GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 50, 4, BRATISLAVA, AUGUST 1999
SERPULID WORMS MERCIERELLA FAUVEL,
DURANDELLA DRAGASTAN AND CARPATHIELLA NOV. GEN.
FROM THE JURASSIC, CRETACEOUS AND PALEOGENE
OF THE WESTERN CARPATHIANS
, JÁN SOTÁK
and VÁCLAV ZIEGLER
Department of Geology and Paleontology, Faculty of Science, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Geological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava; Branch: Severná 5, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovak Republic
Faculty of Education, Charles University, M.D. Rettigové 4, Prague, Czech Republic
(Manuscript received December 3, 1998; accepted in revised form March 17, 1999)
Abstract: Rare worm tubes belonging to Mercierella Fauvel, Durandella Dragastan (formely attributed to Tintinnida)
and to a new genus named Carpathiella comprising two species were described from thin sections of Jurassic, Creta-
ceous and Paleogene marine limestones.
Key words: Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, Western Carpathians, serpulid taxonomy, worm tubes.
Upper Jurassic, Barremian-Aptian, Senonian and Paleocene
limestones of the shallow-water facies in outcrops and espe-
cially in pebbles proceeding from younger conglomerates
(Fig. 1) contain numerous tubes of serpulid worms. The gen-
era Mercierella, Durandella and Carpathiella nov.gen. occur
rarely and are always strongly dispersed in limestones from
which they cannot be extracted. As the identification of
worm tubes was predominantly based on loose specimens,
the study of the tube structure in thin sections will be neces-
sary in the future.
Family Serpulidae Burmeister 1837
Genus Mercierella Fauvel 1923
Mercierella (?) dacica Dragastan 1966
(Pl. I: Fig. 1)
1966 Mercierella (?) dacica Dragastan, 147149, figs. 13
1968 Mercierella (?) dacica Stilla, Dragastan & Dumitru, pl. V:
1981 Mercierella (?) dacica Miík & Sýkora, 28, pl. VI: fig. 1
1985 Ridgeia piscesae Jones, p. 117158
1987 Mercierella dacica Soták, 247, pl. XI: figs. 45
1991 Mercierella cf. dacica Miík, 15, pl. V: fig. 2
1992 Mercierella (?) dacica Radoièiæ, 182184, pl. I: figs. 46
1995 Mercierella (?) dacica Carras, 2627, pl. 27: fig. 4; pl. 28:
1998 Mercierella (?) dacica Carras & Georgala, p. 156
1998 Mercierella (?) dacica Schlagintweit & Ebli, p. 236
1999 Ridgeia piscesae Little et al., fig. 2AD
Description: The species was described from Upper Ju-
rassic limestones of Romania. According to the author the
tubes have an average diameter of 0.12 mm (max. 0.5 mm).
It possesses three collars at unequally spaced distances rang-
ing between 10°
and 70°, the most frequent angles are of
50°60°. Collar length is 0.080.38 mm. Our specimen (Pl.
I: Fig. 1) bears three collars, unequally spaced, with the an-
gle 60°; inner diameter (lumen) is 0.076 mm, smaller than
noted by Dragastan. It was found in Tithonian shallow-water
limestones with Tubiphytes morronensis.
Discussion: Stratigraphical span of Mercierella (?) daci-
ca is KimmeridgeanTithonianBerriasian. It was found up
to now on the territory of Romania, Slovakia, Czech Repub-
lic, Greece, Yugoslavia and Austria. The author of the genus
Mercierella Fauvel (1923) described it from brackish water
limestones and as a reef-forming organism. Small reefs (bio-
lithosores) of recent Mercierella were described from Tunis
Bay (Lucas 1959; Davaud et al. 1994). This ecological dif-
ference of Upper Jurassic alleged representatives of the ge-
Fig. 1. Situation of localities. M Mercierella (?) dacica, D
Durandella helentappani, CT Carpathiella triangulata, CP
Carpathiella perforata. Rectangle primary position, circle
pebbles in younger conglomerates.
306 MIÍK, SOTÁK and ZIEGLER
nus is another reason for the question-mark placed after the
The same object was illustrated by Little et al. (1999: fig.
2D) from the Early Jurassic hydrothermal vent community in
Franciscan Complex and compared to the vestimentiferan
worm tubes found in the modern hydrothermal vents. At the
difference to Mercierella (?) dacica they are bigger, form
clusters and occur in deep water sediments.
Microfossils similar to Mercierella (?)
Pl. I: Figs. 212
Discussion: It is clear that from the random sections Mer-
cierella (?) dacica cannot be determined with certainty. Lon-
gitudinal sections in Pl. I: Figs. 6, 10 could really represent
the oral part of that species. The specimens in Pl. I: Figs. 23
probably belong to another species; they display two collars,
longer than those of M. (?) dacica and posses vertically os-
cillating diameters. The specimen in Pl. I: Fig. 11 is really a
new species designated by us Mercierella (?) sp. 1 with the
diameter 0.076 mm. It is remarkable for a double collar
branching from the same point. Dragastan (1966, p. 148)
wrote that the tubes have a bilamellar structure and the outer
layer shows fibres arranged radially on the inner wall. The
cross-section in the center of Pl. I: Fig. 9 shows that the non-
recrystallized tube had a structure formed by vertical fibres,
parallel with the tubes. It comes from the same rock speci-
men as the typical M. dacica (Fig. 1).
A circular continuous collar in the oblique sections like Pl.
I: Figs. 45, is expected to be broader, which is not the case.
The cross-section through the collar zone should show a dou-
ble ring illustrated by Dragastan (1966: fig. 2). It should be
stressed that we found no section with such a double ring and
none of the other authors have mentioned or illustrated it. It
is probable that some of the collars illustrated here (Pl. I:
Figs. 25, 79) might be whorls of fibres. That is clear from
the specimen in the Pl. I: Fig. 12, designated by us as Ae-
olisaccus cf. kotori Radoièiæ 1972, considered by the author
as incertae sedis; De Castro (1975) attributed it to Cy-
anoshizophyta. Our specimen differs from A. kotori by its
narrower tube, thinner wall and stratigraphical horizon (Up-
per Jurassic; the span of A. kotori is Albian to Paleocene).
The genus Aeolisaccus was described by Elliott (1958) and
characterized as a small tube open at both ends. Zaninetti
(1976) rearranged all so far known species of Aeolisaccus in
the foraminiferal genus Earlandia. It is, however, strange
that the supposed proloculum was never found and the single
case illustrated by Brönnimann et al. (1972: Pl. 3Fig. 1)
can be ascribed to a compactional deformation of the tube.
The differentiation of Earlandia (or Aeolisaccus) from the
specimens similar to Mercierella is mostly impossible in the
cross-sections. However, the first one has a larger time span
from Triassic to Cretaceous, while all the specimens illustrat-
ed on Pl. I as similar to Mercierella (?) come from the Upper
Jurassic limestones containing Tubiphytes morronensis and
occur rarely (mostly one specimen in a thin section). The in-
ner diameter of the specimens similar to M. dacica illustrated
in Pl. I oscillated between 0.040 and 0.090 mm with the aver-
age about 0.070 mm.
Genus Durandella Dragastan 1970
Durandella helentappani Dragastan 1970
(Pl. II: Figs. 12)
970 Durandella helentappani nov.gen. nov.spec. Dragastan,
937939, Pl. XL: Figs. 12
1994 Durandella sp. Miík et al., 257, 259, Pl. II: Figs. 24
Description: The tube consists of two distinct layers.
The inner layer is dark (microcrystalline calcite), outer one is
clear (white). The clear layer is thinning towards the lower
part of the tube; in the mouth it forms a club-shape collar in
longitudinal section. The dimensions: max. inner diameter
(lumen) is 0.70 mm, the width of the collar is 0.09 mm.
Remark: Dragastan (1970) ranged his new genus Duran-
della to Tintinnida according to the alleged similarity to the
recent genus Thythocorys Tappan & Loeblich 1968. Howev-
er, the object in his figure 2 clearly belongs to the worm
tubes. He compared the so-called perforated calcitic lamella
in the mouth to the oral diaphragma typical for some recent
Plate I: Mercierella (?) dacica and similar microfossils. Fig. 1
Mercierella (?) dacica Dragastan in the shallow-water Titho-
nian limestone with Tubiphytes. Pebble from the Upper Conia-
cian-Santonian conglomerates, Kysuca Succession, Pieniny
Klippen Belt. Loc. ilinská Lehota-c, thin section No. 7685,
; Fig. 2 Microfossil similar to Mercierella (?) in
the Upper Jurassic shallow-water limestone with Tubiphytes and
Mohlerina basiliensis. Pebble from the Senonian Valchov Con-
glomerate. Loc. Bzince-Rubaninské 13, Èachtické Karpaty Mts.,
thin section No. 23557, magn. 50
; Fig. 3 Similar form in the
Upper Jurassic limestone with Tubiphytes. As previous. Loc.
Bzince-Rubaninské 10, thin section No. 18142, magn. 20
4 Similar form in the Upper Jurassic limestone with Mohleri-
na basiliensis from the Silica Unit. Pebble from the Egerian con-
glomerates. Loc. Chvalová-II-27, thin section No. 11205, magn.
; Fig. 5 Similar form, locality as Fig. 1, thin section No.
23554, magn. 75
; Fig. 6 Mercierella (?) dacica Dragastan in
the Upper Jurassic limestone with Tubiphytes. Pebble from the
Senonian conglomerates, Kysuca Unit, Pieniny Klippen Belt.
Loc. Branè-Starý hrad-n, thin section No. 8704, magn. 43
7 Similar form in the Kimmeridgean-Lower Tithonian lime-
stone with microoncoids and Saccocoma. Pebble from the Pale-
ocene Proè Conglomerate of the Pieniny Klippen Belt. Loc. I-
novce-24, thin section No. 17148, magn. 95
; Fig. 8 Similar
form. Locality as Fig. 1, thin section No. 23550, magn. 50
9 Similar form in the Tithonian limestone with Tubiphytes.
Pebble from the Eocene Strihovce Conglomerate, Krynica Sub-
unit, Magura Flysch Belt. Loc. Matiaka 1-1, thin section No.
23547, magn. 75
; Fig. 10 Mercierella (?) dacica Dragastan,
as Fig. 1, thin section No. 23554, magn. 27
; Fig. 11 Mercier-
ella (?) sp. 1. Locality as Fig. 2, thin section No. 11499, magn.
; Fig. 12 Aeolisaccus cf. kotori Radoièiæ in the shallow-
water Upper Jurassic limestone with Mohlerina basiliensis. Lo-
cality as Fig. 2. Thin section No. 14566, magn. 95
PLATE I 307
308 PLATE II
JURASSIC, CRETACEOUS AND PALEOGENE SERPULID WORMS 309
Plate II: Durandella helentappani and Carpathiella triangulata
nov.gen., nov.spec. Fig. 1 Durandella helentappani Dragastan,
in the upper part a longitudinal section, in the lower part a cross-
section of the tube fixed by the celullar structure, proving its anne-
lid nature. Lower Tithonian limestone with Parastomiosphaera
malmica, Czorsztyn Succession, Pieniny Klippen Belt. Loc. Quar-
ry Babiná near Bohunice, thin section No. 12693, magn. 40
2 Durandella helentappani Dragastan, cross-section in the col-
lar part. The same locality and thin section, magn. 40
; Fig. 3
Carpathiella nov.gen. triangulata nov.spec., holotype, in the Pal-
orbitolina-bearing Upper Barremian-Lower Aptian limestone (Ur-
gonian facies). Block in the Cenomanian conglomerates, Manín
Unit. Loc. W of Malé Hradisko near ilina, thin section No. 6149,
; Fig. 4 Carpathiella triangulata fixed on the alga
Pseudolithotamnium album. Barremian-Aptian limestone, pebble
from the Albian Ludrová Conglomerate, Krína Nappe. Loc.
Medzibrodie-10, Stráov Mts., thin section No. 12013, magn. 48
Fig. 5 Carpathiella triangulata, paratype, in the Upper Jurassic
Barmstein Limestone, Choè Nappe. Loc. ipkovský háj-13, Èach-
tické Karpaty Mts., thin section No. 23558, magn. 63
; Fig. 6
Carpathiella triangulata in the Kimmeridgean-Lower Tithonian
limestone with Saccocoma. Pebble from the Eocene Strihovce
Conglomerate, Krynica Subunit, Magura Flysch Zone. Loc.
Mièákovce-b, thin section No. 14702, magn. 80
; Fig. 7 Car-
pathiella triangulata in the Palorbitolina-bearing Upper Barremi-
an-Lower Aptian limestone with corals (Urgonian facies). Pebble
from the Senonian conglomerates, Klape Unit. Loc. Vrtier-XXI ,
thin section No. 9560, magn. 43
; Fig. 8 Carpathiella triangu-
lata in the Tithonian limestone with Tubiphytes. Pebble from the
Cenomanian conglomerates, Manín Unit. Loc. Súlov-ces-a, thin
section No. 10463, magn. 48
; Fig. 9 Carpathiella triangulata,
cross and longitudinal section, in the Palorbitolina-bearing Upper
Barremian-Lower Aptian limestone. Pebble from the Paleocene
Proè Conglomerate, Pieniny Klippen Belt. Loc. Proè-II-i, thin sec-
tion No. 16684, magn. 30
; Fig. 10 Carpathiella sp. in the Cen-
omanian limestone with Orbitolina concava. Pebble from Upper
Cenomanian-Turonian conglomerates, Klape Unit. Loc. Podváie-
II-9 , thin section No. 10931, magn. 30
Holotype: Specimen at the Pl. II: Fig. 3, thin section No.
6149. Coll. of the Department of Geology and Paleontology,
Faculty of Sciences, J.A. Comenius University, Bratislava,
Paratype: Specimen on the Pl. II: Fig. 5, thin section No.
23550. Coll. as above.
Type horizon: Upper Barremian-Lower Aptian
Type locality: HolotypeMalé Hradisko Hill near
ilina, Slovakia, Urgonian Limestone, block in the Cenoma-
nian conglomerate, Manín Unit. Paratypeipkovský háj
near Krajné, Èachtické Karpaty Mts., Barmstein Limestone,
Derivation of name: Triangulata after irregularly tri-
Material: Eight sections of tubes from limestones of Up-
per Jurassic and Barremian-Aptian age.
Diagnosis: The tube consists of one layer, sometimes
with a thin dark micritized rim on its outer and rarely also in
its inner side. The calcite fibres in the tube are radially ar-
ranged. In the acute corner of the triangle a dark line (suture)
is present, it may rarely be replaced by a narrow canal (Pl. II:
Fig. 5). The longitudinal section of the tube is irregularly
curved with oscillating thickness (Pl. II: Fig. 9).
Description: The largest diameter of the tube oscillates
between 0.451.12 mm. The lumen is between 0.180.60
mm. The length cannot be measured.
Localities: Seven localities are cited in the caption of
Plate II. Other localities: Chvalová-II-16, Upper Jurassic,
pebble from Egerian conglomerates, Milovice-1, Upper Ju-
rassic, pebble from the Paleogene conglomerates.
Carpathiella perforata nov.spec.
(Pl. III: Figs. 13)
1964 Problematicum Garcia, Fig. 24, photo 40
1972 cf. Haliotus Samuel et al., Pl. CLXXIV: Fig. 2; Pl. CLXXV: Fig. 4
1995 worm tube Miík, Pl. III: Figs. 56
Holotype: Specimen on Pl. III: Fig. 1, thin section No.
14354. Coll. of the Department of Geology and Paleontolo-
gy, Faculty of Sciences, J.A. Comenius University, Bratisla-
Paratype: Specimen on the Pl. III: Fig. 2, thin section
No. 3783. Coll. as above.
Type horizon: Senonian
Type locality: Lipovec near Jablonica, pebble of Senon-
ian limestone in the Karpatian Jablonica Conglomerate.
Derivation of name: After the circular voids within the
Material and localities: Three thin sections from three
localities Barremian-Aptian, Senonian and Paleocene. The
localities are cited in the caption of Pl. III: Fig. 13.
Diagnosis: Triangular shape but with rounded corners;
one to three circular voids in the tube wall are present in the
cross-section (three voids were present in the specimens il-
lustrated by Garcia (1964) and Samuel et al. (1972: Pl.
CLXXVfig. 4). Different structure of the corners also in
the case of lacking voids (concentric cracks Pl. III: Fig. 1,
Tintinnida. It may be noted that such a diaphragma is not
known in any fossil representative of the Tintinnida. The an-
nelid nature is clear in the lower specimen figured in our Pl.
II: Fig. 1, which has its tube fixed with serpulid cellular layer
to the substratum. The stratigraphic level of our specimen is
Tithonian, the same as that one illustrated by Dragastan
Type species: Carpathiella triangulata nov. spec.
Derivation of name: Carpathiella after the Car-
Diagnosis: Tubes relatively thick (mostly 0.130.18
mm). The tube is formed by one layer; the calcite fibres are
oriented radially in the cross-section. The cross-section tends
to a triangular shape.
Carpathiella triangulata nov.spec.
(Pl. II: Figs. 39)
1981 Worm tube (?) Miík & Sýkora, Pl. IX: Fig. 9
310 PLATE III
JURASSIC, CRETACEOUS AND PALEOGENE SERPULID WORMS 311
Plate III: Carpathiella perforata nov.gen., nov.spec. and Carpa-
thiella sp. Fig. 1 Carpathiella perforata, holotype, in the Se-
nonian limestone. Pebble from the Karpatian Jablonica Conglom-
erate. Loc. Lipovec-ces-a, Malé Karpaty Mts., thin section No.
14354, magn. 48
; Fig. 2 Carpathiella perforata, paratype, in
the block of Paleocene Kambühel biohermal limestone. Loc. Stará
Turá near the church, thin section No. 3783, magn. 37
; Fig. 3
Carpathiella perforata partially silicified (quartzine fills in en-
larged void on the left) with calcitic spherulitic structure in the up-
per corner. Barremian-Aptian limestone with corals and rudist
fragments (Urgonian facies), pebble from the Cenomanian lime-
stones of the Manín Unit. Loc. Hradná-JRD-e, thin section No.
7120, magn. 26
, crossed polars; Fig. 4 Carpathiella sp. in the
Albian limestone with Orbitolina durandelgai. Pebble from the
Paleocene Proè Conglomerate, Pieniny Klippen Belt. Loc. Niné
Ladièkovce-4, thin section No. 16258, magn. 32
; Fig. 5 Car-
pathiella sp. in the Lower Berriasian limestone with Protopener-
oplis trochangulata. Loc. tramberk, thin section No. 20265,
; Fig. 6 Carpathiella sp. in the Barremian-Aptian
limestone with Sabaudia. Pebble from the Paleocene Proè Con-
glomerate. Loc. Beòatina-II-22, thin section No. 17186, magn.
; Fig. 7 Carpathiella sp. in the Palorbitolina-bearing Upper
Barremian-Lower Aptian limestone. Pebble from the Paleocene
Proè Conglomerate. Loc. Beòatina-II-40, thin section No. 16536,
; Fig. 8 Carpathiella sp. in the Barremian-Aptian
limestone. Pebble from the Senonian conglomerates, Klape Unit.
Loc. Ïurèovia-d, thin section No. 10014, magn. 60
; Fig. 9
Carpathiella sp. in the Palorbitolina-bearing Upper Barremian-
Lower Aptian limestone. Pebble from the Paleocene Proè Con-
glomerate, Pieniny Klippen Belt, Proè-II-d, thin section No.
16691, magn. 48
radial fibrous structure Pl. III: Fig. 3). It is possible that
the voids gradually evolve in the anterior part of the tube.
Description: The diameter of the tube was between 0.62
and 1.92 mm; the holotype0.91 mm and the width of the
Remark: Samuel et al. (1972: Pl. CLXXIVfig. 2 and
Pl. CLXXVfig. 4) designated our Carpathiella perforata
as cf. Haliotus. They have mistaken objects figured by Ma-
jewske (1969: Pl. 14 fig. 1) where the gastropod Haliotus
is accompanied by an annelid tube.
(Pl. II: Fig. 10; Pl. III: Figs. 49)
Thick one-layered very irregular tube with radially ar-
ranged calcite fibres. The mouth of the tube is club-shaped,
formed by spherolitic aggregate of thin fibres (white colour
on the Pl. III: Fig. 4). In some oblique sections thin pores
(channels) can be seen (Pl. III: Fig. 6). Numerous localities
of the Upper Jurassic and especially Barremian-Aptian lime-
stone (Urgonian facies).
Acknowledgements: The paper contributes to the research
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