background image







Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, Skrzatów St. 1, 31-560 Kraków, Poland

(Manuscript received October 8, 1997; accepted in revised form March 24, 1998)

Abstract: The oldest micro- and nannofossils of the ?Tithonian Lower Cieszyn Shales and detrital Cieszyn Limestones

are dominated by redeposited calcareous benthic foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton. These assemblages are

similar to those of epicontinental seas or large shelf areas. The younger micro- and nannofossil pelitic part of the

Berriasian Cieszyn Limestones and Valanginian Upper Cieszyn Shales are composed of low-diversity primitive agglu-

tinated foraminiferids and calcareous nannoplankton that resemble coeval faunas and floras of the Tethys seas. The

sequence of foraminiferal assemblages and the nature of the nannoplankton associations from the “Cieszyn Beds”

reflect the subsidence or collapse of the NE European Platform margin, disappearance of shallow areas with carbonate

sedimentation, and formation of a deep basin with turbidite sedimentation. These events may be related to the

Neocimmerian orogeny and the worldwide regression at the Tithonian/Berriasian boundary.

Key words: Tithonian-Neocomian, Polish Western Carpathians, Silesian Unit, Cieszyn Beds, paleoecology, calcareous

nannoplankton, Foraminifera.


Preliminary analyses of foraminiferal and calcareous nanno-

plankton assemblages from the Silesian Series are presented.

These are part of the project dealing with the onset of the

subsidence of the Carpathian flysch basin. The biostrati-

graphical, paleoecological and paleogeographical studies re-

fer to the oldest sedimentary rocks (“Cieszyn Beds”) of the

Polish Western Carpathians. The microfossils of these de-

posits appear to be a valuable tool for paleoenvironment in-

terpretations and paleobiogeographical reconstructions. The

results of these investigations may be regarded as making

more precise and extending the former research about the

initial conditions for life and a sedimentation in the early fly-

sch basin (comp. Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1961, 1975; Olszewska


The study is based on samples collected from the Cieszyn-

Ustroñ area (Cisownica, Goleszów, Goleszów-Marglownia

Quarry), the vicinity of Bielsko-Bia³a (Lipnik Stream, Ka-

mienica Stream and Quarry, Jasienica Quarry) and neigh-

bourhood of the ¯ywiec tectonic window (So³a River, Radz-

iechowy Quarry), Fig. 1.

Geological setting

In the Polish Outer Carpathians, ?Tithonian non-flysch de-

posits and flysch-type Upper Tithonian-Lower Cretaceous

sediments  belong to three tectonic units: Silesian, Subsile-

sian and Skole nappes. The oldest sediments of the Car-

pathians basin are more completely developed in the Silesian

Nappe of the Western Carpathians. The Silesian Nappe in

the study area consists of two independent tectonic units: the

Fig. 1. Location of the studied outcrops. Tectonic units in the Pol-

ish Western Carpathians (Geroch et al. 1967). Outcrops: 1—Ci-

sownica, 2—Goleszów; 3—Goleszów-Marglownia Quarry, 4—

Jasienica Quarry, 5—Kamienica Stream and Quarry, 6—Lipnik

Stream, 7—Radziechowy Quarry, 8—So³a River.

background image

204                                                                                     SZYDŁO



Cieszyn Unit and the Godula Unit (Bieda et al. 1963). The

first of these units consists of uppermost Jurassic (Tithonian)

and Lower Cretaceous sediments. Part of this sequence, the

so-called “Cieszyn Beds” belongs to the informal lithostrati-

graphical units: ?Tithonian Lower Cieszyn Shales (dark-

grayish marly shales), ?Upper Tithonian-Berriasian Cieszyn

Limestones (light-coloured, detrital and pelitic limestones)

and Valanginian-Hauterivian Upper Cieszyn Shales (dark-

grey, marly shales) (Fig. 2). The “Cieszyn Beds” as well as

the overlying Grodziszcze Beds (grey-bluish marls and

shales with rare sandy intercalations) have been studied for

micro- and nannofossils (Fig. 3).

The base of the “Cieszyn Beds” is uncertain because of the

tectonic decollement (Bieda et al. 1963) and the recently re-

vised Kimmeridgian-Tithonian boundary (Gradstein et al.

1995). Therefore, the analysis of the oldest part of these sed-

iments will be presented separately.

The characteristic, frequent and better preserved species

of foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton are listed

(Fig. 3) and illustrated (Pls. I, II).


 Tithonian microfossils from Lower Cieszyn

Shales and detrital Cieszyn Limestones


In Goleszów section (cf. Szyd³o 1997) and

from Marglownia Quarry, the oldest samples (i.e.

?Upper Tithonian age) yield mainly calcareous

benthos:  Geinitzinita wolinensis Bielecka &

Po¿aryski, few Lenticulina: L. ex gr. münsteri

(Roemer), L. cf. ambanjabensis Epistalié & Sigal,

Lenticulina vistulae elongata Bielecka &

Po¿aryski, numerous taxa of  Planuria sp.: P.

cordiformis (Terquem), P. crepidularis Roemer,

P. multicostata Kusnetzova, P. cf. poljenovae

Kusnetzova, Vaginulinopsis embaensis (Fursenko

& Polenova), Marginulinopsis robusta (Reuss),

M. striatocostata (Reuss), Tristix temiricra

(Dain), Vaginulina kochii Roemer and Trocholina

solecensis Bielecka & Po¿aryski. In addition oth-

er badly preserved nodosariids (e.g. Lenticulina

spp., Lingulina spp., Frondicularia spp., Cithari-

na spp.) are noted. Moreover, from Marglownia

Quarry common taxa of Polymorphinidae: Eogut-

tulina liassica (Strickland), Guttulina multistriata

Bielecka are reported. Agglutinated foraminifers,

including  Belorusiella wolinensis Bielecka,

Palaeogaudryina  cf. taurica (Gorbachik),

Palaeogaudryina varsoviensis (Bielecka &

Po¿aryski) as well as radiolarians, diatoms and

fragments of ostracods, bryozoans and corals

have also been found in these deposits.

At the top of the Lower Cieszyn Shales, just

below the Cieszyn Limestones (Cisownica) the

uppermost Tithonian associations are noted. The

first occurrence of Trocholina group: T. alpina

(Leupold), T. solecensis Bielecka & Po¿aryski

Fig. 2. The “Cieszyn Beds” in the Polish Western Carpathians (Cieszyn Unit)

based on Geological atlas of Poland 1962; Nowak 1973.

and Neotrocholina molesta (Gorbachik), and diverse Lenti-

culina: L. infravolgensis Fursenko & Polenova, L. münsteri

(Roemer), L. ponderosa Mjatliuk, L. cf. vistulae Bielecka &

Po¿aryski are observed. In addition, Marginulinopsis betten-

staedti (Bartenstein & Brand), M. striatocostata (Reuss), Sa-

racenaria alata-angularis (Franke), Paalzowella feifeli

(Paalzow), Spirillina minima Schacko have been distin-

guished (Szyd³o 1997). The above foraminiferids are charac-

teristic for the detrital Cieszyn Limestones (Geroch 1966).

Calcareous nannoplankton

The samples studied from the Lower Cieszyn Shales con-

tain poor nannoplankton assemblages. Most of the samples

are dominated by species of Watznaueria Reinhardt (which

are characteristic of poorly preserved assemblages) as well

as by Ellipsagelosphaera Noël, which constitute about 95 %

of the assemblages. Identified species are as follow: W. bar-

nesae (Black) Perch-Nielsen, W. biporta Bukry, E. britanni-

ca (Stradner) Perch-Nielsen, E. fossacincta Black, E. lucassi

background image


Noël. At the boundary with the Cieszyn Limestones other

species (up to 5 in the sample) have been encountered. They

are: Conusphaera cf. mexicana Trejo, Cyclagelosphaera de-

flandrei (Manivit), C. margerelii Noël, Diazomatolithus leh-

manii Noël, Microstaurus chiastus (Worsley) Grün, Polycos-

tella  cf. beckmannii Thierstein, Zeugrhabdotus embergei

(Noël) Perch-Nielsen.

Samples collected from the uppermost part of  the Lower

Cieszyn Shales  probably represent at least the top of the

Zeugrhabdotus embergeri Zone of Worsley (1971). The nan-

noplankton assemblages of this zone, dominated by Ellip-

sagelosphaera. FO of C. mexicana, P. beckmannii, indicate

the top of this zone (Wind 1978; Hamilton 1982), i.e. the up-

permost Early Tithonian. However, according to studies by

Bralower et al. (1989) from land sections of  south-western

Europe, FO of P. beckmannii indicates at least the lower part

of the Upper Tithonian.

The oldest assemblages described from the non-flysch

marly Lower Cieszyn Shales are dominated by calcareous

benthic foraminifers and scarce nannoplankton. Assemblag-

es with common trocholinas also resemble the microfauna of

detrital Cieszyn Limestones (cf. Geroch 1966). Samples

from Radziechowy and Jasienica limestones quarries are de-

void of microfossils. The accompanying radiolarians as well

as the style of deposition of these sediments (S³omka 1986)

suggest that the shallow-water calcareous foraminifers

(mainly nodosariids and trocholinas) and nannoplankton

taxa (e.g. Conusphaera mexicana, Thierstein 1976) have

been redeposited.

 Berriasian and Valanginian microfossils from Cieszyn

Limestones (pelitic part) and Upper Cieszyn Shales (lower part)


In the Kamienica Quarry, improverished and badly pre-

served assemblages are found, in shally intercalation of the

Cieszyn Limestones. They consist of numerous primitive ag-

glutinated forms such as: Rhizammina indivisa Brady, Hy-

perammina gaultina Dam, Ammodiscus sp., Glomospira sp.,

Pseudoreophax cisovnicensis Geroch, Trochammina quin-

queloba Geroch and scarce calcareous benthic taxa (e.g. Tro-

cholina paucigranulata Moulladae). Forms belonging to

Nodosariidae (Lenticulina) and Involutinidae (Trocholina,

Neotrocholina) have corroded tests. A few radiolarians and

ostracods were also observed.

Calcareous nannoplankton

The calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the Cieszyn

Limestones are similar to those from the Lower Cieszyn

Shales. However, Nannoconus spp. Kamptner and Speetonia

colligata Black have been found in one sample. The exam-

ined material from the Upper Cieszyn Shales has been de-

void of calcareous nannoplankton. Nevertheless, occurrence

of Nannoconus spp. and S. colligata may suggest at least the

Early Berriasian age of the studied samples.

Low-diversity and poor foraminiferal assemblages are

characteristic of the Berriasian-Valanginian Cieszyn Lime-

Fig. 3. Table of proposed distribution of some taxa of foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton.

background image

206                                                                                 SZYDŁO and JUGOWIEC

stones (pelitic part) and Upper Cieszyn Shales (without their

uppermost part; compare with Geroch 1966). These assem-

blages are composed mainly of agglutinated taxa belonging

to: Ammodiscidae, Ataxophragmiidae, Astrorhizidae and

may be consider as autochthonous fauna. These microfossils

represent the slope of a deep flysch basin (cf. Ksi¹¿kiewicz

1961, 1975; Olszewska 1984). Moreover, the sedimentologi-

cal data confirm this opinion (S³omka 1986; Malik 1986,


 Uppermost Valanginian-Hauterivian microfossils from

Upper Cieszyn Shales (uppermost part) and Grodziszcze

Beds (lower part)


Microfauna of the Upper Cieszyn Shales (Lipnik Stream,

So³a River) and the lower part of the Grodziszcze Beds (Lip-

nik Stream) includes mainly Ataxophragmiidae and scarce

Nodosariidae (mainly Lenticulina with corroded tests). To

the former belong Praedorothia hauteriviana (Moullade)

with calcareous agglutinated test and arenaceous species:

Pseudoreophax cisovnicensis Geroch and Verneuilinoides

neocomiensis (Mjatliuk) which are characteristic of the Up-

per Cieszyn Shales (upper part) and the Grodziszcze Beds

(cf. Geroch 1966). Other forms i.e. Falsogaudryinella teal-

byensis (Bartenstein), Ammobaculoides carpathicus Geroch

also occur in the Grodziszcze Beds samples.

Calcareous nannoplankton

The similarity of specific compositon of nannofossil as-

semblages between the Grodziszcze Beds and underlying

beds (Lower Cieszyn Shales, Cieszyn Limestones) have

been observed. Moreover, the presence of Haqius circumra-

diatus (Stover) Roth, Lithraphidites sp. Deflandre, and Tu-

bodiscus cf. verenae Thierstein in the Grodziszcze Beds

samples have been noted. According to Crux (1982) the

range of H. circumradiatus is from the Hauterivian to the

Campanian, or according to Mutterlose (1991) from the

Kimmeridgian to the Barremian in Tethys. The presence of

T. cf. verenae  probably suggest a Valanginian age of the in-

vestigated samples (Mutterlose 1989).

The microfauna indicates outer shelf and slope environ-

ments for the flysch basin (cf. Malik & Olszewska 1984).

Mixed foraminiferal assemblages with poorly preserved and

low diversified nannoplankton associations may be connect-

ed with tectonic activity of  the flysch basin (Haq 1973;

Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1975; S³omka 1986), caused by sea level fluc-

tuations (Haq 1973; Cooper 1977; Leszczyñski & Malik

1996) or climate changes (Haq 1973).


The microfauna characteristic of the northen margins of

Tethys dominating the Tithonian sediments was replaced by

Neocomian flysch taxa, which represent the slope environ-

ment of the Cieszyn Basin.

The Tithonian foraminiferal assemblages containing high-

ly diversified calcareous benthos of the families: Nodosari-

idae (Geinitzinita, Lenticulina, Marginulinopsis, Planularia,

Saracenaria, Vaginulina, Vaginulinopsis), Involutinidae

(Trocholina, Neotrocholina, Paalzowella), Polymorphinidae

(Eoguttulina, Guttulina) and minor agglutinated foramin-

iferids belong to Ataxophragmiidae family (Paleogaudryi-

na, Belorusiella) may be correlated with the “shelf assem-

blages” of Gordon (1970).

Certain species of Watznaueria and Ellipsagelosphaera

are well preserved and dominate calcareous nannoplankton

assemblages. The other identified taxa are relatively poorly

preserved. C. mexicana and Nannoconus spp. most probably

preferred the epicontinental seas and large shelf areas (cf.

Thierstein 1976).

Redeposited foraminiferids of the Lower Cieszyn Shales

and Cieszyn Limestones (Geroch 1966; Nowak 1976;

Geroch & Olszewska 1990), the nature of calcareous nanno-

plankton (Thierstein 1976; Perch-Nielsen 1979), associated

with the presence of radiolarians (Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1975) con-

firm the opinion that carbonate material was transported by

turbidites into a deeper environment (at least an upper bathy-

al zone) from the northern platform or reef margins of Sile-

sian (Cieszyn) Basin (Geological Atlas of Poland 1962; At-

las of paleotransport 1976, S³omka 1986; Michalík & Soták

1990). According to Sliter (1980), shallow-water exchange

between the Boreal and Tethys realms was initiated at about

150 Ma (i.e. during Malm).

At the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary, the first agglutinated

foraminiferal population appeared in the Cieszyn Lime-

stones (with Trochammina sp.) as microfauna that started to

colonize the new created flysch environment in the Outer

Polish Carpathians Basin (Olszewska 1982). This trend is

represented by autochthonous assemblage with Pseu-

doreophax cisovnicensis which occurred in the Berriasian-

Valanginian Cieszyn Limestones and the Upper Cieszyn

Shales (without the uppermost part).

Poor and badly preserved assemblages with Pseu-

doreophax cisovnicensis resemble the ”Recurvoides” Asso-

ciation of Haig (1979) and represent the slope of the flysch

basin (bathyal zone) close (pelitic Cieszyn Limestones) or

below (Upper Cieszyn Shales) the local CCD level.

Plate I: Fig. l. Palaeogaudryina varsoviensis (Bielecka &

Po¿aryski). Fig. 2. Pseudoreophax cisovnicensis Geroch. Fig. 3.

Verneuilinoides neocomiensis (Mjatliuk). Fig. 4. Geinitzinita

wolinensis Bielecka. Fig.  5. Lingulina sp. Fig. 6. Lenticulina vis-

tulae elongata Bielecka & Po¿aryski. Fig. 7. Lenticulina ex gr.

münsteri (Roemer). Figs. 8–10. Lenticulina sp. Fig. 11. Planularia

cordiformis (Terquem). Fig. 12. Planularia multicostata (Kusnet-

zova). Fig. 13. Planularia crepidularis Roemer. Fig. 14. Planular-

ia uilensis Kusnetzova. Fig. 15. Vaginulina kochii Roemere. Fig.

16. Marginulinopsis cf.  bettenstaedti (Bartenstein & Brand). Fig.

17. Marginulinopsis striatocostata (Reuss). Fig. 18. Eoguttulina

liassica (Stricland). Fig. 19. Guttulina multicostata Bielecka. Fig.

20. Vaginulinopsis embaensis Fursenko & Polenova. Fig. 21. Tris-

tix acutangulus (Reuss). Fig. 22. Trocholina solecensis Bielecka &

Po¿aryski.  Figs. 23–24. Neotrocholina molesta Gorbachik. Fig.

25. Trocholina alpina (Leupold). Fig.    26.  Paalzowella feifeli

(Paalzow). Length of bars: 0.1 mm.


background image

PLATE  I                                                                                                207

background image

208                                                                                               PLATE  II

background image


The low-diversity agglutinated microfauna (mainly with P.

cisovnicensis) may be correlated with the first oxygen mini-

mum episode in the Cieszyn Basin (comp. Szyd³o 1997).

The foraminiferal morphotypes of these assemblage contains

mainly small, elongated, planispiral-flattened and cylindrical

forms with high surface area—to volume ratios. This fact

may be related to the extent of anoxia (Bernhard 1986).

Probably, during this time (i.e. earliest Cretaceous) the sup-

ply of terrigenous material to the vast flysch basin increased.

Rapid rise of the CCD, related to the restricted conditions

(e.g. stagnation of the bottom water) caused elimination of

benthic life and, consequently, occurrence of very impover-

ished foraminiferal associations (Butt 1977; Kaminski et al.

1995; Holbourn & Kaminski 1997).

The uppermost Valanginian-Hauterivian Upper Cieszyn

Shales and Grodziszcze Beds yielded both arenaceous and

rare calcareous foraminifers which the resemble “Mars-

sonella/Recurvoides” associations of Haig (1979). The spe-

cific composition of these foraminiferal assemblages with

the accompanying scarce calcareous nannoplankton most

probably reflect a transgression-regression cycle in the fly-

sch basin (Haq 1973; Leszczyñski & Malik 1996) connected,

in turn, with the short duration of tectonic activity of  the

northen margins of  the basin at the end of the Valanginian

(S³omka 1986).

The specific composition of nannofossil assemblages

(poor, low-diversity, badly preserved) has also been ob-

served in Neocomian sediments (from the pelitic Cieszyn

Limestones to the Grodziszcze Beds).

 Widespread orogenic events and regression episodes are

followed by reduction in the quantity of calcareous nannof-

lora (Haq 1973).

The sequence of foraminiferal assemblages and the nature

of the nannoplankton association from the “Cieszyn Beds”

reflect the subsidence or collapse of the NE European mar-

gin of the platform, the disappearance of areas with shallow

carbonate sedimentation and formation of a deep basin with

flysch sedimentation.

The geotectonic desintegration of the carbonate platform

system preceded formation of the Carpathian deep flysch ba-

sin (Leszczyñski & Malik 1996). Therefore, the Neocimme-

rian orogeny (Nowak 1976) and the worldwide regression at

the Tithonian/Berriasian boundary (Zeiss 1983) may be re-

sponsible for this event.

Foraminifers and some taxa of calcareous nannofossils,

reported from the ?Tithonian Lower Cieszyn Shales are com-

parable to those of epicontinental seas or large shelf areas,

for example the European Platform (cf. Bielecka &

Po¿aryski 1954; Bielecka & Geroch 1974; Bielecka 1975;

Thierstein 1976; Kuznietzova & Gorbachik 1985). Their ori-

gin may be related to the sedimentation area of the Pavlov

platform (Hanzliková 1965a: the youngest part of the Klent-

nice Beds; Eliᚠ& Eliášova 1986). The presence of certain

foraminiferids (e.g. trocholinas) with fragments of macro-

fauna (e.g. bryozoans, ostracods, corals) in the Lower

Cieszyn Shales may represent part of the eroded material

from the nearby Inwa³d klippe (Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1971; S³omka


Moreover, species of Watznaueria and Ellipsagelosphaera

and  Z. embergeri have consistent occurrences in both the

Tethyan and Boreal realms. Thus, these species represent an

eurytropic flora (Muterlose 1992).

The microfauna described from the Neocomian deposits in

the Cieszyn flysch basin (northern margin of Tethys) sug-

gests that the sedimentation conditions were similar to those

of the Slovak Western Carpathians and deeper (scarce Epis-

tommina) than those in the Western Mediterranean region

(Borza et al. 1995). However, bathimetrically these condi-

tions were similar to those calculated for the Slovak Car-

pathians (Hanzliková 1956a,b; Andrusov 1959), Romanian

Carpathians (Neagu 1962), Eastern Alps (Decker & Rögl

1988) and Betic Mountains (Kuhnt 1995), and shallower

than those from the North Atlantic (Sliter 1980). Certain

cosmopolitan species e.g. Rhizammina indivisa, Hyperam-

mina gaultina, Pseudoreophax cisovnicensis, Trochammina

quinqueloba, have been noted in the coeval sediments of

the Indian Ocean (Holbourn & Kaminski 1997).

The Early Cretaceous nannofossils: C. mexicana, Nanno-

conus spp., S. colligata, P. beckmannii have been restricted

to the tropical and subtropical paleolatitudes. However, C.

mexicana and Nannoconus spp. are characteristic of the

Tethyan paleobiogeoprovince. Nevertheless, they are very

scarce or absent in the Pacific realm (cf. Thierstein 1976;

Perch-Nielsen 1979; Mutterlose 1992).

Mixed microfossils from different environments have

been distinguished from Tithonian sediments (Lower

Cieszyn Shales, detrital Cieszyn Limestones) and uppermost

Valanginian-Hauterivian deposits (uppermost part of the Up-

per Cieszyn Shales, Grodziszcze Beds), consequently these

sediments may be interpreted as resedimented (Olszewska

1983; S³omka 1986; Leszczyñski & Malik 1996).

Acknowledgements: Special thanks are offered to P. Ne-

scieruk M. Sc. for supplying some of the samples for this

study. Thanks are extended to Dr. B. Olszewska, Dr. A.M.

Gasiñski, Dr. J. Soták for their critical and helpful remarks

on the manuscript.


Andrusov D., 1959: Geology of Czechoslovak Carpathians. Vol, 2,


 Geological Atlas of Poland, 1962: Cretaceous and Early Tertiary

in the Polish External Carpathians. Stratigraphic and facial

Plate II: Figs. 1–2. Zeugrhabdotus embergeri (Noël) Perch-Niels-

en. Figs. 3–4. Parhabdolithus liasicus Deflandre. Figs. 5–7. Cy-

clagelosphaera deflandrei (Manivit). Fig. 8. Cyclagelosphaera

margerelii Noël. Fig. 9. Ellipsagelosphaera lucasii Noël. Fig. 10.

Ellipsagelosphaera fossacincta Black. Fig. 11. Ellipsagelosphaera

britannica (Stradner) Perch-Nielsen. Fig. 12. Watznaueria barne-

sae (Black) Perch-Nielsen. Figs. 13–14. Speetonia  cf. colligata

Black. Figs. 15–16. Lithraphidites sp. Deflandre. Fig. 17. Polycos-

tella cf. beckmannii Thierstein. Figs. 18–19. Haqius circumradia-

tus (Stover) Roth (all specimens magnification 




background image

210                                                                                     SZYDŁO



problems. Fasc. 13. Wydawnictwo Geologiczne. Warszawa (in

Polish, English summary).

Atlas of paleontransport, 1976: Atlas of paleotransport of detrital

sediments in the Carpathian-Balkan mountain system.  Part I,

Tithonian-Lower Cretaceous. Instytut Geologiczny, Warszawa

(in Polish, English summary).

Bartenstein H., 1979: Worldwide zonation of the Lower Cretaceous

using benthic foraminifera. Newslett. Stratigr., 7, 3, 142–154.

Bieda E., Geroch S., Koszarski L., Ksi¹¿kiewicz M. & ¯ytko K.,

1963: Stratigraphy of the Polish Outer Carpathians. Biul. Inst.

Geol., 181, 6–31.

Bielecka W., 1975: Foraminifera and brackish Ostracoda from the

Portlandian of Polish Lowlands. Acta Geol. Pol., 20, 3, 296–380.

Bielecka W. & Po¿aryski W., 1954: Micropalaeontological stratig-

raphy of the Upper Malm in the Central Poland. Prace Inst.

Geol., 12, 1–203 (in Polish, English summary).

Bielecka W. & Geroch S., 1974: Quelques Foraminiféres du Juras-

sique supérieur des Carpathes externes polonaises. Ann. Mines

Géol., 28, 185–199.

Bernhard J.M., 1986: Characteristic assemblages and morpholo-

gies of benthic foraminifera from anoxic, organic-rich depos-

its: Jurassic through Holocene. J. Foraminiferal Res., 16, 3,


Bralower T.J. et al., 1989: Calcareous nannofosil zonation of the

Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary interval and correlation with the

geomagnetic polarity timescale. Mar. Micropaleontol., 14,


Butt A., 1979: Lower Cretaceous foraminiferal biostratigraphy, pa-

leoecology, and depositional environment at DSDP Site 397,

Leg 47A. Init. Reps. DSDP, 47, 1, 257–262.

Borza V., Salaj J. & Ondrejièková A., 1995: Microbiostratigraphy

of pelagic Berriasian and Valanginian sediments in the West-

ern Carpathians in relation to the Western Mediterranean re-

gion (Tunisia, France). Slovak Geol. Mag., 2, 115–126.

Cooper M.R., 1977: Eustacy during the Cretaceous: its implica-

tions and importance. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeo-

ecol., 22, 1, 1–60.

Crux J.A., 1982: Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian) cal-

careous nannofossils. In: Lord A.R. (Ed.): A stratigraphical in-

dex of calcareous nannofossils. Brit. Micropal. Soc., 81–135.

Decker K. & Rögl F., 1988: Early Cretaceous agglutinated Foramin-

ifera from limestone-marl rhythmites of the Gresten Klippen

Belt, Eastern Alps (Austria). Abh. Geol. B.-A., 41, 41–59.

EliᚠM. & Eliášova H., 1986: Elevation facies of the Malm in Mora-

via. Geol. Zbor. Geol. Carpath., 37, 4, 533–550.

Geroch S., 1966: Lower Cretaceous small Foraminifera of the Sile-

sian Series, Polish Carpathians. Rocz. Pol. Tow. Geol., 36, 4,

413–480 (in Polish, English summary).

Geroch S. & Nowak W., 1984: Proposal of zonation for the Late

Tithonian-Late Eocene, based upon arenaceous Foraminifera

from the Outer Carpathians, Poland. In: Oertli H.J. (Ed.): Ben-

tos’83; 2nd Int. Symp. Benthic Foraminifera (Pau, April 11-

15/4/1983), Elf Aquit., Esso REP et Total CFP, 225–239.

Geroch S. & Olszewska B., 1990: The oldest assemblages of ag-

glutinated foraminifers of the Polish Flysch Carpathians. In:

Hemleben C. et al. (Eds.): Paleoecology, Biostratigraphy, Pa-

leoceanography and Taxonomy of Agglutinated Foraminifera.

NATO ASI Series. Ser. C: Mathem. Physic. Sci., 327, 525–


Gordon W.A., 1970: Biogeography of Jurassic Foraminifera. Geol.

Soc. Am. Bull., 81, 6, 1689–1703.

Gradstein F.M., Agterberg F.P., Ogg J.G., Hardenbol J., van Veen P.,

Thierry J. & Huang Z., 1995: A Triassic, Jurassic and Creta-

ceous Time Scale. In: Berggren W.A. et al. (Eds.): Geochronol-

ogy time scales and global stratigraphic correlation. SEPM.

Soc. Sed. Geol., Spec. Publ., 54, 111–112.

Haig D., 1979: Global distribution patterns for mid-Cretaceous for-

aminiferids. J. Foraminiferal Res., 9, 1, 29–40.

Hamilton G., 1982: Triassic and Jurassic Calcareous nannofossils.

In: Lord A.R. (Ed.): A stratigrafical index of calcareous nan-

nofossils. Brit. Micropal. Soc., 136–67.

Hanzliková E., 1965a: The Foraminifera of the Kletnice beds

(Malm). Sbor. Geol. Vied, 5, 39–104.

Hanzliková E., 1965b: Stratigraphie der Kreide und des Paläogens

der Flysch-zone der Westkarpaten. Geol. Sbor. Geol. Car-

path., 16, 1, 33–64.

Haq B.U., 1973: Trasgressions, climatic change and diversity of

calcareous nannoplankton. Mar. Geol., 15, 25–30.

Holbourn A.E.L. & Kaminski M.A., 1997: Lower Cretaceous deep-

water benthic foraminifera of the Indian Ocean. Grzybowski

Foundation Spec. Publ., 4, 172 + iv pp.

Kaminski M.A., Boersma A., Tyszka J. & Holbourn A.E., 1995:

Response of deep-water agglutinated foraminifera to dysoxic

conditions in the California Bordeland Basins. In: Kaminski

M.A., Geroch S. & Gasiñski M.A. (Eds.): Proceeding of the

Fourth International Workshop on Agglutinated Foramin-

ifera, Kraków Poland, September, 1. Grzybowski Foundation

Spec. Publ., 3, 131–140.

Koszarski L., 1985: Geology of the Middle Carpathian Foredeep,

to excursion 3. Carpatho-Balkan Association XIII Congress.

Kraków. Poland 1, 254.

Ksi¹¿kiewicz M., 1961: Life conditions in flysch basins. Rocz. Pol.

Tow. Geol., 31, 1, 3–21.

Ksi¹¿kiewicz M., 1971: On the origin of the Inwa³d Limestones

(Outer Carpathians Klippes). Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Sér. Sci.

Géol. Géogr., 19, 2, 91–99.

Ksi¹¿kiewicz M., 1975: Bathymetry of the Carpathians Flysch Ba-

sin. Acta Geol. Pol., 25, 3, 309–367.

Kuhnt W., 1995: Deep water agglutinated foraminifera from the

Lower Cretaceous (Neocomian) “Complex Aptychus” Forma-

tion (Corridor de Boyar, Betic Cordillera, southern Spain). J.

Micropaleontol., 14, 1, 37–52.

Kuznetzova K.I. & Gorbachik T.N., 1985: Stratigraphy and Fora-

minifera of Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of Crimea.

Nauka, 395, 3–132 (in Russian).

Leszczyñski S. & Malik K., 1996: Calcareous rocks of the flysch in

the Polish Outer Carpathians. Przegl. Geol., 44, 2, 151–158

(in Polish, English summary).

Malik K., 1986: Excursion No. A-2. Turbidite facies and fan-facies

associations in the Cieszyn Limestones (Upper Tithonian-Ber-

riasian, Northwestern Carpathians, Poland). In: Teisseyre,

A.K. (Ed.): 7 th European Regional Meeting Kraków-Poland

Excursion Guidbook, 53–66.

Malik K., 1994: Normal, catastrophical and special sedimentation

in the Mesozoic Flysch of the Silesian Carpathians.  In: 3th

National Meeting of Sedimentologists. Guidebook. Normal,

catastrophical and special sedimentation. Processes and

produkts. Sosnowiec-Silesian Highland. 12–15 September

1994, 37–47 (in Polish).

Malik K. & Olszewska B., 1984: Micropaleontological and sedi-

mentological study of Grodziszcze Beds in ¯egociny profile

(Carpathian flysch). Ann. Soc. Geol. Pol. 54, 3–4, 293–334

(in Polish, English summary).

Michalík J. & Soták J., 1990: Lower Cretaceous shallow marine

buildups in the Western Carpathians and their relatioship to

pelagic facies. Cretaceous Research, 11, 211.

Mutterlose J., 1991: Das Verteilungs- und Migrationsmuster des

kalkien Nannoplanktons in der borealen underkreide (Valang-

in-Apt) NW Deutschland. Palaeontographica, B221, 27–152.

Mutterlose J., 1992: Lower Cretaceous nannofossils biostratigra-

phy off Northwestern Australia (LEG 123). In: Gradstein F.M.

& Ludden I. N. et al. (Eds.): Preecedings of the ODP Scientif-

background image


ic Results, 123, 343–379.

Neagu T., 1962: Studiul Foraminiferelor aglutinante din argilele

cretacic suprioare de pe Valea Sadovei si basinul superior al

Vaii Buzaului. Stud. Cerc. Geol., 7, 1, 45–81.

Nowak W., 1976: The Outer (Flysch) Carpathians. In: Soko³owski

S. (Ed.): Geology of Poland 1, Stratigraphy part 2, Mesozo-

ici, 401–408,464–468.

Olszewska B., 1983: Assemblage with Trochammina quinqueloba

Geroch-?the oldest agglutinated foraminiferal assemblage of

the Polish Outer Carpathians. Kwart. Geol., 27, 2, 444–445

(in Polish).

Olszewska B., 1984: A paleontological interpretation of the Creta-

ceous and Paleogene foraminifers of the Polish Outer Car-

pathians.  Biul. Inst. Geol., 346, 7–53 (in Polish, English


Perch-Nielsen K., 1979: Calcareous nannofossils from the Creta-

ceous between the Nord Sea and the Mediterranean. IUGS Se-

ries A, 6, 223–72.

Perch-Nielsen K., 1985: Mesozoic calcareous nannofossils. In: Bolli

H.M., Saunders J.B. & Perch-Nielsen K. (Eds.): Plankton

Stratigraphy. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 329–426.

Sliter W.V., 1980: Mesozoic foraminifers and deep-sea benthic en-

vironments from DSDP sites 415 and 416, Eastern North At-

lantic. Init. Reps. DSDP, 50, 353–427.

S³omka T., 1986: Sedimentological analysis of Ciesyn Beds by sta-

tistical methods. Ann. Soc. Geol., 56, 3–4, 277–336 (in Polish,

English summary).

Szyd³o A., 1997: Biostratigraphical and paleoecological signifi-

cance of small foraminiferal assemblages of the Silesian

(Cieszyn) Unit, Polish Western Carpathians. Ann. Soc. Geol.,

67, 2–3, 345–354.

Thierstein H.R., 1976: Mesozoic calcareous nannoplankton bios-

tratigraphy of marine sediments. Mar. Micropaleontol., 1,


Wind F.H., 1978: Western North Atlantic Upper Jurassic calcareous

nannofossils biostratigraphy. Init. Reps. DSDP, 44, 761–73.

Worsley T.R., 1971: Calcareous nannofossil zonation of Jurassic

and Lower Cretaceous sediments from Western Atlantic. In:

Farinacci A. (Ed.): Proceedings II Planktonic Conference

Roma, 1970, Edizioni Tecnoscienza, 1301–1322.

Zeiss A., 1983: Zur Frage der Äquivalenz der Stufen Tithon/Berri-

as/Wolga/Potland in Eurasien und Amerika. Ein Beitrag zur

Klärung der weltweiten Korrelation der Jura-/Kreide-

Grezschichten im marinen Bereich. Zitteliana, 10, 427–438.