background image






National Museum of Natural History, POB 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands;

(Manuscript received October 8, 1997; accepted in revised form June 16, 1998)

Abstract: Because of the high provinciality of the marine biota during the pre-Aptian Cretaceous times, there is no

hope of a precise correlation of Tethyan with Boreal successions by means of biostratigraphy alone. Correlations with

a detail as shown in the correlation schemes presented here, can be achieved only with the combination of all available

correlation tools such as biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy.

Key words: Tethyan-Boreal correlation, pre-Aptian Cretaceous, biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, sequence

stratigraphy, Spain, France, Germany, England.

Tethyan depositional sequences should be supported

by as many biostratigraphical and magnetostratigraphi-

cal correlating ties as possible.

Correlation of depositional sequences

It appears (see folded chart in enclosure) that all deposi-

tional sequences determined in the Tethyan Río Argos

succession (Caravaca, SE Spain) (Hoedemaeker & Leerev-

eld 1995; Hoedemaeker 1995, 1996, in press) can be re-

trieved and identified not only in SE France (sections of

Berrias, La Charce and Angles) (Hoedemaeker, in press),

but also in the Boreal pre-Aptian Cretaceous in north Ger-

many and in England.

The interpretation of the pre-Aptian sequences in the

Río Argos succession and their correlation with those in

SE France (Hoedemaeker 1999) are not repeated again here.

The lithological columns published by Giraud (1995) and

the author’s observations were used in the sequence-

stratigraphic interpretation of the French sections. Only

one more sequence, BA4', was determined in the upper

Barremian of the Río Argos succession, the highstand sys-

tems tract of which is a rather isolated condensed set of

limestone/marlstone beds amidst a siliciclastic sandy tur-

bidite succession. Hoedemaeker (1999) slightly changed

the sequence-stratigraphic interpretation of the Berriasian

stratotype of Jan du Chêne et al. (1993). These changes are

maintained here; they better match with the magnetostrati-

graphic/sequence-stratigraphic correlation of the English

Purbeck Formation and the Berriasian stratotype.

The magnetostratigraphic interpretation of the strato-

type of the Berriasian Stage in SE France (Galbrun & Ras-

plus 1984; Galbrun 1985; Galbrun et al. 1986) and of the

Purbeck Beds of the Durlston Succession in S England

(Ogg et al. 1991; Ogg et al. 1994, 1995) permit a far better

correlation of these successions than was previously pos-

sible. This correlation could be made more precise by

means of sequence stratigraphy. In the correlation


The most recent biostratigraphical correlations of Tethy-

an with Boreal pre-Aptian Cretaceous successions are:

For the Berriasian: Hoedemaeker 1987, 1991;

For the Valanginian: Kemper et al. 1981; Hoedemaeker 1987;

For the Hauterivian: Kemper et al. 1981;

For the Barremian: Kakabadze 1983;

For the entire pre-Aptian: Rawson 1995.

The latter is the most recent correlation of Tethyan

and Boreal pre-Aptian strata, which clearly shows how

rough and imprecise the biostratigraphic correlation still

is. The precise correlations proposed here deviate in

many respects from this correlation.

The above correlations show that, because of the

high provinciality of the marine biota during pre-Aptian

Cretaceous times, there are very few reliable biostrati-

graphic tie-points between the Tethyan and Boreal

realms. Fossils common to both realms are very scarce.

The Boreal marine pre-Aptian Cretaceous strata have al-

ways been considered hardly correlatable by biostrati-

graphic means with the Tethyan standard succession,

the Purbeck and Wealden successions are even virtually

uncorrelatable. A better correlation cannot be expected

by biostratigraphic means only. If more precise and more

detailed correlations are required, magnetostratigraphy

and sequence stratigraphy should be used as additional

correlation tools. Such a correlation is attempted in this

paper and is the principle aim of the multidisciplinary

biostratigraphic and sequence-stratigraphic investiga-

tion of the Lower Cretaceous succession along the Río

Argos near Caravaca, SE Spain — the so-called Río Ar-

gos Project, an ongoing research project of the National

Museum of Natural History of the Netherlands, lately in-

corporated in IGCP Project 362: Tethyan and Boreal Cre-

taceous Correlation. In order to perform such a correla-

tion, a sequence-stratigraphic analysis of the Boreal

pre-Aptian succession has to be made, which has not

been done before. The correlation of the Boreal and

background image

102                                                                                           HOEDEMAEKER

schemes presented here, the depositional sequences and

magnetostratigraphic zones of the Purbeck Formation and

Berriasian stratotype fit very well.

Since a sequence-stratigraphic interpretation of most Bo-

real sections is still lacking or inadequate, a Tethyan-Bore-

al correlation is only possible after an interpretation was

made of the precise stratigraphic positions of the various

depositional systems tracts in the Boreal sections of En-

gland and northern Germany. Such an interpretation can

only be done in sections which have been accurately mea-

sured and lithologically described in great detail, and from

which the bed-by-bed fossil content is known. Such de-

scriptions furnish all data necessary to form a well-found-

ed interpretation of the sequence-stratigraphic boundaries.

Such well-described Boreal sections are known. These are:

1. The Speeton Clay near Speeton (Valanginian-Barremi-

an), England (Neale 1960, 1962a,b, 1968; Rawson 1970;

Rawson & Mutterlose 1983; Mutterlose 1983) (Figs. 2–5).

2. The the German Wealden in the Isterberg 1001 bore-

hole (Strauss et al. 1993) (Fig. 6).

3. The Valanginian in Sachsenhagen (Kemper 1961; Mut-

terlose 1984) and Suddendorf (Kemper 1961; Below 1981),

Germany (Fig. 7).

4. The Hauterivian in the Moorberg clay pit near

Sarstedt, Germany (Mutterlose 1984) (Fig. 8).

5. The Barremian in the Gott clay pit near Sarstedt, Ger-

many (Mutterlose 1983, 1984) (Fig. 9).

6. The Purbeck and Valanginian successions in the Neu-

châtel region (Switzerland) and southern Jura Mountains

(France) (Strasser 1988, 1994; Darsac 1983; Arnaud, per-

sonal communication) (Fig. 10).

7. The section along the Mittellandkanal near Pollhagen,

Germany (Quensel 1988) (Fig. 11).

8. The Purbeck in Dorset, England (Anderson & Bazley

1971; Anderson 1985; Wimbledon & Hunt 1983; Hunt 1985,

1987; Strasser, personal communication).

9. The Wealden of the Warlingham borehole, England

(Worssam & Ivimey-Cook 1971; Anderson 1985; Feist et al.


The major part of this article concerns a sequence-strati-

graphic interpretation (including short argumentations) of

these lithologically and biostratigraphically well-described

boreal sections. For most of the Boreal successions this in-

terpretation is new and allows a correlation with the Medi-

terranean successions at a level of detail which has never

been possible before. Several additional sections were

studied of which the data are not as detailed as the above

mentioned, but from which additional correlation data

could still be gathered. The correlations do not contradict

the biostratigraphic correlations on the basis of ammonites

(Kemper et al. 1981; Hoedemaeker 1987, 1991; Kakabadze

1983; Rawson 1995) and dinoflagellate cysts (Leereveld

1995); the correlations are supported by 25 first and last

occurrences of dinoflagellate cysts.

The Boreal Realm contains a few stratigraphic intervals

for which there are no detailed logs, for instance the

Katzberg Member and the upper B Beds of the Speeton

section. The depositional sequences shown for these units

in the correlation schemes are inferred.

How to read the correlation scheme (see folded

chart in enclosure)

The first column on the left and the seventh column on

the right of the correlation chart represent the Tethyan

successions along the Río Argos in SE Spain and of the

‘Vocontian trough’ in SE France respectively. The se-

quences of these two columns are drawn in accordance

with the interpretation of Hoedemaeker (1999). The col-

umns between these two Tethyan ones represent Boreal

succesions except the sixth column, which represents the

shallow Berriasian and Valanginian successions of the

southern Jura Mountains in France and Switzerland and

the Hauterivian ammonite zones of Argentina, as described

by Aguirre-Urreta & Rawson (1997). The second column

exhibits the sequences of German successions: the peritid-

al Katzberg Member, the Serpulit Member, the Bückeberg

Formation, and the marine successions (Hils Formation

and its lateral equivalents) beginning with the Valanginian

Platylenticeras Beds up to the basal Aptian. Column 3

shows the sequences of the peritidal Purbeck and Wealden

Formations in southern England. Column 4 shows the se-

quences of the Speeton Clay Formation in eastern En-

gland. The fifth column shows the English ammonite


The vertical axis of the correlation schemes does not rep-

resent a time-scale in which equal lapses of time have the

same lengths, but represents the rate of sedimentation in

the Río Argos succession, which is rather variable.

The most striking feature of the correlation schemes is

the large hiatuses, represented by shaded blocks. These

hiatuses correspond to the lowstand systems tracts, which

are preserved in the Río Argos succession but not in some

of the Boreal successions, where they represent times of

non-deposition (sediment bypassing or emergence). The

rate of deposition of the lowstand systems tracts in the Río

Argos succession is estimated to be approximately twice

to thrice as large as of the transgressive and highstand

systems tracts. This would imply that the time of deposi-

tion of the lowstand systems tracts is about the same as

the time of deposition of the transgressive and highstand

systems tracts together.

The white blocks between the shaded blocks represent

the preserved parts of the depositional sequences; they

represent times in which actual deposition occurred. The

deposits of each white block generally correspond to the

transgressive and highstand systems tracts together. How-

ever the presence of a transgressive systems tract cannot

be ascertained everywhere; in many cases only an un-

known part of the transgressive systems tract may be pre-

served or even only the highstand systems tract, for in-

stance in the peritidal Purbeck and Wealden successions.

Only in those cases in which it has definitely been shown

that only the highstand systems tract is preserved, it is

presented as such. In all other cases the entire transgres-

sive and highstand systems tracts are drawn, which makes

many of the white blocks larger than they should be.

About 50 % of the successions considered here are not

preserved and in the peritidal deposits of the Purbeck and

background image


Wealden successions still more is missing. The hiatuses

may span unknown biostratigraphic zones and boundaries

of biostratigraphic units. For instance the lower boundary

of magnetozone M17r is still unknown, but probably situ-

ated in the middle of the Subalpina Subzone. In correlation

schemes these hiatuses must not be neglected.

Another striking feature is the light-shaded stripes at the

sequence boundaries BE3, BE7, VA4, HA3, HA7, BA2,

AP2. These boundaries were interpreted as representing

rapid and extra deep sea-level falls, which are of much larg-

er amplitude than those around most other sequence

boundaries (Hoedemaeker 1995). These falls are attended

by considerable extinctions of ammonite species followed

by the appearance of many new species. They can be re-

garded as type 1 sequence boundaries and are without ex-

ception directly preceded by extra high sea-level stands, in

which fossils abound. These sharp deep falls of the sea

level can readily be discerned in any succession that em-

braces a sufficient lapse of time, even when the sequence-

stratigraphic signal is weak, as for instance in condensed

deep-pelagic successions. They form a strong and reliable

correlation tool. The so-called ‘Late Kimmerian Unconfor-

mity’ (Be7) (Rawson & Riley 1982) and the DHo-Disconti-

nuity (Ha3) (Kemper 1992) are well-known Boreal examples.

The standard ammonite zones used in the schemes (fold-

ed chart in enclosure) were established at the meetings of

the International Lower Cretaceous Cephalopod I.G.C.P.-

Team in Digne (Hoedemaeker & Bulot 1990), Mula (Hoede-

maeker & Company 1993) and Piobbico (Hoedemaeker &

Cecca 1995). The only deviations are the Valanginian

Campylotoxus Zone in France (column 7) being subdivided

in accordance with the recent ideas of Atrops & Reboulet

(1995) and Reboulet (1995), and the Barremian Caillaudi-

anus Zone in accordance with the ideas of Company et al.


It should be noted that the lower boundaries of the lower

Hauterivian Jeannoti ammonite subzone and Nodo-

soplicatum Zone in La Charce (France) occur at levels

which differ from those along the Río Argos (Spain); this is

interpreted as due to collection failure in France. Also, ac-

cording to the correlations proposed here it turns out that

the base of the Gottschei Zone in England is situated at a

lower level than in Germany, and that the English Inversum

Zone does not exactly cover the German Aegocrioceras


As for the ammonite zones, it should be noted that the

beds assigned by Hoedemaeker (in: Hoedemaeker & Leer-

eveld 1995; Hoedemaeker 1999) to the Aptian Deshayes-

ites Zone (designated by the letter D) in the Río Argos

succession, in reality belong to the Weissi Zone. It has

been corrected in the correlation scheme.

The short horizontal lines with bed numbers in columns

2 and 7 represent the boundaries of the various systems

tracts in Germany and SE France respectively.

I recently (Hoedemaeker 1999) changed my interpreta-

tion of the stratigraphic positions of the sequence bound-

aries Ba2 and Ba3 in the Barremian stratotype section near

Angles (column 7). On the basis of peaks in the sporomor-

ph/dinoflagellate cyst ratio (Wilpshaar, personal communi-

cation) sequence boundary Ba2 should be drawn at the

top of limestone bed 129 instead of 136, and Ba3 on top of

limestone bed 135 instead of 143. There are no hiatuses in

the sequences Ba2 and Ba3 in the Angles section; these

sequences are only condensed. These changes were cor-

rected on the correlation scheme (see folded chart in en-


The ‘Sables turbiditiques roux’ is a thick reddish sand-

stone intercalation separating the basal part of the Fuhri

Subzone from the lower part of the Pronecostatum Horizon

with a slight angular unconformity in the La Charce section

in SE France (column 7). The few limestone beds intercalat-

ed within this slumped sandstone body yielded the ammo-

nites  Busnardoites campylotoxus and Karakaschiceras

biassalensis characteristic for the Campylotoxus Zone, but

did not yield ammonites that characterize the Verrucosum

Horizon. Though generally thought to be time equivalent

to the ‘Calcaire roux’ or to the Formation de Bourget, the

‘Sables turbiditiques roux’ are here thought to represent ei-

ther the lowstand systems tract deposited above sequence

boundary Va3', on account of the ammonites they contain,

or the lowstand systems tract directly above type 1 se-

quence boundary Va4, because they are directly overlain

by the lower part of the Pronecostatum Horizon. In the lat-

ter case the ammonites should be reworked and the whole

unit would have been deposited during the Pronecostatum

time. The latter interpretation would also explain why the

‘Sables turbiditiques roux’ produced such a big erosion

channel, but cannot explain the absence of reworked Verru-

cosum Zone ammonites. It rather represents the erosion

products of the ‘Calcaire roux’ instead of being equivalent

to it. The so-called ‘Petit Lumachelle’ in the Carejuan sec-

tion in SE France is directly overlain by the Verrucosum

Horizon and represents the lowstand systems tract of se-

quence Va3'.

It should finally be noted that the Boreal ammonites

(black triangles in column 7) invaded the Tethyan Realm

generally during sea-level lowstands, whereas Tethyan am-

monites invaded the Boreal Realm generally during high-

stands. This suggests a one-way traffic in the Polish Strait:

during lowstands from the north, during highstands from

the south. It must also be emphasized that almost all Boreal

ammonites present in the Mediterranean region invaded

the Tethyan Realm during the Valanginian, which may indi-

cate a cooler climate during that time.

For the Boreal marine successions the belemnite zones

are also given, and for the English Wealden succession the

ostracod zones of Anderson (1985). The Chara assem-

blage zones are given for the lower Purbeck Beds. The mu-

tual correlation of the English, German and Swiss Chara

assemblages by Feist et al. (1991), Feist et al. (1995); Detraz

& Mojon (1989) and Schudack (1996) is quite different from

the correlation with the help of sequence stratigraphy and

ostracods as presented here. More study is necessary.

The signs E1 to E6 in the second column refer to the six

most prominent shaly intercalations between the pre-Ap-

tian Cretaceous sandstones in the subsurface of northern

Germany (Kemper 1992). Some of these intercalations are

referred to as ‘Zwischenmittel’ (= substance in between).

background image

104                                                                                           HOEDEMAEKER

The bases and tops of the preserved parts of the depo-

sitional sequences (white blocks) in column 3 are corre-

lated with the named faunicycles of Anderson (1985), but

this should be considered a mere approximation of the

stratigraphic levels of the sequence boundaries. As these

faunicycles provide the finest subdivision of the Purbeck

and Wealden successions, they represent the finest bios-

tratigraphic resolution; we cannot be more precise. If a

faunicycle comprises only one saline phase (S phase)

overlain by one freshwater phase with Cypridea (C

phase) it may correspond to one parasequence. However,

most faunicycles comprise more than one S/C doublets,

the number of which has not been published. It must be

realized that in many cases the sequence boundaries are

situated within a faunicycle as is apparent from the de-

tailed logs of the Warlingham borehole.

Each column has a white strip on the right side in which

all relevant biostratigraphic information is given. The first


) and last (

) occurrences of fossils are marked, as well

as some single occurrences (

). The first and last occur-

rences of the ostracods from the English Purbeck and

Wealden (column 3) are given according to Anderson

(1985) and those of the ‘Wealden’ in Germany (column 2)

mainly from Wolburg (1959) and, to a lesser extent, Elstner

& Mutterlose (1996). The latter use a slightly different tax-

onomy and in the schemes the taxonomy and synonymy of

Anderson is used. In the white strip along column 5 the

various proposals for stage boundaries are marked. From

the scheme it becomes obvious that the boundaries clos-

est to the type 1 sequence boundaries are the most natural

stage boundaries, because the changes among the fossil

species are the most rapid and the biochrono-stratigraphic

definitions of the boundary stratotypes are therefore easy

to give and easy to recognize in other sections. In shallow

depocenters they are preserved as hiatuses, which are also

natural and easily traceable boundaries.

In the white strips along columns 3 and 7 the magneto-

stratigraphies of Ogg et al. (1994a,b) and Galbrun et al.

(1985), respectively, are depicted. It should be noted that

the magnetostratigraphy of the Berriasian stratotype as

presented by Jan du Chêne et al. (1993) deviates in several

details from those presented by Galbrun in 1984, 1985 and

1986. The magnetostratigraphy of the basal Valanginian

Otopeta Zone is the one of Ogg et al. (1988). The magneto-

stratigraphy of the remainder of the Valanginian is the one

published by Besse et al. (1986) and discussed in the the-

sis of Boisseau (1987).

In the white strip along column 6 the stratigraphic posi-

tions of the type 1 sequence boundaries are shown, but

also the numbered depositional discontinuities (Di1 to Di3)

discerned in the shallow carbonate Berriasian to Valangin-

ian sediments by the French in the southern Jura Moun-

tains (Darsac 1983; Boisseau 1987). These discontinuities

are now recognized as representing maximum flooding sur-

faces (Arnaud, personal communication). In the white strip

along column 7 the discontinuities discerned by Autran

(1989) are marked (DVm, DVs, DZl).

In the following the sequence-stratigraphic interpreta-

tion of the Boreal pre-Aptian successions presented in the

correlation chart is elucidated. Each Boreal sequence

boundary is given the code of the Mediterranean se-

quence boundary with which it can be correlated. First the

interpretation of the English sequences will be given,

which is necessary to interpret the sequences of the Ger-

man Wealden succession.

Sequence-stratigraphic analysis of the English

sections (Columns 3, 4, 5)

1. Purbeck Beds in South England: Berriasian (col-

umn 3) (Fig. 1)

Magnetostratigraphic investigations of the Purbeck

Limestone Formation of the Durlston section in southern

England (Ogg et al. 1991; Ogg et al. 1994, 1995) and of the

stratotype section of the Berriasian Stage (Galbrun & Ras-

plus 1984; Galbrun 1985; Galbrun et al. 1986) permit correla-

tion of the Purbeck Limestone with the uppermost Titho-

nian, Berriasian and lowermost Valanginian. In addition

Hunt (1987) documented characteristics of dinoflagellate

cyst and acritarch associations in the Purbeck formations

of the Durlston section. The peaks in the dinoflagellate

cyst diversity given by Hunt are here inferred to reflect

highstand systems tracts; the bases of the intervals with

low dinoflagellate cyst diversity on top of these diversity

peaks are interpreted as representing sequence bound-

aries. The positions of the sequence boundaries in relation

to the various polarity chrons in the Purbeck Succession

precisely match those in the Berriasian stratotype. This

strengthens the reliability of the Boreal-Tethyan correla-

tion of the Berriasian succession.

1. Ogg et al. (1994) and Ogg et al. (1995) showed that magneto-

zone M19r is situated within the Broken Beds, which means that it

correlates with the Mediterranean Durangites Zone (Ogg et al.

1984). The gypsum-bearing Broken Beds are therefore interpreted

as the transgressive systems tract and the fully marine lower part of

the Cypris Freestones on top of the latter as the highstand systems

tract of the latest Jurassic sequence below sequence boundary Be1 at

the base of the Jacobi Zone. The sequence boundary of Be1 should

be situated on top of the fully marine lower part of the Cypris


2. Sequence Be1 comprises the brackish, more marly upper part

of the Cypris Freestones interpreted as the transgressive systems

tract, and the Hard Cockle Limestone Bed interpreted as the high-

stand systems tract. The basalmost part of the succeeding marly

Soft Cockle Beds shows a high microplankton diversity peak and is

interpreted as the topmost part of the highstand systems tract. The

Hard Cockle Bed is situated within polarity chron M19n.

3. The next sequence (Be1’) is rather thin and merely represents

the lower part of the Soft Cockle Beds below the gypsum beds. The

bed just below the gypsum shows a microplankton diversity peak and

is interpreted as the topmost part of the highstand systems tract.

4. The base of the gypsum beds is considered to represent a se-

quence boundary Be2; the gypsum beds themselves are interpreted

as the transgressive systems tract of this sequence. Sequence Be2 is

topped by the Mammal Bed. The lower part of the Marly Fresh

Water Beds just below the Mammal Bed is considered to represent a

highstand systems tract, because it shows a peak in the diversity of

background image


microplankton. The gypsum beds and the part of the Soft Cockle

Beds directly above it embrace polarity chron M18r. The upper

part of sequence Be2 embraces polarity chron M18n, which is trun-

cated by the hiatus of the Mammal Bed.

 5. The Mammal Bed represents a very important emergence ep-

isode, during which a thick soil layer was formed in which a famous

collection of vertebrate remnants has been found. It correlates with

the channelled erosion surface overlying the Lower Purbeck in the

Weald area. This bed is therefore interpreted as representing the se-

quence boundary of Be3, a type 1 sequence boundary. The Mammal

Bed is situated within the Ashdown faunicycle (Morter 1984). Se-

quence Be3 comprises the upper part of the Marly Fresh Water

Beds, the Cherty Fresh Water Beds and the Cinder Bed, which clear-

ly represents the highstand systems tract of sequence Be3. The

next sequence boundary, Be 4, is just above the diversity peak of

the microplankton in the top part of the Cinder Bed. The Fresh

Water Beds above the Mammal Bed are situated in the polarity

chron M17r, which is truncated by the Mammal Bed hiatus. There-

fore the Fresh Water Beds correlate with the lower part of the Sub-

alpina Subzone. The upper part of the Subalpina Subzone and the

lower part of the overlying Privasensis Subzone in the stratotype

of the Berriasian Stage have not been analysed magnetostratigraph-

ically by Galbrun (1984). As the Cinder Bed correlates with the

highstand systems tract in the upper part of the Subalpina Subzone,

it implies that the upper part of the Subalpina Subzone should be

situated within polarity chron M17n, as is the Cinder Bed.

6. The next microplankton diversity peak is situated in the mid-

dle of the Intermarine Beds and represents the top highstand sys-

tems tract of sequence Be4. It probably represents the so-called

‘Royal event’ of Morter (1984), which is followed immediately by

sequence boundary Be4’. The lower Intermarine Beds are situated

within polarity chron M17n.

7. The Scallop Bed is interpreted as representing the highstand

systems tract of sequence Be4’ and is characterized by a microplank-

ton diversity peak. The sequence boundary of Be5 is situated just

above the Scallop Bed. The upper Intermarine Beds are situated with-

in polarity chron M16r. The base of M16r coincides with the base of

the Dalmasi Subzone in the stratotype of the Berriasian Stage. The

Scallop Bed is probably situated at the base of M16n.

8. Sequence Be5 embraces the Corbula Beds, which are topped by

a microplankton diversity peak representing the highstand systems

tract. The Corbula Beds are situated within polarity chron M16n.

Fig. 1. The magnetostratigraphic analysis of the Purbeck Formation (Ogg et al. 1991) makes it possible to correlate this formation with

the stratotype of the Berriasian Stage in France. The microplankton associations and diversities studied by Hunt (1987) make it possible to

do a sequence stratigraphic analysis, which exactly matches the sequences of the Berriasian Stage in the stratotype section and in the suc-

cession along the Río Argos (Hoedemaeker & Leereveld 1995; Hoedemaeker 1999). Mikroplankton associations: 1a — freshwater to

brackish; 1b — brackish lagoon; 2a,b,c,d — restricted, brackish to shallow marine; 3 — shallow marine.

background image

106                                                                                           HOEDEMAEKER

The boundary between the ‘Horsham Phase’ and the

‘Henfield Phase’ is also characterized by a marked ostra-

cod faunal change (Anderson 1985) and therefore tenta-

tively correlated with the type 1 sequence boundary of

Ha3 in the upper part of the Nodosoplicatum Zone just be-

low the boundary between the lower and upper Hauterivi-

an. The sequences of the ‘Horsham Phase’ itself are the re-

sult of scientific guessing since no lithological log was


Topley’s bed 5 (the numbering of Worssam & Ivimey-

Cook 1971 is used here, not the numbering of Feist et al.

1995), a prominent sandstone bed at the top of the Hen-

field Phase, is tentatively correlated with the top part of the

last and highest highstand systems tract below the type 1

sequence boundary in the uppermost Hauterivian Ha7. It is

interpreted as a latest highstand subaerial complex, which

is characterized by fluvial sediments deposited during a

relative sea-level stillstand and built-up above sea level,

enabling the fluvial systems to maintain their optimum

equilibrium gradient as the highstand systems tract pro-

grades seaward. The sand and the pellets (at depth 1325/8)

in the upper part of the Bonnington faunicycle are also in-

terpreted as such. Topley’s bed 6, a limestone bed (at

depth 1252) with large ‘Paludina’ (= Viviparus fluviorum),

is interpreted as a maximum flooding surface.

Topley’s bed 7, another prominent sandstone interval, is

interpreted in the same way as Topley’s bed 5 and is corre-

lated with the highest highstand systems tract directly be-

low type 1 sequence boundary Ba2 (sharp top lined with a

pebble bed at depth 1219/8). So, the type 1 sequence

boundaries could readily be indicated.

In addition, the four thin pebble beds in the Henfield

Phase that contain pebbles or coarse quartz grains, are in-

terpreted in the same way. They are correlated with the

topmost parts of the highstand systems tracts: at depths

of 1450 ft./6 in. in the lower part of the Plumpton faunicy-

cle, 1442 ft. at the top of the Ockley faunicycle, 1430 ft./6

in. at the top of the Newdigate faunicycle, 1416 ft., i.e. 8

inches above the top of Topley’s bed 5 within the Capel

faunicycle. The ironstone beds (at depths of 1513 ft./11 in.,

1105 ft./4 in., 1076 ft./4 in., 1066 ft./10 in.) are interpreted as

marking the transgressive surfaces of depositional se-

quences. Beds with marine fauna or with Filosina and

Cyrene are interpreted as maximum flooding surfaces.

In this way many sequences of the Wealden Clay were

reconstructed. It appears that the numbers of sequences

thus found between the type 1 sequence boundaries Ha3,

Ha7, Ba2 and from there up to the base of the Aptian, are

the same as in the Río Argos succession in SE Spain. This

suggests that the correlation proposed is realistic.

There is one biostratigraphic correlation possible:

Cribroperidinium boreas enters just above Cement Bed

number 4, in bed 138 of the Gott section in Germany (beds

with Hemicrioceras rude) and in the Warlingham borehole

at 1078 ft./1 in. depth, two feet below the ironstone bed

(Harding 1990). These beds were already correlated with

each other through sequence-stratigraphic considerations

before the detection of this biostratigraphic tie, which thus

supports the correlation achieved.

 9. The next sequence embraces the Chief Beef Beds and the

Broken Shell Limestone. The latter contains a peak in the mi-

croplankton diversity and represents the top part of the high-

stand systems tract of sequence Be6. It is topped by the sequence

boundary of Be7. The upper part of the Chief Beef Beds, and pos-

sibly also the Broken Shell Limestone, are situated within polarity

chron M15r.

10. The lower part of the Upper Cypris Clays and Shales falls

within polarity chron M15n and correlates with the Valanginian

Otopeta Zone. The upper part of the Upper Cypris Clays and

Shales, the Battle faunicycle, is however situated within M14r.

This implies that the sequence boundary of Va1 should be situated

within the upper part of the Upper Cypris Clays and Shales, pre-

sumably between the Tyneham and Battle faunicycles. It coincides

with the last occurrences of Cypridea alta alta, C. setina setina,

and C. obliqua and with the first appearance of C. recta recta.

The Battle faunicycle is the top part of the Purbeck For-

mation in its stratotype area. The base of the type

Wealden, however, correlates with the base of the Broken

Shell Limestone, which is appreciably lower. The types of

the Purbeck and Wealden formations overlap (Morter

1984). For convenience the description of the Wealden in

the next paragraph begins with the Hastings faunicycle

overlying the Battle faunicycle.

It appears that the distribution of magnetozones in the

Lower and Middle Purbeck sequences are exactly the

same as in the stratotype of the Berriasian Stage, thus

supporting the inter-realmal correlation, but also the num-

ber and stratigraphic position of the sequence bound-


2. The Wealden succession in the Warlingham borehole:
Valanginian, Hauterivian and Barremian (Column 3)

The correlation of this succession is rather tentative

because of a scarcity of means of biostratigraphic corre-


The base of the Weald Clay has traditionally been corre-

lated with the base of the Hauterivian. I followed this as-

sumption and considered it as a calibration point. Conse-

quently the Hastings Beds are regarded as Valanginian in


The ostracod faunal change at the base of the Cypridea

aculeata ostracod zone was typified by Anderson (in ap-

pendix B of Worssam & Ivimey-Cook 1971) as ‘one of the

most evident in the whole Purbeck-Wealden succession’.

This faunal change ‘coincides with a significant change in

sedimentation. Below, the lithology is more akin to that of

the Purbeck Beds, i.e. predominantly shale with limestones

whilst above it the sandstones, silts and clays of the

Wealden are most common’. The Lindfield Cycle is the ho-

rizon at which the change becomes evident. This faunal

change is here interpreted as the expression of a type 1 se-

quence boundary in the upper Valanginian, i.e. Va4, in the

basal part of the Pronecostatum Horizon. The changing

frequency of ostracods and the schematic lithological col-

umns depicted by Anderson (1985) were used to interpret

the sequence-stratigraphic signal.

background image


3.  Speeton section parts E and D: Valanginian (Col-
umns 4 and 5) (Figs. 2 and 3)

The uppermost highstand systems tracts of the various

sequences in this part of the Speeton Clay Formation can be

picked out quite easily with the help of the distribution of

foraminifers (Fletcher 1973) and ostracods (Neale 1962b),

and by the variations in the amount of pyrite (Neale 1968) at

exactly the same levels. These three different lines of evi-

dence lead to one and the same sequence-stratigraphic in-


1. Foraminiferal fauna 5 in beds D8–D7E. The base of the Spee-

ton Clay Formation is considered to be represented by the so-called

‘Late Kimmerian Unconformity’, which separates Kimmeridgian

clays from late Ryazanian clays. The transgression on top of the

unconformity begins with the coprolite bed E. Foraminiferal fauna

5 with only species of Haplophragmoides, a restricted fauna of

arenaceous foraminifers, begins in bed D8 immediately above the

coprolite bed. Bed D7G yielded the first dinoflagellate cyst Oli-

gosphaeridium diluculum and the last Kleithriasphaeridium poro-

sispinum (Heilmann-Clausen 1987), the association of which is

characteristic of the Stenomphalus Zone. In the Río Argos succes-

sion O. diluculum appears at the base of the lowstand marls just

above bed Y234. The top of bed Y234 is the type 1 sequence

boundary of Be7, which is considered equivalent to the so-called

‘Late Kimmerian Unconformity’ in the North Sea. Beds E-top

D5E3 comprise one depositional sequence, Be7, and embraces also

foraminifer fauna 4.

Foraminiferal fauna 4 in beds D7D to top D6 (a similar division

can be made with ostracods). It is interpreted here that during the

deposition of bed D7E the water gradually became more aerated,

for bed D7E yields the first ammonite and the first dinocyst

Pseudoceratium pelliferum, bed D7D has the first foraminifer of

foraminiferal fauna 4. Bed D7E may be equivalent to the base of

the Valhall Formation in the subsurface of the northern North Sea.

The whole bed D6 contains many ostracods, many foraminifers and

much pyrite, and can be interpreted as a highstand systems tract.

Bed D6I may be the maximum flooding surface, because it contains

the peak in the abundance of ammonites. The lowest part of bed

D5, i.e. levels D5E4+3, is barren of foraminifers, has the relatively

poorest pyrite content and is considered to represent the shallow

deposits in the top part of the highstand systems tract. Sequence

boundary Va1 and the transgressive surface are interpreted to be on

top of level D5E3, which represents a paleontological break (Neale

1968); above this level the pyrite content increases again.

With respect to the position of the Stenomphalus Zone in rela-

tion to the so-called ‘Late Kimmerian Unconformity’, stratigra-

phers seem to be confronted with the problem of two different

rockunits that have been given the same age, but which have differ-

ent stratigraphic positions: one above and the other below the

‘Late Kimmerian Unconformity’. So something must be wrong.

 In its type area the Stenomphalus Zone is characterized by the

concurrence of the last K. porosispinum and Gonyaulacysta sp. A,

and of the first O. diluculum and overlies an important unconfor-

mity, which separates Kimmeridgian strata from upper Ryazanian

strata. The same situation exist in the Speeton section and in the

southern North Sea (Lott et al. 1989), where strata with K. poro-

sispinum and O. diluculum (according to Heilmann-Clausen 1987;

Davey 1982 these species occur in bed D7G) overlie a hiatus which

separates them from Kimmeridgian strata. In the northern part of

the North Sea, however, a stratigraphic unit characterized by (Dav-

ey 1979) the concurrent range of the last Gonyaulacysta sp. A

(which starts its range in the Kochi Zone) and the first O. dilucu-

lum is situated directly below the ‘Late Kimmerian Unconformity’.

It is called the ‘Stenomphalus Maximum Flooding Surface’ (Parting-

ton et al. 1993).

In the northern part of the North Sea the ‘Late Kimmerian Un-

conformity’ is considered to be at the base of the Valhall Forma-

Fig. 2. Section through the lower D beds of the Speeton Clay near

Speeton (E–D5); modified after Neale 1962.

background image

108                                                                                           HOEDEMAEKER

tion. The tectonic event producing this unconformity caused the

relatively restricted and stagnating bottom waters of the North Sea

to be flushed by well-oxygenated waters from outside the area. Ac-

cording to Rawson & Riley (1982) this event is situated below the

Stenomphalus Zone, as is the case in the onshore situation. Howev-

er, according to Partington et al. (1993) the characteristic

Stenomphalus dinoflagellate cyst association is situated below this

event in the northern North Sea.

In fact there are only two solutions to the problem. Either the

true ‘Late Kimmerian Unconformity’ in the northern North Sea

subsurface is situated still undetected within a more or less ‘hot’

clay succession directly below the Stenomphalus dinoflagellate cyst

association (if this is true, the base of the Valhall Formation would

be merely an oxygenating event), or there is a stratigraphic unit

situated directly below the ‘Late Kimmerian Unconformity’ and

confusingly called ‘Stenomphalus MFS’ which is not time-equiva-

lent to the Stenomphalus ammonite zone (= transgressive systems

tract of sequence Be7), but instead time-equivalent to the Tethyan

upper Picteti Subzone (= highstand systems tract of sequence Be6).

The latter solution is preferred here. The upper Picteti highstand

systems tract is one of the highest sea-level stands of the Berriasian

Stage and it would be strange if the corresponding depositional sys-

tems tract is not preserved in the North Sea; it is definitely not

preserved onshore. If this stratigraphic unit is preserved in the

northern North Sea, it may be characterized by a similar, but not

the same, dinoflagellate cyst association to that of the Boreal

Stenomphalus association. If the ‘Stenomphalus MFS’ below the

Late Kimmerian Unconformity really correlates with the upper

Picteti Subzone, O. diluculum would start its range in this strati-

graphic unit instead of in the true Stenomphalus Zone directly

above the Late Kimmerian Unconformity. The presence of O. di-

luculum in the Río Argos succession at a level very close to the

Late Kimmerian Unconformity at the base of the lowstand systems

tract (Leereveld 1997), which is not preserved in the Boreal Realm

but is correlatable with levels appreciably below the Icenii Zone,

may point in this direction. The Icenii Zone is a Remanié Horizon

at the base of the Stenomphalus Zone and contains only fossils that

are reworked from older stratigraphic units.

The English Kochi Zone was correlated by Hoedemaeker (1987,

1991) with the Tethyan Privasensis/Dalmasi subzones. It contains

the ammonite Borealites cf. fedorovi. However, since it represents

the lowest preserved transgressive deposits of the Ryazanian (the

Runctoni Zone is merely based on phosphatic ammonites reworked

in the basal part of the Kochi Zone), it correlates better with the

worldwide large upper Berriasian transgression at the beginning of

the Paramimouna Subchron. The so-called ‘fedorovi’-beds within

the Kochi Zone sensu lato (Hoedemaeker 1987, 1991) may there-

fore better correlate with the transgressive systems tract of se-

quence Be4’ near the base of the Paramimouna Subzone. The Sibe-

rian Constans Subzone and the Buchia okensis Zone in British

Columbia may correlate with the maximum flooding interval of the

same sequence (= Be 4’).

 2. Foraminiferal fauna 3 in beds D5E2 to top D4D. Level D5E2

yielded the first foraminifers of foraminiferal fauna 3. The base of

bed D4D contains much pyrite and should therefore still be inter-

preted as forming part of the highstand systems tract. The upper

part of bed D4D is devoid of foraminifers and should, by analogy

with the levels D5E4+3, be considered to represent the shallowest

deposits in the top part of the highstand systems tract, it is devoid

of pyrite. The sequence boundary of Va1' and the transgressive sur-

face of the overlying sequence should be situated on top of D4D.

Foraminifers reappear in level D4C6.

3. The sequence comprising levels D4C6–D4C2. These levels

still form part of foraminifer fauna 3. Level D4C2 is devoid of for-

aminifers and is interpreted as representing the shallow deposits in

the topmost part of the highstand systems tract, but also represent-

Fig. 3. Section through the upper D beds of the Speeton Clay

near Speeton (D4–D1); modified after Neale 1960. The whole

section consists of clay. Beds D1, D3A, and D3E contain lime-

stone nodules and are prominent marker beds. Beds D2a and D2c

are strongly mottled. The other prominent marker bed is D2D,

which is highly glauconitic; black phosphatic nodules occur at its

base; this base is packed with belemnites and other macrofossils.

The small fossil symbols denote Exogyra sinuata. Sequence

boundary Va2’ is situated just below the column shown here.

ing the basal sediments of the overlying sequence, since it contains

the first specimens of a new ostracod fauna (Neale 1962b). The se-

quence boundary of Va2 and the trangressive surface of the overly-

ing sequence is situated within level D4C2. The overlying level

D4C1 yielded the first foraminifers of foraminiferal fauna 2.

background image


4. Beds D4C2–D3C represent the next sequence of which the for-

aminifers-barren bed D3C is interpreted as representing the upper

highstand systems tract. This bed contains the highest percentage of

light fraction, siderite crystals, much pyrite and many remains of

Serpula. The sequence boundary of Va3 and the transgressive surface

of the next sequence are situated on top of bed D3C.

5. Beds D3B–D2E embrace the next sequence. It constitutes the

upper part of foraminiferal fauna 2. Sequence boundary Va3' is on

top of bed D2E, which represents a large hiatus with an important

paleontological break. Bed D3A may be the maximum flooding sur-

face; it contains brown nodules and much pyrite. Bed D2D and

higher are of Hauterivian age.

4. Speeton section D2D to LB5E: Hauterivian (Fig. 4)

In principle, the pale clay beds are interpreted as shal-

lower water deposits than the dark clay beds, so that sud-

den changes from dark bed sets (sets of beds in which

dark clay dominates) to pale bed sets (sets of beds in

which pale clays dominate) are candidates for sequence

boundaries. Relatively abundant occurrences of ammo-

nites are interpreted as representing more condensed de-

posits than the sediments in which the ammonites are rela-

tively scarce. Abrupt changes in ammonite composition

are also interpreted as candidates for sequence bound-

aries. The sea-level highstand systems tracts are clearly

recognizable and often contain ammonites which immigrat-

ed from the Tethys. By determining these highstand sys-

tems tracts the sequences could be reconstructed.

1. The first highstand systems tract comprises bed D1 because of

the abundance of ammonites and the presence of Tethyan taxa (Ol-

costephanus sp.). The abrupt end of this abundance marks the se-

quence boundary of Ha1 on top of bed D1. This horizon is biotur-


2. The second highstand systems tract comprises bed C9D be-

cause of the dark colour of the clay. The abrupt appearance of

many new ammonite species in the overlying pale bed C9C marks

sequence boundary Ha2 on top of C9D; this top is bioturbated.

3. The third highstand systems tract is bed C8B because of the

abundance of ammonites and of the dark colour of the clay. The

ammonite fauna contains several Tethyan taxa. An abrupt change

in the ammonite fauna on top of C8A marks the sequence bound-

ary of Ha2'. This change marks the base of the Inversum Zone.

4. The fourth highstand systems tract comprises bed C7H. The

fauna in this bed is quite different from that in the underlying beds

and is abruptly separated by the sequence boundary of Ha3 from the

overlying bed and fauna. This sequence boundary marks the transi-

tion from a fauna with warm-water organisms to a pure cold-water

fauna, which begins with a pale clay. Bed C7H comprises the whole
sequence; the glauconite in this bed is reworked.

These four sequences are relatively thin, which implies

a relatively slow deposition. This is also indicated by the

relative richness in ammonites. The two next sequences,

the fifth and sixth, are relatively thick and rather poor in

ammonites. This implies rapid deposition during that time.

5. The fifth highstand systems tract comprises beds C6–C5K

because of the abundance of fossils, among which are Tethyan

species, and the dark colour of the clay. Sequence boundary Ha4 is

chosen at the bioturbated top of the first pale bed C5J.

Fig. 4. Section through the Hauterivian of the Speeton clay succes-

sion near Speeton (D2D–LB5E); modified after Rawson 1970.

background image

110                                                                                           HOEDEMAEKER

6. The sixth highstand systems tract comprises beds C4L–G be-

cause of the dark colour of the clay and because of the presence of

ammonites. C4L is considered the maximum flooding surface as it

contains several ammonites; they mark the beginning of the

Gottschei fauna. The sequence boundary of Ha5 is placed below the
first pale bed C4F on top of a bioturbated bed.

The next two highstands are relatively thin again and

contain many ammonites.

7. The seventh highstand systems tract is bed C3 because of the

abundance of ammonites of the Margaritatus Zone, and the pres-

ence of many Echinospatangus. Although it is a highstand systems

tract, bed C3 is very pale instead of dark, which means that there

had been a change in environment. Apparently most of the dysaer-

obic deeper waters had disappeared. It seems that the extreme aver-

age high sea level caused an influx of well-oxygenated water. The

sequence boundary of HA6 was placed at the base of the abrupt fau-

nal change at the top of C2D. This faunal change marks the base of

the Variabilis Zone.

8. The eighth highstand contains the dark clay beds LB5E+D.

The glauconite bed LB5E yields the last Hauterivian Simbirskites.

LB5D yielded already flattened ammonites resembling Crioceratites

(Paracrioceras) rarocinctum, from which it can be inferred that

the Hauterivian/Barremian boundary sensu Hoedemaeker (1996)

(i.e. in the middle of the Pseudothurmannia beds at the base of the

Catulloi Zone), is probably situated between LB5E and LB5D. The

sequence boundary of HA7 is considered to be on top of bed LB5C,

which consists of pale clay and is barren of foraminifers (Fletcher

1973), and is therefore considered to represent the shallow facies

characteristic of the top part of highstand systems tracts. The Vari-

abilis Zone has been put into the basal Barremian (Kemper et al.

1981) merely on account of the presence of Paracrioceras spathi

in bed C2C. Because of the similarity of the ornamentation this

species has been considered close to Emericiceras thiollierei

(Kemper et al. 1981), which is restricted to the Barremian. Howev-

er,  P. spathi is not an Emericiceras, because the latter genus is

characterized by a very open initial spire, has a very slow increase

in whorl height and has a compressed whorl section; P. spathi does

not show these characteristics and therefore is no basis for includ-
ing the Variabilis Zone in the Barremian.

5.  Speeton section LB5B to lowest 2 Cement Beds:
Barremian (Fig. 5)

1. The first highstand above HA7 comprises beds LB4D to LB3E

and yielded a few ammonites Crioceratites (Paracrioceras) cf.

rarocinctum and C. (P.) cf. occultum. Beds LB4B, LB4A, and

LB3E consist of pale clay and contain a level without foraminifers,

bed LB4A (Fletcher 1973). They are therefore interpreted in a

similar way as bed LB5C, as the top highstand systems tract. The

sequence boundary of Ba1 is considered to be on top of LB3E.

2. The second highstand comprises at least bed LB3A, which also

yielded a few ammonites, viz. Hoplocrioceras cf. phillipsi and C.

(P.) fissicostatum. The sequence boundary of Ba1' is considered to

be on top of bed LB3A.

3. The third highstand consists of dark clays with pyrite. It con-

tains the ammonites C. (P.) fissicostatum and, at two levels, C. (P.)

cf. varicosum. The sequence boundary of Ba2 is considered to be

situated at the base of the first group of pale coloured beds on top

of bed LB1F.

4. The fourth highstand also consists of dark clays with pyrite

and ammonites, Barremites sp. and C. (P.) elegans at two levels.

The sequence boundary of Ba3 should be drawn on top of bed LB1A

Fig. 5. Section through the Lower B Beds and Lower Cement Beds

(Barremian) of the Speeton clay succession near Speeton (LB6–

bed CB6); modified after Rawson & Mutterlose 1983.

background image


at the base of the next shallow, pale coloured bed, which is at the

base of the first, double, cement bed (bed 50 = cement bed 7).

5. The fifth highstand consists of dark clays with pyrite and am-

monites and comprises bed 47 (= directly above cement bed 6). The

sequence boundary of Ba3' is on top of this bed and is followed by a
pale coloured clay bed, bed 46.

A sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the higher

Cement Beds and the Upper B Beds is not possible be-

cause of the lack of detailed lithological and paleontolog-

ical descriptions. The subdivision into sequences is

merely inference.

Sequence-stratigraphic analysis of the German

sections (column 2)

1. Katzberg Member, Serpulit Member and Bückeberg
Formation (Figs. 6 and 7).

The Isterberg 1001 borehole described by Strauss et al.

(1993), is the best log of the Bückeberg Formation de-

scribed in the literature. The sequences can be interpreted

with the aid of the palynology and palynofacies records

from this borehole. The depositional sequences as inter-

preted by Strauss et al. (1993) are largely followed. It is

thought that the lowstand systems tracts are not pre-

served because of the extremely shallow depositional set-

ting and that the Bückeberg Formation is a stacking of

mainly highstand systems tracts. The intervals with abun-

dant degraded terrestrial matter are interpreted here as ter-

restrial freshwater deposits prograding basinward in the

highest parts of highstand systems tracts. The tops of the

intervals with abundant degraded organic matter are inter-

preted as sequence boundaries/transgressive surfaces.

The thin or absent transgressive systems tracts and the

maximum flooding episodes exhibit ‘clean’ palynofacies as-

semblages and the ‘blocky claystone beds’ are the most

frequent type of lithology in these assemblages.

The correlation of the sequences can only be done after

correlation with the Purbeck-Wealden succession in En-

gland by means of ostracods. The correlation with the En-

glish Purbeck and the Tethyan Río Argos succession are

discussed in Leereveld & Hoedemaeker (in prep.).

The sequences drawn in the correlation chart (see folded

chart in enclosure) in the Katzberg Member are attribut-

able to pure inference. The appearance of Cypridea inver-

sa was chosen as the base of the correlation chart. This

species appears at the base of the Cypris Freestones but

also low in the Katzberg Member. These levels were corre-

lated with each other. On account of magnetostratigraphy,

the basal part of the English Purbeck Beds up to a level

within the Cypris Freestones correlates with the Tethyan

Durangites Zone (Ogg et al. 1994a,b). A similar age can

therefore be inferred for


the basal part of the Katzberg

Member and for the entry of C. inversa.

On account of the presence of the ostracods Cypridea dunkeri

dunkeri (= C. sowerbyi) and C. posticalis, the Serpulit Member cor-

relates with the lower part of the Middle Purbeck (Anderson &

Hughes 1964), or, more precisely, with the upper Ashdown,

Swanage, Netherfield and Durlston faunicycles. The Mammal Bed,

within the Ashdown faunicycle (Morter 1984), represents the most

prominent emergence episode during Purbeck times and most likely

corresponds to type 1 sequence boundary Be3. This level correlates

with the base of the Serpulit Member. The top part of the Serpulite

Member can be correlated with the Durlston faunicycle (Anderson

& Hughes 1964; Anderson & Bazley 1971; Anderson 1985); this

cycle and the highest part of the Serpulit Member contain the

overlap of the ranges of Cypridea posticalis and C. granulosa fas-

ciculata (Klingler et al. 1962; Anderson 1985).

The correlation of the Cinder Bed with the lower part of the

German ‘Wealden’ 1 has been made by Anderson & Hughes

Fig. 6. ‘Wealden’ succession in Isterberg Borehole 1001; modified

after Strauss et al. 1993.

background image

112                                                                                           HOEDEMAEKER

(1964), by Anderson & Bazley (1971) and by Anderson (1973)

on the basis of ostracods. In this paper the Cinder Bed is correlat-

ed with the blocky claystones and shell beds in the upper part of

Wealden 1. The sequence boundary of Be4 is considered to be situ-

ated a few metres above the base of ‘Wealden’ 2, at 340 m depth

along the core.

The Middle Purbeck Scallop Beds, a quasi marine interval

amidst brackish to freshwater deposits in England, is marked by

the entry of Cypridea dolabrata s.l., C. brevirostrata, C. rectidor-

sata, C. bimammata (Anderson 1962; Anderson & Bazley 1971;

Anderson 1985). On the basis of these ostracods this level corre-

lates with the highest part of the German ‘Wealden’ 2. This

means that the sequence boundary, interpreted as being at the top

of the interval with degraded organic matter in the middle of

‘Wealden’ 2, should represent the sequence boundary of Be4' (316

m depth). This implies that the sequence boundary considered to

top the thin interval of degraded organic matter at the base of

‘Wealden’ 3 should represent the sequence boundary of Be5

(depth 288 m).

The sequence boundary of Be6 is not readily apparent, but is in-

terpreted as occurring at 270 m depth along the core. The di-

noflagellate cyst peak at 276.1 m depth represents the maximum

flooding surface that in France has been called ‘Discontinuité 1’

(Di1). The maximum flooding surface drawn by Strauss et al.

(1993) at 233 m depth is not interpreted as a maximum flooding

surface here.

The base of the Lulworth faunicycle, which comprises the Up-

per Broken Shell Limestone at the base of the Upper Purbeck in

England, is marked by the entry of Cypridea setina setina (= C.

setina ovata). According to Wolburg (1959) this species also ap-

pears in the middle of ‘Wealden’ 3 in Germany. As the Broken

Shell Limestone Bed represents the highest prograding part of the

highstand systems tract of sequence Be6, this would imply that

the Upper Broken Shell Limestone apparently correlates with the

interval of degraded organic matter in the middle of ‘Wealden’ 3.

This would also mean that the sequence boundary on top of this

interval with degraded organic matter (at 252 m depth) should be

the type 1 sequence boundary of Be7, the so-called ‘Late Kimme-

rian Unconformity’. This ‘unconformity’ seems to coincide with

the well-known K-horizon of the Schlumberger resistivity curve

of the Bückeberg Formation (Wick & Wolburg 1962; also appar-

ent from fig. 5 in Strauss et al. 1993), which near the basin mar-

gins seems to be onlapping. According to Wolburg (1959) C. alta

alta and C. setina s.l. appear just below the K-horizon, which is in

accordance with the appearances of these taxa in England, i.e.

just below the sequence boundary of Be7. The ranges for C. alta

alta and the subspecies of C. setina given by Elstner & Mutterlose

(1996) are quite different from those of Anderson (1985) and

Wolburg (1959). As to C. alta alta: Anderson & Bazley (1971)

state that forms similar to this species occur in the Scallop fauni-

cycle, which would explain the early start of the range of C. alta

alta according to Elstner & Mutterlose (1996) in the highest part

of ‘Wealden’ 2.

The dinocyst acme at 220.6 m depth along the core would rep-

resent the maximum flooding surface that in France is called ‘Dis-

continuité 2’. This dinoflagellate cyst acme contains the concur-

rence of Amphorula delicata and Kleithriasphaeridium fasciatum,

which occur together only in the upper part of the Be7 sequence

in the Tethyan Realm. Between 220.7 and 221.5 m depth the co-

occurrence of the ostracods Cytheropterina triebeli and

Schuleridea juddi permits a correlation with Speeton Bed D6

(Neale 1962b) in the upper part of sequence Be7.

The next sequence boundary, that of Va1, should be drawn on

top of the thick interval of degraded matter at 153 m depth along

the core. The boundary between ‘Wealden’ 4 and 5 is character-

ized by the disappearance of Cypridea alta alta, C. setina setina,

Fig. 7. Platylenticeras Beds at Suddendorf; modified after Kemper 1961.

background image


and C. obliqua and by the appearance of C. recta recta (Wolburg

1959). This level can therefore be correlated with the top of the

stratotype of the Purbeck Formation in England, which is the

boundary between the Battle and Hastings faunicycles.

The sequence boundary of Va1’ is interpreted as occurring on

top of the thin interval with degraded organic matter at 114 m

depth along core. The maximum flooding interval of sequence

Va1’ is considered to be represented by the first fully marine am-

monite bearing beds of the Robustum Zone, the lower Platylen-

ticeras Beds. The Robustum highstand systems tract is shallowing

upward into brackish fossil-rich deposits, which are interpreted as

the basinward prograding shallow near-coastal facies in the top

part of the highstand systems tract. The top of this brackish in-

terval is interpreted as sequence boundary Va2 and abruptly over-

lain again by fully marine sediments with many ammonites.

The sequence of Va2 has been referred to by Kemper (1961) as

‘the second more extensive Valanginian transgression’. The se-

quence boundary of Va2 is situated in the lower part of the Het-

eropleurum Zone and sequence Va2 embraces the middle and upper

part of the Heteropleurum Zone and the Involutum Zone. This

depositional sequence yielded the first Dissiliodinium globulum

and Occusicysta tentorium (Below 1981) which also have their

first appearances in the same sequence in the Río Argos succes-

sion. The presence of species of the genus Paratollia (Kemper

1961, 1976, 1992) in the upper part of the Platylenticeras Beds

confirms the correlation of the Platylenticeras Beds with the up-

per part of the English Paratollia Beds. Several species of the gen-

era  Propolyptychites,  Polyptychites and Euryptychites were also

found above the sequence boundary of Va2 in the upper Platylen-

ticeras Beds (Kemper 1961). None of these genera have been

found yet in the upper Paratollia Beds of the Speeton section

where only one badly preserved specimen of Platylenticeras cf. in-

volutum (Doyle, personal communication). The specimens of

Platylenticeras found in the Mediterranean area are all from se-

quence Va2 (Thieuloy 1973, 1977) and are restricted to the low-

stand systems tract.

The base of the Bentheimer Sandstone is interpreted as the se-

quence boundary of Va3, the main sandstone body as the lowstand
systems tract of sequence Va3.

2. The middle Valanginian of Northern Germany

For this stratigraphic interval no detailed log is available.

The appearance of Saynoceras verrucosum slightly above

the base of the Hollwedensis Zone (Kemper et al. 1981)

provides a good correlation with the base of the Mediterra-

nean Verrucosum Zone. The top of the ‘Bentheimer Sand-

stein’, i.e. the base of the ‘Erectum Zwischenmittel’, is a

well-known transgressive event, which corresponds to the

top lowstand surface just below the base of the Verruco-

sum Zone. The ‘Erectum Zwischenmittel’ itself represents

the transgressive and highstand systems tracts of se-

quence Va3'. Bartenstein & Bettenstaedt (1962) and

Kemper (1978, 1987) repeatedly emphasized the important

faunal break at the top of the ‘Erectum Zwischenmittel’,

which is directly followed by the second mass influx of

Tethyan taxa. This level is interpreted to represent type 1

sequence boundary Va4.

The ‘Romberg Zwischenmittel’, a shaly intercalation

within the ‘Bentheimer Sandstein’ (Kemper 1992), should

consequently correlate with the high sea-level stand

(transgressive and highstand systems tracts of sequence

Va3) in the upper part of the Campylotoxus Zone, equiva-

lent to the Eristavites platycostatus Subzone.

The genus Polyptychites is present from the top low-

stand surface of sequence Va2 to the top of sequence Va3'

in the Boreal as well as in the Tethyan Realm (Thieuloy

1973, 1977). Prothocythere hannoverana has the same

range in Germany and England (Bartenstein & Betten-

steadt 1962; Neale 1962b). The first occurrences of Prodi-

chotomites and of the ostracod Protocythere praetriplica-

ta are situated in sequence Va3' in both realms (Donze

1976; Cotillon 1971; Bartenstein & Bettensteadt 1962;

Thieuloy 1973, 1977).

3. The uppermost Valanginian and lowermost
Hauterivian along the Mittellandkanal near Pollhagen
(Fig. 11)

The maximum flooding surfaces in this stratigraphic inter-

val are recognized only by the ammonite frequency peaks

shown by Quensel (1988: fig. 11) and the lowstand systems

tracts by the frequency minima between the peaks.

The most prominent peak-frequency of the ammonites is

situated at the base of the Noricum Zone, which is therefore

considered to coincide with a maximum flooding surface.

There are two other peak-frequencies, viz. in the middle

of the Bidichotomoides Zone and near the base of the

Paucinodum Zone. The upper part of the Bidichoto-

moides Zone and the upper part of the Paucinodum Zone

are therefore interpreted as highstand systems tracts.

Deep lows in the megafossil frequency are situated in

the Ivanovi Zone and in the lower Amblygonium Zone.

The Ivanovi Zone and the lower Amblygonium Zone are

therefore interpreted as lowstand systems tracts. The

lowstand systems tract in the Ivanovi Zone contains a

peak in detrital quartz grains.

Also the ‘Grenzsandstein’ is interpreted as an expres-

sion of a lowstand systems tract, and this is an argument

for the assumption of the ‘Grenzsandstein’ being time-

equivalent with the lower Amblygonium Zone. Another

argument is that the first Endemoceras has been found

by the oil geologists in Emsland at a level just below the

upper dentation of the so-called BH-dentations (Kemper

1992), which mark the Schlumberger resistivity curve of

the ‘Grenzsandstein’.

The higher part of the German Amblygonium Zone con-

tains the level in which the first Acanthodiscus radiatus

has been found (which by definition is the base of the

Hauterivian) and the ‘Grenzsandstein’ therefore probably

represents the lowstand systems tract at the top of the

Valanginian; thus the lower part of the Amblygonium

Zone is of Valanginian age. The two peak-frequencies of

ammonites below the Amblygonium Zone, viz. of the Pau-

cinodum and Bidichotomoides zones, should therefore

correspond to the highstands in the top and at the base

of the Furcillata Horizon respectively. This is in accor-

dance with the range of Olcostephanus densecostatus,

which starts in the Furcillata Horizon and is abundantly

present in the Paucinodum Zone (Bulot 1992).

background image

114                                                                                           HOEDEMAEKER

The Crassus and Triptychoides zones are considered

to correlate with two transgressive/highstand systems

tracts between the Bidichotomoides and Polytomus high-

stands and should as a matter of course correspond to

the highstands determined in the lower Peregrinus and

lower Nicklesi horizons.

As a consequence of these correlations the ranges of

Varlheideites perigrinus in Germany and in France coin-

cide exactly with each other, as do the first appearances

of  Dichotomites and of Protocythere frankei (ostracod)

and the last occurrence of Protocythere praetriplicata

(ostracod) (Bartenstein & Bettenstaedt 1962; Donze

1976). The entry of P. triplicata in the Paucinodum Zone

(Niedziolka 1988) also correlates with its appearance in

the Tethyan Furcillata Horizon (Donze 1976). Thus, there

is good biostratigraphic support for the correlation of the

sequences in this stratigraphic interval.

4. Sequences in the Moorberg clay pit near Sarstedt
(Germany) (Fig. 8)

The principle sequence-stratigraphic line of thought

followed with respect to the analysis of this clay succes-

sion is that the dark-grey clay intervals represent sedi-

ments deposited during relative sea-level highstands,

when the rising anoxic/dysoxic, cool deeper waters

reached the local depositional level, whereas the light-

grey clay intervals represent sediments deposited during

relative sea-level lowstands in better oxygeneted, shal-

lower, warmer waters. Moreover, in such clayey succes-

sions the sea-level highstand systems tracts generally

have a relatively high lime content because of the con-

centration of calciflora due to condensation. The bases of

the intervals in which dark-coloured clay beds dominate,

are interpreted as maximum flooding surfaces; the bases

of the intervals in which light-coloured clay beds domi-

nate, are interpreted as sequence boundaries. When dark-

grey beds cyclically alternate with light-grey beds, the

former are interpreted as deposited on top of marine

flooding surfaces and the dark-light couples as parase-


This means that the following (groups of) beds in the

Moorberg clay pit are interpreted as highstand systems


1) The lower part of the Noricum Zone (bed 99). The sequence

boundary of Ha1 on top of bed 99.

2) The middle part of the Regale Zone (beds 90–87). The se-

quence boundary of Ha2 on top of bed 87.

3) The lower part of the upper Regale Zone (beds 83 + 82).

Maximum flooding surface in bed 83. The sequence boundary of

Ha2' on top of bed 82, which has a high lime content (i.e. more

condensed) and a bioturbated top. Sequence Ha2' begins with beds

with a relatively low lime content (i.e. less condensed).

4) The upper part of the Regale Zone (beds 80–74). The type

1 sequence boundary of Ha3 on top of bed 74. This is the level of

the so-called ‘DHo discontinuity’ of Kemper (1992) interpreted

by him as an important global regressive/transgressive event at-

tended by an important faunal turnover.

5) The lower part of the Staffi Zone (bed 72). The sequence

boundary of Ha4 on top of bed 72.

6) The upper part of the Staffi Zone (beds 64–59). The se-

quence boundary of Ha5 on top of bed 59.

7) The upper part of the Gottschei Zone and the basal part of

the Discofalcatus Zone (beds 39 to –13). The glauconite-bearing

bed –1 is maximum flooding surface (correlates with bed 50 of the

Gott section). The sequence boundary of Ha6 on top of bed –13

marks the end of a bioturbated interval.

8) The uppermost part of the Discofalcatus Zone (bed –24).

the type 1 sequence boundary of Ha7 on top of bed –24.

9) The Rarocinctum Zone (beds –29 to –34). The sequence

boundary of Ba1 on top of bed –34.

10) The lower Fissicostatum Zone (beds –36 to –48) (Chon-

drites Beds). Sequence boundary on top of bed –48.

11) The upper Fissicostatum Zone (bed –50) (Hauptblätterton).

The type 1 sequence boundary of Ba2 on top of bed –50.

5. Sequences in the Gott clay pit near Sarstedt
(Germany) (Fig. 9)

The same sequence-stratigraphic line of thought as in

the Moorberg clay pit is used to determine the sequences

in the Gott clay pit. The following (groups of) beds are in-

terpreted as highstand systems tracts:

1) The upper part of the Gottschei Zone and lower part of the

Discofalcatus Zone (beds 50–57). The sequence boundary of Ha6

on top of bed 57.

2) The upper part of the Discofalcatus Zone (beds 69–71). The

type 1 sequence boundary of Ha7 on top of bed 71. This level

corresponds to a faunal caesura (Mutterlose 1984).

3) The Rarocinctum Zone (beds 79–82). The sequence bound-

ary of Ba1 on top of bed 82.

4) The lower Fissicostatum Zone (beds 84–98). The sequence

boundary of Ba1' on top of bed 98.

5) The upper Fissicostatum Zone (bed 100) (Hauptblätterton).

The type 1 sequence boundary of Ba2 on top of bed 100.

6) Bed 109–115, interpreted to be the Elegans Zone. The se-

quence boundary Ba3 on top of bed 115.

7) Bed 117, interpreted to represent the Denckmanni Zone.

The sequence boundary of Ba3' on top of bed 117.

8) Bed 135–137 (= beds with Hemicrioceras rude according to

Kemper, personal communication in Heilmann-Clausen & Thom-

sen 1995). The sequence boundary of Ba4 on top of 137. (Beds

126–132 = beds with “Crioceratites” sparsicostata according to

Kemper, personal communication in Heilmann-Clausen & Thom-

sen 1995).

9) Bed 185, possibly equivalent to the Stolley Zone. The se-

quence boundary of Ba4' on top of bed 185.

10) Bed 191–198, presumably Bidentatum Zone. The sequence

boundary of Ba5 on top of bed 198.

Berriasian and Valanginian of the Swiss and

French Jura Mountains (column 6)

It is difficult to detect sequences in very shallow marine

limestones. In such facies lowstand systems tracts are not

preserved. For the middle and upper Berriasian Stage and

the Valanginian Stage the sequence stratigraphic interpre-

tation by Arnaud (personal communication) in the Cham-

botte section (southern Jura) was used. For the lower Ber-

background image


riasian the section of the Goldberg Formation was used

(Strasser 1988, 1994). Strasser interpreted the beds of the

Goldberg Formation as an expression of the Milankovitch

cyclicity and numbered the 100,000 year cycles (Fig. 10).

1. Ostracods of the Goldberg Formation indicate a correlation

with Anderson’s (1985) ostracod assemblages 2 and 3 (Detraz &

Mojon 1989) of the Lower Purbeck of England. This means that

the lowest sequence boundary, at the base of cycle 17, should be

considered to be equivalent to Be1. The base of cycle 17 has been

Fig. 8. Section through the Hauterivian of the Moorberg clay pit near Sarstedt; modified after Mutterlose 1984.

background image

116                                                                                           HOEDEMAEKER

chosen as a sequence boundary because it shows brecciation and cal-

crete has formed on top of it. This bed is the first subtidal oolite

grainstone bed on top of an intratidal bed with algal mats and dess-

iccation polygons.

2. The next sequence boundary, that of Be1’, is placed on top of

cycle 22 which is slightly evaporitic. Calcrete has also formed here

on top of the bed signifying emersion. Cycle 22 is overlain by the

first subtidal rudstone bed and underlain by a set of intratidal beds.

3. The next sequence boundary, that of Be2, is placed at the top

of cycle 24, which is brecciated, topped by calcrete and was subaeri-

ally exposed. It is slightly evaporitic and is probably a sabkha de-

posit. It forms the top of a set of supratidal beds with much Chara-

Fig. 9. Section through the Barremian of the Gott clay pit near Sarstedt; modified after Mutterlose 1984.

background image


remains and is overlain by a subtidal bed. It seems to be the base of

Chara Zone M1b (Detraz & Mojon 1989) and of ostracod assem-

blage 3.

4. The sequence boundary which tops the Goldberg Formation is

the type 1 sequence boundary of Be3 and is inferred to be on top of

cycle 32, which shows dessiccation polygons. This sequence bound-

ary is followed by the Pierre Châtel Formation the base of which is

generally thought to be equivalent to the ‘Oolitische Mergel und

Kalk Zone’ (= Unité inférieur oolithique). The lacustrine interval in-

tercalated within this fully marine unit is interpreted as representing

the prograding top part of the highstand systems tract of sequence

Be3, which is equivalent to the Cinder Bed in England. Ostracods

support this correlation (Detraz & Mojon 1989).

The sequence-stratigraphic interpretation of the Pierre

Châtel, Vions, Chambotte and Bourget formations is largely

in accordance with the interpretation of Arnaud (personal

communication, 1992), which is based on the detailed facies

analyses of Darsac (thesis 1983). The few modifications in-

troduced here result from the recognition of three more se-

quences, Be4', Va1', and Va 3', in this stratigraphic interval.

The stratigraphic position of the famous ‘Astieria Mer-

gel’ (= Marnes à Astieria) in the Neuchâtel area (Switzer-

land) was solved by Bulot 1992, who showed that the dom-

inant species in the ‘Astieria Mergel’ is Olcostephanus

guebhardi and that the biostratigraphically significant os-

tracod is Protocythere praetriplicata. This implies that the

‘Astieria Mergel’ correlates with the top part of the

Campylotoxus Zone and/or with the Verrucosum Horizon

and that it was deposited during the high sea-level stand

of sequence Va3’.

The Hauterivian succession in the Neuquén Basin

in Argentina (column 6)

In this scheme we used the Austral-Tethyan correlation

of the Hauterivian as proposed by Aguirre-Urreta & Raw-

son (1997), who correlated the Argentinian Holcoptychites

neuquensis Zone with the Mediterranean Acanthodiscus

radiatus Zone. Their correlations were largely followed

here with the exception of the Avilé Sandstone. For, from a

sequence-stratigraphic point of view it is preferred here to

relate the Avilé Sandstone to the type 1 sequence bound-

ary of Ha3. This deviates from the correlation by Aguirre-

Ureta & Rawson. It is interpreted here that the fluvial Avilé

Sandstone represents the prograding top part of the high-

stand systems tract during the rapid and extra deep fall of

the sea level at the close of sequence Ha2'. As a conse-

quence the Spitidiscus ricardii Zone should correlate with

the Cruasense Horizon in France and with the Spitidiscus

rotula level in England instead of with the Mediterranean

Nodosoplicatum Zone. It is a matter of course that the

Paraspiticeras groeberi Zone has a lowest Barremian age.

The correlation of the other Argentinian zones is merely in-


The lowest Aptian sequences

The works of Casey (1961) and Kemper (1967) were con-

sulted for the lowest Boreal Aptian. Casey illustrated the

stratigraphic succession of the Lower Greensand of Ather-

field, Isle of Wight. The abundance of fossils may indicate

that the highest part of the Perna Beds represent a maxi-

mum flooding interval. The overlying Atherfield Clay and

Lower Lobster Bed may represent the highstand systems

tract of the same sequence, which should be Ba5. The

sandstone of the Crackers is intercalated within a predomi-

nantly clayey succession (= the so-called Atherfield Clay

Series of Casey 1961) and can be interpreted as represent-

ing the highest shallowing-upward part of the highstand

systems tract. The overlying clays of the Upper Lobster

Bed represent the highstand systems tract of the next se-

quence (Ap1) (Hesselbo et al. 1990). These clays are over-

lain by the Ferruginous Sands, the lowest part of which be-

Fig. 10. Section through the Goldberg Formation (Berriasian)

near Salève (France); modified after Strasser 1994.

background image

118                                                                                           HOEDEMAEKER

longs to the Deshayesites deshayesi Zone. The strong

lithological change from the Atherfield Clay Series to the

Ferruginous Sands is interpreted as a direct consequence

of the type 1 sequence boundary Ap2.

If this sequence-stratigraphic interpretation is true, the

correlation with Germany may be as follows: The German

beds with Prodeshayesites bodei in the lower part of the

Prodeshayesites “tenuicostatus“ Zone (P. “tenuicostatus“

(Koenen) is a younger synonym of P. fissicostatus (Phil-

lips)) are not preserved in England, whereas the middle and

upper parts of the Prodeshayesites “tenuicostatus“ Zone

without P. bodei correlates (1) with the English Perna

Beds, which are included in the English Prodeshayesites

fissicostatus Zone, and also (2) with the overlying De-

shayesites forbesi Zone. As the German Fischschiefer

should represent the highest sea-level highstand directly

before the type 1 sequence boundary of Ap2 (Hoedemaek-

er 1995; Kemper 1995), it should be incorporated in the up-

per part of the “Tenuicostatus“ Zone and should correlate

with the Upper Lobster Beds in the upper part of the En-

glish Forbesi Zone. This highstand systems tract is direct-

ly followed by the first appearance of Leupoldia cabri in

the Río Argos sucession as well as in northern Germany

(Kemper 1995). The Fischschiefer correlates with the Selli

Level (Hoedemaeker 1995; Kemper 1995), which is also di-

rectly followed by the first appearance of L. cabri. The

sea-level fall corresponding to the type 1 sequence bound-

ary of Ap2 caused the drowning of the Urgonian platform

in SE France.

It should be noted that the Aptian beds of the Río Ar-

gos succession marked by the letter D were assigned to

the Deshayesi ammonite Zone because of the presence of

the first Cheloniceras (Hoedemaeker & Leereveld 1995);

this is erroneous because Cheloniceras is already

present in the Weissi Zone (Delanoy 1995). The Weissi

Zone should therefore be extended up to the sequence

boundary of Ap2.

The various biostratigraphic events and fossil


Dinoflagellate cysts

The first and last occurrence data of the dinoflagellate

cysts that occur in the Boreal as well as in the Tethyan

Realm and that are relevant to a Boreal-Tethyan correlation,

were added in the white strips alongside the columns only

after the correlation of the depositional units by sequence

stratigraphy was finished. They can therefore be consid-

ered a confirmation of the correctness of this correlation.

The dinoflagellate cysts are the best biostratigraphic corre-

lation tools available at this moment, and therefore of the

utmost importance.

Amphorula delicata

Río Argos, LO bed Y240 (Leereveld 1997a)

Isterberg, LO depth 220.6 m (Strauss et al. 1993)

Aprobolocysta eilema

La Buissière, SE France, FO lowest part of Sayni Zone (Londeix


Speeton, FO bed C7E (Leereveld 1995)

Boring Konrad 101, FO middle part of Aegocrioceras beds (= mid-

dle of transgressive systems tract) (Prössl 1990)

Fig. 11. Section along the Mittellandkanal near Pollhagen: frequency distribution of macrofossils; modified after Quensel 1988. Hatch-

ing: ammonite frequency; dotted: frequency of other macrofossils. The vertical scale is logarithmic.

background image


Río Argos, LO bed A131 (Leereveld 1997b)

Speeton, LO bed C2D (Leereveld 1995)

Northern Germany, LO in the lower part of the Gottschei Zone

(Lutat 1995)

Batioladinium pomum

England, FO in Lamplughi Zone

Purbeck Formation, FO “in a buff calcareous shale with ostracods

immediately above the Broken Beds at the base of the Marls with

Gypsum and Insect Beds in the Durlston section” (Norris 1985,

referring to his Ph. D. thesis written in 1963).

This is a rather cryptic level, for in old literature the Marls

with Gypsum containing Insect Beds were supposed to begin with

the Cypris Freestones immediately overlying the Broken Beds.

But the Cypris Freestones are marine limestones and not ‘calcare-

ous shales’. Arkell (1956), however, who was regarded as an au-

thority on the Purbeck Beds when Norris wrote his Ph. D. thesis,

considered the ‘Marls with Gypsum and Insect Beds’ to begin

above the limestones of the Hard Cockle Beds (see the correlation

of Arkell’s subdivision with Bristow’s subdivision by Norris 1969,

table 2). Nowadays the name ‘Marls with Gypsum and Insect

Beds’ is not used anymore. Norris apparently used Arkell’s subdi-

vision when he wrote his Ph. D. thesis, which would mean that

the first B. pomum was found at the base of what is now generally

referred to as Soft Cockle Beds. However, this level is not ‘imme-

diately above the Broken Beds’; it may however actually be the

first sample he took above the latter.

Bourkidinium spp.

Río Argos, LO bed A154 (Leereveld 1997b)

SE France, LO in middle of undivided Angulicostata Zone (= near

top of Ohmi Zone) (Londeix 1990)

Speeton, LO in bed C2D (Leereveld 1995)

Gott, LO in upper part Dicofalcatus Zone (Lutat 1995)

Cauca parva

Gott, FO bed 117 (Heilmann-Clausen & Thomsen 1995)

Speeton, FO directly below bed CB6 (Heilmann-Clausen & Thom-

sen 1995; Duxbury 1980)

Coronifera oceanica

Río Argos, FO bed A92 (lower part Ligatus Zone) (Leereveld


Vergons, FO bed 108 (lower part Ligatus Zone) (Londeix 1990).

FO in the middle of Staffi Zone (Lutat 1995)

Speeton, FO base of C4 (Davey 1979)

Cribroperidinium boreas

Speeton, FO just below bed CB3 (Harding 1990)

Warlingham borehole, Wealden, FO depth 1078/1 (Harding


Gott, FO in bed 138 (Harding 1990)

Dissiliodinium globulus

Río Argos, FO bed M249 (Leereveld 1997a)

P. heteropleurum Zone, Suddendorf 27 m (Below 1981)

Exiguisphaera phragma

Río Argos, LO bed A170 (Leereveld 1997b)

Speeton, LO bed LB4D (Harding 1990)

Gott, LO bed 78 (Harding 1990)

Florentinia interrupta

Río Argos, FO bed A48 (Leereveld 1997b)

Speeton, FO upper part of bed C6 (Leereveld 1995)

Gonyaulacysta fastigiata

Río Argos, LO bed V


 45 (Leereveld 1997b)

Speeton, LO just below bed CB3 (Duxbury 1980)

Kleithriasphaeridium fasciatum

Río Argos, FO bed Y267 (Leereveld 1997a)

Speeton, FO bed D7A (Duxbury 1977)

Berrias, FO bed 198 (Monteil 1993)

Angles, FO bed 170 (Monteil 1993)

Isterberg 1001, FO depth 220.6 m (Strauss et al. 1993)

Río Argos, LO bed Q93 (Leereveld 1997b)

Speeton, LO bed LB1A (Leereveld 1995; Duxbury 1980)

Muderongia staurota

Río Argos, FO bed P11 (Leereveld 1997b)

Top part Amblygonium Zone (Lutat 1995)

Nexosispinum vetusculum

Río Argos, FO bed P13 (Leereveld 1997b)

Speeton, FO bed C11 (Davey 1979)

Río Argos, LO bed Q100 (Leereveld 1997b)

Speeton, LO bed LB1A (Leereveld 1995; Duxbury 1980)

Occicucysta tentorium

Río Argos, FO bed M248 (Leereveld 1997a)

Suddendorf, FO in P. heteropleurum Zone, at 21 m (Below 1981)

Odontochitina operculata

Río Argos, FO bed Q93 (Leereveld 1997b)

Speeton, FO bed LB1A (Leereveld 1995)

Angles, FO bed 142 (Wilpshaar 1995a,b)

Oligosphaeridium complex

Río Argos, FO bed Y271 (Leereveld 1997a)

Isterberg 1001, depth 120 m (Strauss et al. 1993)

Oligosphaeridium diluculum (see comments in chapter: Spee-

ton E+D)

Speeton, FO bed D7G (Heilmann-Clausen; Davey 1982)

Río Argos, FO bed Y234 (Leereveld 1997a)

Subsurface North Sea, FO in “Stenomphalus maximum flooding

surface K. 10” (Partington et al. 1993)

Prolixospaeridium parvispinum

Río Argos, FO bed V


45 (Leereveld 1997b)

Barremian Angles, FO bed 144 (De Reneville & Raynaud 1981)

Gott, FO top part bed 116 (Heilmann-Clausen & Thomsen 1995)

Speeton, FO directly below bed CB6 (Heilmann-Clausen & Thom-

sen 1995)

Pseudoceratium pelliferum

Speeton, FO bed D7E (Lott et al. 1989)

Río Argos, FO bed Y206 (Leereveld 1997a)

Berrias, FO bed 198 (Monteil 1993)

Spiniferites spp.

Río Argos, FO bed Y271 (Leereveld 1997a)

Isterberg, FO depth 61.6 m (Strauss et al. 1993)

Subtilisphaera terrula

Río Argos, FO bed A78 (Leereveld 1997b)

Speeton, FO base of C4 (Davey 1979)

Río Argos, LO bed Q100 (Leereveld 1997b)

Speeton, LO bed LB1A (Harding 1990)

Gott, LO bed 109 (Harding 1990)

background image

120                                                                                           HOEDEMAEKER

Ammonite names mentioned in the white strips:

Acanthodiscus bivirgatus (begins its range in the Amblygonium

Zone before the so-called ‘Bivirgaten-Schichten’, Mutterlose 1984).

Aconeceras sp. and Heteroceras sp. Speeton: Upper B Beds,

base of Bidentatum Zone (Rawson 1995).

Breistrofferella sp. and n.sp. (depicted as ‘Ammonit indet.’ by

Kemper 1992): The presence of Breistrofferella is a new still un-

published fact and confirms the correlation of the Boreal upper

Amblygonium and lower Noricum zones with the Tethyan Radia-

tus Zone. The specimens were identified by J. Klein (National

Museum of Natural History of The Netherlands) as Breistrofferel-

la (personal communication).

Barremites sp. In Speeton bed LB1A (Doyle, personal commu-


Crioceratites duvali: First occurrence in the Boreal Realm is at

the same level as in the Tethyan Realm (Kemper et al. 1981).

Dichotomites: The ranges are similar for the Boreal and Tethy-

an Realm (Thieuloy 1973, 1977; Cotillon 1971).

Endemoceras: First occurrence in the ‘Grenzsandstein’

(Kemper 1992).

Jeannoticeras jeannoti. Speeton: lower part of bed C7H (Doyle


Karakaschiceras biassalense, K. cf. inostranzewi, and Neohop-

loceras submartini. Speeton: base of bed D2D (Kemper et al.


Lytoceras in the Speeton section (Donovan 1957; Whitehouse

& Brighton 1924).

Olcostephanus: Last Boreal occurrence at the DHo discontinui-

ty (Kemper 1985; Rawson 1971). In the Río Argos in the low-

stand systems tract between the beds A34 and A35 just above the

DHo discontinuity.

Platylenticeras: The range of this genus in the Tethyan Realm

is shorter than in the Boreal Realm (Thieuloy 1973, 1977). This

genus occurs only in the lowstand systems tract of sequence Va2'.

Platylenticeras cf. involutum. Speeton: bed D4C (Doyle, per-

sonal communication).

Polyptychites: The Boreal and Tethyan ranges are nearly the


Prodichotomites: This genus starts its range in the Boreal and

Tethyan realms at the same level (Thieuloy 1977).

Sarasinella cf. trezanensis + Menjaites: Base of Clax by Iros-

tone (Kemper et al. 1981).

“Shasticrioceras” anglicum. Speeton: bed D1 (Doyle 1963).

Other fossils named in the white strips. They are listed

here in order to know to which group they belong.

Belemnites: Praeoxyteuthis pugio, Hibolithes jaculoides, Acro-

teuthis acmonoides.

Ostracods (they all belong to the genus Cypridea): C. alta alta,

C. altissima, C. amisia, C. bimammata, C. brevirostrata, C. dola-

brata, C. dunkeri carinata, C. dunkeri dunkeri, C. fasciculata, C.

inversa, C. obliqua, C. posticalis, C. recta recta, C. rectidorsata,

C. setina setina, C. tuberculata adjuncta, C. tumescens tumescens.

Nannoplankton:  Calcicalathina oblongata, Cruciellipsis cuvil-

lieri  (Boreal last occurrence datum according to Jakubowski

1987), Chiastozygus litteratus (according to Kemper 1995, and

Thierstein 1971, 1976, this species appears just below the Barre-

mian-Aptian boundary).

Acknowledgements: I am grateful for the stimulating dis-

cussions and enthusiastic support of Han Leereveld, who

provided many biostratigraphic ties to the schemes. I am

also grateful to mr. E. Aksoy, E. Bosch, S.B. Blankevoort

and L.R. Jansen for drawing the complicated schemes on

their computer and to mr. R. Malherbe without his manage-

ment this scheme would not have come into being. I also

thank Dr. C.W. Winkler Prins for taking over the production

of the schemes during my illness.


Aguirre-Urreta M. & Rawson P.F., 1997: The ammonite sequence

in the Agrio Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Neuquén basin,

Argentina. Geol. Mag., 134, 449–458.

Allen P. & Wimbledon W.A., 1991: Correlation of NW European

Purbeck-Wealden (nonmarine Lower Cretaceous) as seen from

the English type areas. Cretaceous Research, 12, 511–526.

Anderson F.W., 1962: Correlation of the upper Purbeck Beds of En-

gland with the German Wealden. Geol. J., Liverpool, 3, 21–32.

Anderson F.W., 1973: The Jurassic-Cretaceous transition: the non-ma-

rine ostracod faunas. In: Casey R. & Rawson P.F. (Eds.): The bo-

real Lower Cretaceous. Seel House Press, Liverpool, 101–110.

Anderson F.W., 1985: Ostracod faunas in the Purbeck and Wealden

of England. J. Micropalaeont., 4, 1–68.

Anderson F.W. & Bazley R.A.B., 1971: The Purbeck Beds of the

Weald. Bull. Geol. Sur. Gt Br., 34, 1–138.

Anderson F.W. & Hughes N.F., 1964: The ‘Wealden’ of north-west

Germany and its English equivalents. Nature, 201, 907–908.

Arkell W.J., 1956: Jurassic geology of the world. Oliver and Boyd

Ltd., Edinburgh, London, 1– 806.

Atrops F. & Reboulet S., 1993: Nouvelles données sur la zonation

par ammonites du Valanginien supérieur de l’hypostratotype

d’Angles (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) et sur ses corrélations. C.

R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 317, Sér. II, 499–506.

Atrops F. & Reboulet S., 1995: Le Valanginien-Hauterivien basal du

bassin vocontien et de la bordure provençale: zonation et cor-

rélations. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 320, sér. IIa, 985–992.

Autran G., 1989: L’évolution de la marge nord-est provençale (Arc

de Castellane) du Valanginien R l’Hauterivien R travers

l’analyses biostratigraphique des séries de la région de Pey-

roules: séries condensées, discontinuités et indices d’une tecto-

genèse distensive. Thèse de l’Université de Nice, 232.

Bartenstein H. & Bettenstaedt F., 1962: Marine Unterkreide (Bore-

al und Tethys). In: Arbeitskreis deutscher Mikropaläontologen:

Leitfossilien der Mikropaläontologie. Gebrüder Borntraeger,

Berlin-Nikolassee, 225–297.

Below R., 1981: Dinoflagellaten-Zysten aus den Platylenticeras-

Schichten (unteres Mittel-Valendis) der Ziegeleitongrube

Schnepper in Suddendorf/Nordwest-Deutschland. Newslett.

Stratigr., 10, 115–125.

background image


Besse J., Boisseau T., Arnaud-Vanneau A., Arnaud H., Mascle G. &

Thieuloy J.P., 1986: Modifications sédimentaires, renouvelle-

ments des faunes et inversions magnétiques dans le Valanginien

de l’hypostratotype d’Angles. Bull. Cent. Rech. Explor.-prod.

Elf-Aquit., 10, 365–368.

Birkelund T., Clausen C.K., Hansen H.N. & Holm L., 1983: The

Hectoroceras kochi Zone (Ryazanian) in the North Sea Cen-

tral Graben and remarks in the Late Cimmerian Unconformity.

Dan. Geol. Unders., Årbog 1982, 53–72.

Boisseau T., 1987: La plate-forme jurassienne et sa bordure subal-

pine au Berriasien-Valanginien (Chartreuse-Vercors). Analyse

et corrélations avec les séries de bassin. Thèse de doctorat de

l’Université Scientifique Technologique et Médicales de

Grenoble, 31 octobre 1987, 1–413.

Bulot L.G., 1992: Les Olcostephaninae valanginiens et hauteriviens

(Ammonitina, Cephalopoda) du Jura franco-suisse: System-

atique et intérêt biostratigraphique. Rev. Paléobiol., 11, 149–


Bulot L.G., Thieuloy J.P., Blanc E. & Klein J., 1992: Le cadre strati-

graphique du Valanginien supérieur et de l’Hauterivien du Sud-Est

de la France: Définition des biochronozones et caractérisation

de nouveaux biohorizons. Géol. Alp., 68, 13–56.

Busnardo R., 1965: Le stratotype du Barrémien. In: Colloque sur le

Crétacé inférieur, Lyon 1963. Mém. Bur. Rech. Géol. Min., 34,


Busnardo R., 1984: 1.2. Stratotypes et parastratotypes; 1.3. Ech-

elles biostratigraphiques; 1.3.1. Ammonites. In: Cotillon P.

(Ed.): Crétacé Inférieur. Mém. Bur. Rech. Géol. Min., 126,


Busnardo R. & Thieuloy J.P., 1989: Les ammonites de

l’Hauterivien jurassien: révision des faunes de la région du stra-

totype historique de l’étage Hauterivien. Mém. Soc. Neuch.

Sci. Natur., 11, 101–147.

Busnardo R., Thieuloy J.P. & Moullade M., 1979: Hypostratotype

mesogéen de l’étage Valanginien (sud-est de la France). (Eds.):

Comité français de stratigraphie, Editions du C.N.R.S. Les stra-

totypes français, 6, 143.

Busnardo R. & Vermeulen J., 1986: La limite Hauterivien-Bar-

rémien dans la région stratotypique d’Angles. C. R. Acad. Sci.

Paris, 302, Sér. II, 7, 457–459.

Casey R., 1961: The stratigraphical palaeontology of the Lower

Greensand. Palaeont., 3, 487–621.

Casey R., 1973: The ammonite succession at the Jurassic-Creta-

ceous boundary in eastern England. In: Casey R. & Rawson P.F.

(Eds.): The Boreal Lower Cretaceous. Geol. J. Spec. Issue, 5,


Colloque Lyon, 1963: Conclusions générales du Colloque. In: Col-

loque sur le Crétacé inférieur, Lyon 1963. Mém. Bur. Rech.

Géol. Min., 34 (1975), 827–834.

Colloque Lyon, 1973: VII. Discussions sur la position de la limite

Jurassique-Crétacé. VIII. Discussion générale préliminaires au

dépôt des motions. In: Colloque sur la limite Jurassique-

Crétacé, Lyon, Neuchâtel, 1973. Mém. Bur. Rech. Géol. Min.,

86, 379–393.

Company M., Sandoval & Tavera M., 1995: Lower Barremian am-

monite biostratigraphy in the Subbetic domain (Betic Cordille-

ra, southern Spain). Cretaceous Research, 16, 243–256.

Congress Copenhagen, 1984: Birkelund T., Hancock J.M., Hart

M.B., Rawson P.F., Remane J., Robaszynsky F., Schmid F. &

Surlyk F., 1984: Cretaceous stage boundaries — proposals.

Bull. Geol. Soc. Denmark, 33, 3–20.

Congress Brussels, 1996: Rawson P.F., Dhondt A.V., Hancock J.M.

& Kennedy W.J. (Eds.): Proceedings “Second International

Symposium on Cretaceous Stage Boundaries” Brussels 8–16

September 1995. Bull. Inst. Royal Sci. Natur. Belgique, 66

(Supplement), 117.

Cotillon P., 1971: Le Crétacé inférieur de l’arc subalpin de Castel-

lane entre Asse et le Var. Stratigraphie et sédimentologie.

Mém. Bur. Rech. Géol. Min., 68,1–313.

Darsac C., 1983: La plate-forme berriaso-valanginienne du Jura

méridional aux massifs subalpins (Ain, Savoie). Thèse de

l’Université Scientifique et Médicale de Grenoble (unpublished).

Davey R.J., 1979: The stratigraphic distribution of dinocysts in

the Portlandian (latest Jurassic) to Barremian (Early Creta-

ceous) of northwest Europe. Amer. Assoc. Stratigr. Palynol.

Contr. Ser. 5B, 2, Mesozoic Palynology, 49–81.

Davey R.J., 1982: Dinocyst stratigraphy of the latest Jurassic to

Early Cretaceous of the Haldager No 1 borehole, Denmark.

Dan. Geol. Under., B, 6, 57.

Delanoy G., 1994: Les zones à Feraudianus, Giraudi et Sarasini du

Barrémien supérieur de la région stratotypique d’Angles-Bar-

rême-Castellane (Sud-Est de la France). Géol. Alp., Mém. Hors

Sér. 20, 279–319.

Delanoy G., 1995: About some significant ammonites from the

Lower Aptian (Bedoulian) of the Angles-Barrême area (South-

East France). Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. Italia, 51, 65–101.

Detraz H. & Mojon P.O., 1989: Evolution paléogéographique de la

marge jurassienne de la Téthys du Tithonique-Portlandien au Va-

langinien: corrélations biostratigraphiques et séquentielles des

faciès marins à continentaux. Eclogae Geol. Helv., 82, 37–112.

Donovan D.T., 1957: The Jurassic and Cretaceous Systems in East

Greenland. Meddr. Grønl., 155, 1–214.

Donze P., 1976: Répartition stratigraphique des espèces du genre

Protocythere Triebel 1938 (Ostracode), dans le Valanginien de

la région de Chabrières (Alpes de Haute-Provence). Rev. Mi-

cropaléont., 19, 19–26.

Donze P. & Thieuloy J.P., 1975: Sur l’extrême condensation du Va-

langinien supérieur dans le Jura neuchâtelois, en particulier

dans le stratotype de Valangin, et sa signification dans

l’ensemble des formations valanginiennes du Sud-Est de la

France. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 280, D, 1661–1664.

Doyle J.C., 1963: A new heteromorph ammonite from the Lower

Cretaceous of Yorkshire. Palaeontology, 6, 575–578.

Doyle J.C., 1989: The stratigraphy of a late lower Hauterivian ho-

rizon in the Speeton Clay Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of

East Yorkshire. Proc. Geologists Assoc., 100, 175–182.

Duxbury S., 1977: A palynostratigraphy of the Berriasian to Barre-

mian of the Speeton Clay of Speeton, England. Palaeonto-

graphica, B 160, 17–67.

Duxbury S., 1980: Barremian phytoplankton from Speeton, East

Yorkshire. Palaeontographica, B173, 107–146.

Elstner F. & Mutterlose J., 1996: The Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian

and Valanginian) in NW Germany. Cretaceous Research, 17,


Feist M., Lake R.D. & Wood C.J., 1995: Charophyte biostratigra-

phy of the Purbeck and Wealden of southern England. Palae-

ontology, 38, 2, 407–442.

Feist M. & Schudack M.E., 1991: Correlation of charophyte as-

semblages from the nonmarine Jurassic-Cretaceous transition

of NW Germany. Cretaceous Research, 12, 495–510.

Fletcher B.N., 1973: The distribution of Lower Cretaceous (Berria-

sian-Barremian) forminifera in the Speeton Clay of Yorkshire,

England. In: Casey R. & Rawson P.F. (Eds.): The boreal Lower

Cretaceous. Geol. J. Spec. Issue, 5, 161–168.

Galbrun B., 1985: Magnetostratigraphy of the Berriasian stratotype

section (Berrias, France). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 74, 130–


Galbrun B. & Rasplus L., 1984: Magnétostratigraphie du stratotype

du Berriasien. Premiers résultats. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, sér. 2,

6, 219–222.

Galbrun B., Rasplus L. & Le Hégarat G., 1986: Donnés nouvelles sur le

stratotype du Berriasien: corrélations entre magnétostratigraphie

background image

122                                                                                           HOEDEMAEKER

et biostratigraphie. Bull. Soc. Géol. France, 8, 2, 575–584.

Giraud F., 1995: Recherche des périodicités astronomiques et des

fluctuations du niveau marin à partir de l’étude du signal car-

bonaté des séries pélagiques alternantes. Docum. Lab. Géol.

Lyon, 134, 1–279.

Hallam A., Grose J.A. & Ruffell A.H., 1991: Palaeoclimatic signifi-

cance of changes in clay mineralogy across the Jurassic-Creta-

ceous boundary in England and France. Palaeogeogr.

Palaeoclimat, Palaeoecol., 81, 173–187.

Harding I.C., 1990: A dinocyst calibration of the European boreal

Barremian. Palaeontographica, B218, 1–76.

Heilmann-Clausen C., 1987: Lower Cretaceous dinoflagellate bios-

tratigraphy in the Danish Central Trough. Dan. Geol. Under.,

A, 17, 54.

Heilmann-Clausen C. & Thomsen E., 1995: Barremian-Aptian di-

noflagellates and calcareous nannofossils in the Ahlum 1 bore-

hole and the Otto Gott clay pit, Sarstedt, Lower Saxony basin,

Germany. Geol. Jb., A, 141, 256–365.

Hesselbo S.P., Coe A.L. & Jenkyns H.C., 1990: Recognition and

documentation of depositional sequences from outcrop: an ex-

ample from the Aptian and Albian on the eastern margin of

the Wessex Basin. J. Geol. Soc. London, 147, 549–559.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1981: The Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary near

Miravetes (Caravaca, SE Spain); arguments for its position at

the base of the Occitanica Zone. Quader. Geol., 10 (1979),


Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1982: Ammonite biostratigraphy of the upper-

most Tithonian, Berriasian, and lower Valanginian along the

Río Argos (Caravaca, SE Spain). Scripta Geol., 65, 1–81.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1983: Reconsideration of the stratigraphic posi-

tion of the boundary between the Berriasian and the Nemausian

(= Valanginian sensu stricto). Zitteliana, 10, 447–457.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1984: Proposals for the stratigraphic position

of the Berriasian-Valanginian and the Valanginian-Hauterivian

boundaries. Bull. Geol. Soc. Denmark, 33, 139–146.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1987: Correlation possibilities around the Ju-

rassic-Cretaceous boundary. Scripta Geol., 84, 1–64.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1991: Tethyan-Boreal correlations and the Ju-

rassic-Cretaceous boundary. Newslett. Stratigr., 25, 37–60.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1994: Ammonite distribution around the Hau-

terivian-Barremian boundary along the Río Argos (Caravaca,

SE Spain). Géol. Alp., Mém. Hors Sér. 20 (1994), 219–277.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1995: Ammonite evidence for longterm sea-

level fluctuations between the 2nd and the 3rd order in the

lowest Cretaceous. Cretaceous Research, 16, 231–241.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1996: Proposal for a new stratigraphic posi-

tion for the Hauterivian-Barremian boundary at one of the

faunal turnovers that are caused by long-term cyclic high-am-

plitude sea-level falls. Mitt. Geol.-Paläont. Inst. Univ. Ham-

burg, 77, 271–273.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1999: The Berriasian-Barremian sequences in

the Río Argos succession near Caravaca (SE Spain). Soc. Econ.

Paleont. Mineralog., Spec. Publ., 60, 423–441.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J. & Bulot L., 1990: Preliminary ammonite zo-

nation for the Lower Cretaceous of the Mediterranean re-

gion. Géol. Alp., 66, 123–127.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J., Cecca F. (reporters) & 16 co-authors, 1995:

Report on the 3rd international workshop on the standard

Lower Cretaceous ammonite zonation of the Mediterranean

region. Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. Italia, 51, 213–215.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J., Company M. (reporters) & 16 co-authors,

1993: Ammonite zonation for the Lower Cretaceous of the

Mediterranean region; basis for the stratigraphic correlations

within IGCP-Project 262. Rev. Esp. Paleont., 8, 117–120.

Hoedemaeker Ph.J. & Leereveld H., 1995: Biostratigraphy and

sequence stratigraphy of the Berriasian-lowest Aptian (Lower

Cretaceous) of the Río Argos succession, Caravaca, SE Spain.

Cretaceous Research, 16, 195–230.

Hunt C.O., 1985: Miospores from the Portland Stone Formation

and the lower part of the Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic /

Lower Cretaceous) from Dorset, England. Pollen et Spores,

27, 419–451.

Hunt C.O., 1987: Dinoflagellate cyst and acritarch assemblages in

shallow marine and marginal-marine carbonates; the Portland

Sand, Portland Stone, and Purbeck Formations (Upper Jurassic

– Lower Cretaceous) of southern England and northern

France. In: Hart M.B. (Ed.): Micropalaeontology of carbonate

environments. Brit. Micropalaeont. Soc. Ser., Ellis Horwood

Ltd., Chichester, U.K., 208–225.

Immel H., 1979: Die Ammonitengliederung des mediterranen und

borealen Hauterive und Barrême unter Berichtigung hetero-

morpher Ammoniten der Gattung Crioceratites Leveillé. News-

lett. Stratigr., 7, 121–141.

Immel H. & Mutterlose J., 1980: Barrême-Cephalopoden aus dem

kretazischen Untergrund des Stadtgebietes von Hannover

(NW-Deutschland). Paläont. Z., 54, 241–266.

Jakubowski M., 1987: A proposed Lower Cretaceous calcareous

nannofossil zonation scheme for the Moray Firth area of the

North Sea. Abh. Geol. B–A, Wien, 39, 99–119.

Jan du Chêne R., Busnardo R., Charollais J., Clavel B., Deconinck

J.F., Emmanuel L., Gardin S., Gorin G., Manivit H., Monteil

E., Raynaud J.F., Renard M., Steffen D., Steinhauser N., Strass-

er A., Strohmenger C. & Vail P.R., 1993: Sequence-stratigraph-

ic interpretation of upper Tithonian-Berriasian reference

sections in south-east France: a multidisciplinary approach.

Bull. Centr. Rech. Explor.-Prod. Elf-Aquit., 17, 151–181.

Kakabadze M.V., 1983: On the Hauterivian-Barremian correlation

between the south of the USSR and certain southern and

northern regions of Europe. Zitteliana, 10, 501–508.

Kemper E., 1961: Die Ammonitengattung Platylenticeras (= Garn-

ieria). Beih. Geol. Jb., 47, 1–195.

Kemper E., 1967: Die älteste Ammoniten-Fauna im Aptium Nord-

west-Deutschlands. Paläont. Z., 41, 119–131.

Kemper E., 1976: Geologischer Führer durch die Grafschaft Ben-

theim und die angrenzenden Gebiete mit einem Abrisz der

emsländischen Unterkreide, 5. Auflage. Das Bentheimer Land,

64, 1–206.

Kemper E., 1978: Die Beckenfacies der Unterkreide im nördlichen

Vorland des Wiehengebirges. In: Kemper E., Ernst G. & Thier-

mann A. (Eds.): Excursion A1. Die Unterkreide im Wiehenge-

birgsvorland bei Lübbecke und in Osning zwischen Bielefeld

und Bevergern. Exkursionsführer Symposiums deutsche Kre-

ide, Münster, A1/14–A1/26.

Kemper E., 1987: Das Klima der Kreide-Zeit. Geol. Jb., A96,


Kemper E., 1992: Die tiefe Unterkreide im Vechte-Dinkel-Gebiet,

Stichting Staringmonument, Losser, 95.

Kemper E., 1995a: Die Grenze Barrême/Apt und die Unterteilung

dieser Stufen. Geol. Jb., A141, 47–61.

Kemper E., 1995b: Changes in the Marine environment around the

Barremian/Aptian boundary. Geol. Jb., A, 141, 587–607.

Kemper E., Mutterlose J. & Wiedenroth K., 1987: Die Grenze Unt-

er-/Ober-Hauterive in Nordwestdeutschland, Beispiel eines

stratigraphisch zu nutzenden Klima-Umschwungs. Geol. Jb.,

A96, 209–218.

Kemper E., Rawson P.F. & Thieuloy J.P., 1981: Ammonites of

Tethyan ancestry in the early Lower Cretaceous of north-west

Europe. Palaeontology, 24, 251–311.

Kilian W., 1896: Notice stratigraphique sur les environs de Sisteron

et contributions à la connaissance des terrains secondaires du

sud-est de la France. Bull. Soc. Géol. France, 3, 23, 659–803.

Klingler W., Malz H. & Martin G.P.R., 1962: Malm NW-Deut-

background image


schlands. In: Arbeitskreis deutscher Mikropaläontologen: Leit-

fossilien der Mikropaläontologie, Gebrüder Borntraeger, Ber-

lin, 159–190.

Leereveld H., 1995: Dinoflagellate cysts from the Lower Creta-

ceous Río Argos succession (SE Spain). Thesis Laboratory of

Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utrecht LPP Contribution Se-

ries, 2: 175.

Leereveld H., 1997a: Upper Tithonian-Valanginian (Upper Juras-

sic-Lower Cretaceous) dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy of the

western Mediterranean. Cretaceous Research, 18, 385–420.

Leereveld H., 1997b: Hauterivian-Barremian (Lower Cretaceous)

dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy of the western Mediterranean.

Cretaceous Research, 18, 421–456.

Leereveld H. & Hoedemaeker Ph.J. (in prep.): Stratigraphical cor-

relation (magneto-, bio- and sequence stratigraphy) of the Pur-

beck Formation in S. England, and the ‘Wealden’ Formation

— Platylenticeras Beds in Germany with the Berriasian — Val-

anginian (Tethyan) standard succession.

Le Hégarat G., 1971: Le Berriasien du sud-est de la France. Doc.

Lab. Géol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, 43, 576.

Londeix L., 1990: La distribution des kystes de dinoflagellés dans

les sédiments hémipélagiques (Ardèche) et pélagiques (Arc de

Castellane, S.E. de la France) en domaine vocontien, du Val-

anginien terminal au Barrémien inférieur. Biostratigraphie et

relations avec la stratigraphie séquentielle. Thèse Univ. Bor-

deaux I, 478, I–II, 323–275.

Lott G.K., Fletcher B.N. & Wilkinson I.P., 1986: The stratigraphy

of the Lower Cretaceous Speeton Clay Formation in a cored

borehole off the coast of north-east England. Proc. Yorkshire

Geol. Soc., 46, 39–56.

Lott G.K., Thomas J.E., Riding J.B., Davey R.J. & Butler N., 1989:

Late Ryazanian black shales in the southern North Sea basin

and their lithostratigraphic significance. Proc. Yorkshire Geol.

Soc., 47, 321–324.

Lutat P., 1995: Die Fluktuationen der Palynomorphen-Vergesell-

schaften des Hauterive Nordwest-Deutschlands: Steuerung

durch Meeresspiegel- und Klimaschwankungen. Unpublished

Ph. D. thesis, University of Hannover, Germany, 1–141.

Mitchell S.F., 1992: The belemnite faunal changes across the Hau-

terivian-Barremian boundary in north-east England. Proc.

Yorkshire Geol. Soc., 49, 129–134.

Monteil E., 1992: Kystes de dinoflagellés index (Tithonique-Valang-

inien) du sud-est de le France. Proposition d’une nouvelle zona-

tion palynologique. Rev. Paléobiol., 11, 299–306.

Monteil E., 1993: Dinoflagellate cyst biozonation of the Titho-

nian and Berriasian of south-east France. Correlation with

the sequence stratigraphy. Bull. Centr. Rech. Explor.-Prod.

Elf- Aquit., 17, 249–263.

Morter A.A., 1984: Purbeck-Wealden beds mollusca and their re-

lationship to ostracod biostratigraphy, stratigraphical corre-

lation and palaeoecology in the Weald and adjacent areas.

Proc. Geologists Assoc., 95, 217–234.

Mutterlose J., 1983: Phylogenie und Biostratigraphie der Unter-

familie Oxyteuthinae (Belemnitida) aus dem Barrême (Unter-

Kreide) NW-Europas. Palaeontographica, A180, 1–90.

Mutterlose J., 1984: Die Unterkreide-Aufschlüsse (Valangin-Alb)

im Raum Hannover-Braunschweig. Mitt. Geol. Inst. Univ.

Hannover, 24, 61.

Mutterlose J., 1991: Das Verteilungs- und Migrationsmuster des

kalkigen Nannoplankton in der Unterkreide (Valangin-Apt)

NW-Deutschlands. Palaeontographica, B221, 27–152.

Mutterlose J., 1992: Migration and evolution patterns of floras and

faunas in marine Early Cretaceous sediments of NW Europe.

Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimat. Palaeoecol., 94, 261–282.

Mutterlose J. & Harding I., 1987: Phytoplankton from the anox-

ic sediments of the Barremian (Lower Cretaceous) of north-

west Germany. Abh. Geol. B.-A. Wien, 39, 177–215.

Neale J.W., 1960: The subdivision of the upper D Beds of the Spee-

ton Clay of Speeton, East Yorkshire. Geol. Mag., 97, 353–362.

Neale J.W., 1962a: Ammonoidea from the lower D beds (Berria-

sian) of the Speeton Clay. Palaeontology, 5, 272–296.

Neale J.W., 1962b: Ostracoda from the type Speeton Clay (Lower

Cretaceous) of Yorkshire. Micropalaeontology, 8, 425–484.

Neale J.W., 1968: Biofacies and lithofacies of the Speeton Clay D

beds, E. Yorkshire. Proc. Yorkshire Geol. Soc., 36, 309–335.

Niedziolka K., 1988: Die Mikrofauna im Valangin-Hauterive-Gren-

zbereich des zentralen niedersächsischen Beckens (Pollhagen,

Wiedensahl II). Berliner Geowissenschaft. Abh., A94, 89–173.

Norris G., 1963: Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous miospores

and microplankton from southern England. Ph. D. thesis,

Cambridge University, 406.

Norris G., 1985: Correspondence: Palynology and British Purbeck

facies. Geol. Mag., 122, 187–190.

Ogg J.G., Hasenyager R.W. & Wimbledon W.A., 1994: Jurassic-Cre-

taceous boundary: Portland-Purbeck magnetostratigraphy and

possible correlation to the Tethyan faunal realm. Geobios, M.

S., 17, 519–527.

Ogg J.G., Hasenyager R.W. & Wimbledon W.A., 1995: Jurassic-Cre-

taceous boundary: Portland-Purbeck magnetostratigraphy and

possible correlation to the Tethyan faunal realm. International

symposium on Jurassic Stratigraphy, Poitiers.

Ogg J.G., Hasenyager R.W., Wimbledon W.A., Channell J.E. &

Bralower T.J., 1991: Magnetostratigraphy of the Jurassic-Cre-

taceous boundary interval — Tethyan and English faunal

realms. Cretaceous Research, 12, 455–482.

Ogg J.G., Steiner M.B., Company M. & Tavera J.M., 1988: Magne-

tostratigraphy across the Berriasian-Valanginian stage bound-

ary (Early Cretaceous), at Cehegin (Murcia Province, southern

Spain). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 87, 205–215.

Ogg J.G., Steiner M.B., Olóriz F. & Tavera J.M., 1984: Jurassic

magnetostratigraphy, 1. Kimmeridgian-Tithonian of Sierra

Gorda and Carcabuey, southern Spain. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.,

71, 147–162.

Partington M.A., Copestake P., Mitchener B.C. & Underhill J.R.,

1993: Biostratigraphic calibration of genetic stratigraphic se-

quences in the Jurassic – lowermost Cretaceous (Hettangian to

Ryazanian) of the North Sea and adjacent areas. In: Parker

J.R. (Ed.): Petroleum Geology of Northwest Europe: Proceed-

ings of the 4th Conference, 1, 371–386.

Prössl K.F., 1990: Dinoflagellaten der Kreide – Unter-Hauterive bis

Ober-Turon — im niedersächsischen Becken. Paleontographi-

ca, B218, 93–191.

Quensel P., 1988: Die ammonitenfauna im Valangin-Hauterive-

Grenzbereich vom Mittellandkanal bei Pollhagen. Berliner Ge-

owissenschaft. Abh., A94, 15–71.

Rawson P.F., 1970: The Hauterivian (Lower Cretaceous) biostratig-

raphy of the Speeton Clay of Yorkshire, England. Newslett.

Stratigr., 1, 61–76.

Rawson P.F., 1993: The influence of sea-level changes on the mi-

gration and evolution of Early Cretaceous (pre-Aptian) am-

monites. In: House M.R. (Ed.): The Ammonoidea:

Environment, Ecology, and Evolutionary Change. System. As-

soc. Spec. Vol., Clarandon Press, Oxford, 47, 227–242.

Rawson P.F., 1995a: The “Boreal” Early Cretaceous (Pre-Aptian)

ammonite sequences of Nw Europe and their correlation with

the western Mediterranean faunas. Mem. Descr. Carta Geol.

Italia, 51, 121–130.

Rawson P.F., 1995b: Biogeographical affinities of NW European

Barremian ammonite faunas and their palaeographical impli-

cations. Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. Italia, 51, 131–136.

Rawson P.F., Curry D., Dilley F.C., Hancock J.M., Kennedy W.J.,

Neale J.W., Wood C.J. & Worssam B.C., 1978: A correlation

background image

124                                                                                           HOEDEMAEKER

of Cretaceous rocks in the British Isles. Geol. Soc. London

Spec. Rep., 9, 1–70.

Rawson P.F. & Mutterlose J., 1983: Stratigraphy of the Lower B

and basal Cement Beds (Barremian) of the Speeton Clay, York-

shire, England. Proc. Geologists Assoc., 94, 133–146.

Rawson P.F. & Riley L.A., 1982: Latest Jurassic – Early Cretaceous

events and the ‘Late Cimmerian Unconformity’ in the North

Sea area. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists Bull., 66, 2628–


Reboulet S., 1995: L’évolution des ammonites du Valanginienn-Hau-

terivien inférieur du bassin vocontien et de la plate-forme

provençale (sud-est de la France): relations avec la stratigraphie

séquentielle et implications biostratigraphiques. Doc. Lab. Géol.

Lyon, 137, 1–371.

De Reneville P. & Raynaud J.F., 1981: Palynologie du stratotype du

Barrémien. Bull.Centr.Rech. Explor.-Prod. Elf-Aquit., 5, 1–29.

Ruffel A.H. & Rawson P.F., 1994: Palaeoclimate control on se-

quence stratigraphic patterns in the late Jurassic to mid-Creta-

ceous, with a case study from eastern England. Palaeogeogr.

Palaeoclimat. Palaeoecol., 110, 43–54.

Schudack M.E., 1996: Die Charophyten des Niedersächsischen

Beckens (Oberjura-Berriasium): Lokalzonierung, überregionale

Korrelation und Palökologie. Neu. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh.,

200, 27–52.

Spath L.F., 1924: On the ammonites of the Speeton Clay and the

subdivisions of the Neocomian. Geol. Mag., 61, 73–89.

Strasser A., 1988: Shallowing-upward sequences in Purbeckian per-

itidal carbonates (lowermost Cretaceous, Swiss and French Jura

Mountains).  Sedimentology, 35, 369–383.

Strasser A., 1994: Milankovitch cyclicity and high-resolution se-

quence stratigraphy in lagoonal-peritidal carbonates (Upper

Tithonian–Lower Berriasian, French Jura Mountains). Spec.

Publ. Intern. Assoc. Sedimentol., 19, 285–301.

Strauss C., Elstner F., Jan du Chêne R., Mutterlose J., Reiser H. &

Brandt K.H., 1993: New micropaleontological and palynologi-

cal evidence on the stratigraphic position of the “German

Wealden“ in NW-Germany. Zitteliana, 20, 389–401.

Thierstein H., 1971: Tentative Lower Cretaceous calcareous nan-

noplankton zonation. Eclogae Geol. Helv., 64, 459–488.

Thierstein H., 1973: Lower Cretaceous calcareous nannoplankton

biostratigraphy. Abh. Geol. B.-A., 29, 1–52.

Thierstein H., 1976: Mesozoic calcareous nannoplankton bios-

tratigraphy of marine sediments. Mar. Micropalaeontology, 1,


Thieuloy J.P., 1973: The occurrence and distribution of boreal am-

monites from the Neocomian of southeast France (Tethyan

Province). In: Casey R. & Rawson P.F. (Eds.): The Boreal

Lower Cretaceous. Geol. J. Spec. Issue, 5, 289–302.

Thieuloy J.P., 1977: Les ammonites boréales des formations néo-

comiennes du Sud-Est français (Province subméditerranéenne).

Geobios, 10, 395–461.

Vašíèek Z., Michalík J. & Reháková D., 1994: Early Cretaceous

stratigraphy, palaeogeography and life in western Carpathians.

Beringeria, 10, 3–169.

Whitehouse F.W. & Brighton A.G., 1924: Notes on some Neoco-

mian Cephalopoda from Speeton. Naturalist, London, 1 Dec.

1924, 359–360.

Wick W. & Wolburg J., 1962: Wealden in NW-Deutschland. In: Ar-

beitskreis deutscher Mikropaläontologen: Leitfossilien der Mik-

ropaläontologie. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin-Nikolassee,


Wilpshaar M., 1995a: Direct stratigraphic correlation of the Ver-

cors carbonate platform in SE France with the Barremian stra-

totype by means of dinoflagellate cysts. Cretaceous Research,

16, 273–281.

Wilpshaar M., 1995b: Applicability of dinoflagellate cyst stratigra-

phy to the analysis of passive and active tectonic settings.

(Thesis Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utre-

cht). Geologica Ultraiect., 134, 132.

Wimbledon W.A. & Hunt C.O., 1983: The Portland-Purbeck junc-

tion (Portlandian-Berriasian) in the Weald, and correlation of

the latest Jurassic–Early Cretaceous rocks in southern En-

gland. Geol. Mag., 120, 267–280.

Wolburg J., 1959: Die Cyprideen des NW-deutschen Wealden.

Senckenberg. Lethaea, 40, 223–315.

Worssam B.C. & Ivimey-Cook H.C., 1971: The stratigraphy of the

Geological Survey borehole at Warlingham, Surrey. Bull. Geol.

Surv. Gr Br., 36, 1–146.