b-N+; Brãteºti
Formation; Caraclãu ValleyBrãteºti. Fig. 7. Holodiscolithus
macrosporus (Deflandre); Brãteºti Formation Caraclãu Valley
Brãteºti. Fig. 8. Scapholithus fossilis Deflandre; 8a-NII, 8b-N+;
Haloº Formation; Haloºu Mare Valley. Fig. 9. Calcidiscus patae-
cus (Gartner); Clenciu Limestones; Caraclãu ValleyBrãteºti.
Plate IV: Nannoplankton assemblages of the NN 7, NN 8, NN 9 and
Nannofossils from the Sipoþel and lower part of
Suºiþa formationsNN 7, NN 8, NN 9 zones. Fig. 1. Discoaster ku-
gleri Martini & Bramlette; Sipoþel Formation; Brãteºti Hill. Fig. 2.
Catinaster coalitus Martini & Bramlette; Sipoþel Formation;
Brateºti Hill. Fig. 3. Catinaster sp.; Sipoþel Formation; Brãteºti Hill.
Fig. 4. Catinaster calyculus Martini & Bramlette; Sipoþel Forma-
tion; Brãteºti Hill. Fig. 5. Discoaster variabilis Martini & Bram-
lette; Sipoþel Formation; Brãteºti Hill. Fig. 6. Discoaster brouweri
Tan; Sipoþel Formation; Brãteºti Hill. Fig. 7. Discoaster hamatus
Martini & Bramlette; Suºiþa Formation; Trotuº ValleyOneºti. Fig.
8. Discoaster calcaris Gartner; Suºiþa Formation; Trotuº Valley
Oneºti. Fig. 9. Discoaster challangeri Bramlette & Riedel; Suºiþa
Formation; Trotuº ValleyOneºti. Fig. 10. Triquetrorhabdulus rug-
osum Bramlette & Wilcoxon; Suºiþa Formation; Trotuº Valley
Oneºti. Figs. 11, 12. Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus (Gartner);
11-NII; 12-N+; Suºiþa Formation; Trotuº ValleyOneºti.
nofossils from upper part of the Suºiþa FormationNN10? Figs.
1, 2. Toracosphaera heimii (Lohmann); 1-NII; 2-N+; Trotuº Val-
leyOneºti. Fig. 3. Toracosphaera deflandrei Kamptner; NII;
Trotuº ValleyOneºti. Figs. 4, 5. Toracosphaera saxea Stradner;
4-NII; 5-N+; Trotuº ValleyOnesti. Fig. 6. Toracosphaera alba-
trosina Kamptner; NII; Trotuº ValleyOnesti. Figs. 7, 8. Scy-
phosphaera amphora Deflandre; 7-NII, 8-N+; Trotuº Valley
Oneºti. Fig. 9. Scytosphaera conica Kamptner; NII; Trotuº Valley
abies, etc. (Pl. IIIB) characterizes the rest of the Badenian suc-
cession, beginning with the uppermost part of the Slãnic Tuff
or of the Rãchitaºu Sandstones and ending with the Clenciu
Limestones or Haloº Formation. More first occurrences were
observed in the distinct stratigraphic levels of this zone (Syra-
colithus dalmaticus at the base of Spirialis Marls, Brãteºti For-
mation and Haloº Formation; Scapholithus fossilis in the Spir-
ialis Marls and Haloº Formation, as well as at the base of
Clenciu Limestones; Calcidiscus pataecus in the uppermost
part of the Badenian succession) (Fig. 3). In the NN 6 Zone,
the following subzones, corresponding to the Middle and Late
Badenian, can be defined: the Discoaster variabilis-NN 6a
Subzone, from the LAD of Sphenolithus heteromorphus to the
FAD of Syracolithus dalmaticus; the Syracolithus dalmati-
cus the NN 6b Subzone, between the FAD of Syracolithus
dalmaticus and the FAD of Calcidiscus pataecus; the Calcidis-
cus pataecus-NN 6c Subzone, from the FAD of Calcidiscus
pataecus to the LAD of Cyclicargolithus floridanus.
The Discoaster kugleri-NN 7 Zone was identified only in
the lower part of the Sipoþel Formation, being characterized
by a poor nannoplankton assemblages (Fig. 3) with Cocco-
lithus pelagicus, C. miopelagicus, Sphenolithus moriformis,
S. abies, Calcidiscus leptoporus, C. macintyrei, Reticu-
lofenestra pseudoumbilicus, R. gelida, R. minuta, R. minutu-
la, Umbilicosphaera jafari, Discoaster brouweri and very
rare appearances of Discoaster kugleri (Pl. IVA).
In the upper part of the Sipoþel Formation, a nannofossil
community, belonging to the Catinaster coalitus-NN 8 Zone
was recognized. The first occurrences of Catinaster coalitus
and C. calyculus (Pl. IVA) characterize this zone.
The Discoaster hamatus-NN 9 Zone, containing Discoast-
er hamatus, D. brouweri, D. calcaris, D. challangeri, Tri-
quetrorhabdulus rugosus, etc. (Pl. IVA; Fig. 3) was identi-
fied only in the lower part of the Suºiþa Formation. In the
upper part of this formation, a poor nannoplankton content,
composed only of Thoracosphaera and Scyphosphaera spe-
cies (Pl. IVB), was observed.
Nannofossil bioevents and chronostratigraphic units
In the stratigraphic distribution of the Miocene nannofos-
sils, from the Outer Moldavides deposits, a lot of bioevents
(first and last occurrences) were observed. Comparing these
bioevents with the nannofossil species distribution from the
stratotypes of the Paratethys (Lehotayová 1974; Müller
1974; Lehotayová & Báldi-Beke 1975; Martini & Müller
1975b,c; Lehotayová & Molciková 1975, 1978; etc.) and
global (Martini 1968, 1988; Lizaud 1972; Martini & Müller
1975a; Müller & Pujol 1979; Demarque & Perrieux 1984;
etc.) Miocene stages, may be remarked: (1) the FAD of Heli-
cosphaera mediterranea approximates the boundary between
Oligocene and Miocene; (2) the FAD of Discoaster druggii
or of Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus characterize the be-
ginning of the Eggenburgian; (3) FAD of Helicosphaera am-
pliaperta marks the boundary between the Aquitanian and
Burdigalian; (4) FAD of Calcidiscus leptoporus approxi-
mates the beginning of Langhian; (5) LAD of Helicosphaera
ampliaperta or FAD of Discoaster exilis characterize the be-
ginning of the Badenian; (6) the FAD of Discoaster kugleri
or the LAD of Cyclicargolithus floridanus show the bound-
ary between the Badenian and Sarmatian.
Consequently, from the nannoplankton point of view, the
following correlations between Mediterranean and Para-
tethys Neogene stages are possible: (1) the Aquitanian corre-
sponds to the Late Egerian and Early Eggenburgian (NN 1
Zone and NN 2a Subzone); (2) the Burdigalian can be corre-
lated with the Late Eggenburgian, Ottnangian and probably
Early Karpatian (NN 2b Subzone, NN 3 Zone and NN 4a
Subzone); (3) the Early Langhian corresponds to the Late
Karpatian (NN 4b Subzone) and the Late Langhian to the
Early Badenian (Moravian and the basal WieliczianNN 5
Zone); (4) the Serravallian can be correlated with the Middle
and Late Badenian (Wieliczian and KossovianNN 6 Zone)
and Early Sarmatian (VolhynianNN 7 and the beginning
of the NN 8 zones); (5) the beginning of the Tortonian corre-
sponds to the Middle Sarmatian (or Early Bassarabian up-
per part of the NN 8 and lower part of the NN 9 zones).
The sedimentological features of the Outer Moldavides de-
posits and their fossiliferous contents characterize the fol-
lowing sedimentation types: marine by the beginning of the
Early Miocene and Badenian, marginal-marine in the Early
Miocene and brackish in the Sarmatian. In the Early Mi-
ocene, the detrital material proceeded predominantly from
foreland-sources and in the Middle Miocene from Car-
pathian-sources. The continuous and discontinuous strati-
graphic distributions of the calcareous nannoplankton, in the
above mentioned deposits, suggest paleogeographical con-
nections of long (by the beginning of the Miocene and in the
Badenian) or of short (in the Early Miocene and Sarmatian)
duration between the Outer Moldavides (constitutive part of
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