GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 50, 2, BRATISLAVA, APRIL 1999
A TETHYAN-BOREAL CORRELATION OF PRE-APTIAN
CRETACEOUS STRATA: CORRELATING THE UNCORRELATABLES
PHILIP J. HOEDEMAEKER
National Museum of Natural History, POB 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands; email@example.com
(Manuscript received October 8, 1997; accepted in revised form June 16, 1998)
Abstract: Because of the high provinciality of the marine biota during the pre-Aptian Cretaceous times, there is no
hope of a precise correlation of Tethyan with Boreal successions by means of biostratigraphy alone. Correlations with
a detail as shown in the correlation schemes presented here, can be achieved only with the combination of all available
correlation tools such as biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy.
Key words: Tethyan-Boreal correlation, pre-Aptian Cretaceous, biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, sequence
stratigraphy, Spain, France, Germany, England.
Tethyan depositional sequences should be supported
by as many biostratigraphical and magnetostratigraphi-
cal correlating ties as possible.
Correlation of depositional sequences
It appears (see folded chart in enclosure) that all deposi-
tional sequences determined in the Tethyan Río Argos
succession (Caravaca, SE Spain) (Hoedemaeker & Leerev-
eld 1995; Hoedemaeker 1995, 1996, in press) can be re-
trieved and identified not only in SE France (sections of
Berrias, La Charce and Angles) (Hoedemaeker, in press),
but also in the Boreal pre-Aptian Cretaceous in north Ger-
many and in England.
The interpretation of the pre-Aptian sequences in the
Río Argos succession and their correlation with those in
SE France (Hoedemaeker 1999) are not repeated again here.
The lithological columns published by Giraud (1995) and
the authors observations were used in the sequence-
stratigraphic interpretation of the French sections. Only
one more sequence, BA4', was determined in the upper
Barremian of the Río Argos succession, the highstand sys-
tems tract of which is a rather isolated condensed set of
limestone/marlstone beds amidst a siliciclastic sandy tur-
bidite succession. Hoedemaeker (1999) slightly changed
the sequence-stratigraphic interpretation of the Berriasian
stratotype of Jan du Chêne et al. (1993). These changes are
maintained here; they better match with the magnetostrati-
graphic/sequence-stratigraphic correlation of the English
Purbeck Formation and the Berriasian stratotype.
The magnetostratigraphic interpretation of the strato-
type of the Berriasian Stage in SE France (Galbrun & Ras-
plus 1984; Galbrun 1985; Galbrun et al. 1986) and of the
Purbeck Beds of the Durlston Succession in S England
(Ogg et al. 1991; Ogg et al. 1994, 1995) permit a far better
correlation of these successions than was previously pos-
sible. This correlation could be made more precise by
means of sequence stratigraphy. In the correlation
The most recent biostratigraphical correlations of Tethy-
an with Boreal pre-Aptian Cretaceous successions are:
For the Berriasian: Hoedemaeker 1987, 1991;
For the Valanginian: Kemper et al. 1981; Hoedemaeker 1987;
For the Hauterivian: Kemper et al. 1981;
For the Barremian: Kakabadze 1983;
For the entire pre-Aptian: Rawson 1995.
The latter is the most recent correlation of Tethyan
and Boreal pre-Aptian strata, which clearly shows how
rough and imprecise the biostratigraphic correlation still
is. The precise correlations proposed here deviate in
many respects from this correlation.
The above correlations show that, because of the
high provinciality of the marine biota during pre-Aptian
Cretaceous times, there are very few reliable biostrati-
graphic tie-points between the Tethyan and Boreal
realms. Fossils common to both realms are very scarce.
The Boreal marine pre-Aptian Cretaceous strata have al-
ways been considered hardly correlatable by biostrati-
graphic means with the Tethyan standard succession,
the Purbeck and Wealden successions are even virtually
uncorrelatable. A better correlation cannot be expected
by biostratigraphic means only. If more precise and more
detailed correlations are required, magnetostratigraphy
and sequence stratigraphy should be used as additional
correlation tools. Such a correlation is attempted in this
paper and is the principle aim of the multidisciplinary
biostratigraphic and sequence-stratigraphic investiga-
tion of the Lower Cretaceous succession along the Río
Argos near Caravaca, SE Spain the so-called Río Ar-
gos Project, an ongoing research project of the National
Museum of Natural History of the Netherlands, lately in-
corporated in IGCP Project 362: Tethyan and Boreal Cre-
taceous Correlation. In order to perform such a correla-
tion, a sequence-stratigraphic analysis of the Boreal
pre-Aptian succession has to be made, which has not
been done before. The correlation of the Boreal and
schemes presented here, the depositional sequences and
magnetostratigraphic zones of the Purbeck Formation and
Berriasian stratotype fit very well.
Since a sequence-stratigraphic interpretation of most Bo-
real sections is still lacking or inadequate, a Tethyan-Bore-
al correlation is only possible after an interpretation was
made of the precise stratigraphic positions of the various
depositional systems tracts in the Boreal sections of En-
gland and northern Germany. Such an interpretation can
only be done in sections which have been accurately mea-
sured and lithologically described in great detail, and from
which the bed-by-bed fossil content is known. Such de-
scriptions furnish all data necessary to form a well-found-
ed interpretation of the sequence-stratigraphic boundaries.
Such well-described Boreal sections are known. These are:
1. The Speeton Clay near Speeton (Valanginian-Barremi-
an), England (Neale 1960, 1962a,b, 1968; Rawson 1970;
Rawson & Mutterlose 1983; Mutterlose 1983) (Figs. 25).
2. The the German Wealden in the Isterberg 1001 bore-
hole (Strauss et al. 1993) (Fig. 6).
3. The Valanginian in Sachsenhagen (Kemper 1961; Mut-
terlose 1984) and Suddendorf (Kemper 1961; Below 1981),
Germany (Fig. 7).
4. The Hauterivian in the Moorberg clay pit near
Sarstedt, Germany (Mutterlose 1984) (Fig. 8).
5. The Barremian in the Gott clay pit near Sarstedt, Ger-
many (Mutterlose 1983, 1984) (Fig. 9).
6. The Purbeck and Valanginian successions in the Neu-
châtel region (Switzerland) and southern Jura Mountains
(France) (Strasser 1988, 1994; Darsac 1983; Arnaud, per-
sonal communication) (Fig. 10).
7. The section along the Mittellandkanal near Pollhagen,
Germany (Quensel 1988) (Fig. 11).
8. The Purbeck in Dorset, England (Anderson & Bazley
1971; Anderson 1985; Wimbledon & Hunt 1983; Hunt 1985,
1987; Strasser, personal communication).
9. The Wealden of the Warlingham borehole, England
(Worssam & Ivimey-Cook 1971; Anderson 1985; Feist et al.
The major part of this article concerns a sequence-strati-
graphic interpretation (including short argumentations) of
these lithologically and biostratigraphically well-described
boreal sections. For most of the Boreal successions this in-
terpretation is new and allows a correlation with the Medi-
terranean successions at a level of detail which has never
been possible before. Several additional sections were
studied of which the data are not as detailed as the above
mentioned, but from which additional correlation data
could still be gathered. The correlations do not contradict
the biostratigraphic correlations on the basis of ammonites
(Kemper et al. 1981; Hoedemaeker 1987, 1991; Kakabadze
1983; Rawson 1995) and dinoflagellate cysts (Leereveld
1995); the correlations are supported by 25 first and last
occurrences of dinoflagellate cysts.
The Boreal Realm contains a few stratigraphic intervals
for which there are no detailed logs, for instance the
Katzberg Member and the upper B Beds of the Speeton
section. The depositional sequences shown for these units
in the correlation schemes are inferred.
How to read the correlation scheme (see folded
chart in enclosure)
The first column on the left and the seventh column on
the right of the correlation chart represent the Tethyan
successions along the Río Argos in SE Spain and of the
Vocontian trough in SE France respectively. The se-
quences of these two columns are drawn in accordance
with the interpretation of Hoedemaeker (1999). The col-
umns between these two Tethyan ones represent Boreal
succesions except the sixth column, which represents the
shallow Berriasian and Valanginian successions of the
southern Jura Mountains in France and Switzerland and
the Hauterivian ammonite zones of Argentina, as described
by Aguirre-Urreta & Rawson (1997). The second column
exhibits the sequences of German successions: the peritid-
al Katzberg Member, the Serpulit Member, the Bückeberg
Formation, and the marine successions (Hils Formation
and its lateral equivalents) beginning with the Valanginian
Platylenticeras Beds up to the basal Aptian. Column 3
shows the sequences of the peritidal Purbeck and Wealden
Formations in southern England. Column 4 shows the se-
quences of the Speeton Clay Formation in eastern En-
gland. The fifth column shows the English ammonite
The vertical axis of the correlation schemes does not rep-
resent a time-scale in which equal lapses of time have the
same lengths, but represents the rate of sedimentation in
the Río Argos succession, which is rather variable.
The most striking feature of the correlation schemes is
the large hiatuses, represented by shaded blocks. These
hiatuses correspond to the lowstand systems tracts, which
are preserved in the Río Argos succession but not in some
of the Boreal successions, where they represent times of
non-deposition (sediment bypassing or emergence). The
rate of deposition of the lowstand systems tracts in the Río
Argos succession is estimated to be approximately twice
to thrice as large as of the transgressive and highstand
systems tracts. This would imply that the time of deposi-
tion of the lowstand systems tracts is about the same as
the time of deposition of the transgressive and highstand
systems tracts together.
The white blocks between the shaded blocks represent
the preserved parts of the depositional sequences; they
represent times in which actual deposition occurred. The
deposits of each white block generally correspond to the
transgressive and highstand systems tracts together. How-
ever the presence of a transgressive systems tract cannot
be ascertained everywhere; in many cases only an un-
known part of the transgressive systems tract may be pre-
served or even only the highstand systems tract, for in-
stance in the peritidal Purbeck and Wealden successions.
Only in those cases in which it has definitely been shown
that only the highstand systems tract is preserved, it is
presented as such. In all other cases the entire transgres-
sive and highstand systems tracts are drawn, which makes
many of the white blocks larger than they should be.
About 50 % of the successions considered here are not
preserved and in the peritidal deposits of the Purbeck and
A TETHYAN-BOREAL CORRELATION: CORRELATING THE UNCORRELATABLES 103
Wealden successions still more is missing. The hiatuses
may span unknown biostratigraphic zones and boundaries
of biostratigraphic units. For instance the lower boundary
of magnetozone M17r is still unknown, but probably situ-
ated in the middle of the Subalpina Subzone. In correlation
schemes these hiatuses must not be neglected.
Another striking feature is the light-shaded stripes at the
sequence boundaries BE3, BE7, VA4, HA3, HA7, BA2,
AP2. These boundaries were interpreted as representing
rapid and extra deep sea-level falls, which are of much larg-
er amplitude than those around most other sequence
boundaries (Hoedemaeker 1995). These falls are attended
by considerable extinctions of ammonite species followed
by the appearance of many new species. They can be re-
garded as type 1 sequence boundaries and are without ex-
ception directly preceded by extra high sea-level stands, in
which fossils abound. These sharp deep falls of the sea
level can readily be discerned in any succession that em-
braces a sufficient lapse of time, even when the sequence-
stratigraphic signal is weak, as for instance in condensed
deep-pelagic successions. They form a strong and reliable
correlation tool. The so-called Late Kimmerian Unconfor-
mity (Be7) (Rawson & Riley 1982) and the DHo-Disconti-
nuity (Ha3) (Kemper 1992) are well-known Boreal examples.
The standard ammonite zones used in the schemes (fold-
ed chart in enclosure) were established at the meetings of
the International Lower Cretaceous Cephalopod I.G.C.P.-
Team in Digne (Hoedemaeker & Bulot 1990), Mula (Hoede-
maeker & Company 1993) and Piobbico (Hoedemaeker &
Cecca 1995). The only deviations are the Valanginian
Campylotoxus Zone in France (column 7) being subdivided
in accordance with the recent ideas of Atrops & Reboulet
(1995) and Reboulet (1995), and the Barremian Caillaudi-
anus Zone in accordance with the ideas of Company et al.
It should be noted that the lower boundaries of the lower
Hauterivian Jeannoti ammonite subzone and Nodo-
soplicatum Zone in La Charce (France) occur at levels
which differ from those along the Río Argos (Spain); this is
interpreted as due to collection failure in France. Also, ac-
cording to the correlations proposed here it turns out that
the base of the Gottschei Zone in England is situated at a
lower level than in Germany, and that the English Inversum
Zone does not exactly cover the German Aegocrioceras
As for the ammonite zones, it should be noted that the
beds assigned by Hoedemaeker (in: Hoedemaeker & Leer-
eveld 1995; Hoedemaeker 1999) to the Aptian Deshayes-
ites Zone (designated by the letter D) in the Río Argos
succession, in reality belong to the Weissi Zone. It has
been corrected in the correlation scheme.
The short horizontal lines with bed numbers in columns
2 and 7 represent the boundaries of the various systems
tracts in Germany and SE France respectively.
I recently (Hoedemaeker 1999) changed my interpreta-
tion of the stratigraphic positions of the sequence bound-
aries Ba2 and Ba3 in the Barremian stratotype section near
Angles (column 7). On the basis of peaks in the sporomor-
ph/dinoflagellate cyst ratio (Wilpshaar, personal communi-
cation) sequence boundary Ba2 should be drawn at the
top of limestone bed 129 instead of 136, and Ba3 on top of
limestone bed 135 instead of 143. There are no hiatuses in
the sequences Ba2 and Ba3 in the Angles section; these
sequences are only condensed. These changes were cor-
rected on the correlation scheme (see folded chart in en-
The Sables turbiditiques roux is a thick reddish sand-
stone intercalation separating the basal part of the Fuhri
Subzone from the lower part of the Pronecostatum Horizon
with a slight angular unconformity in the La Charce section
in SE France (column 7). The few limestone beds intercalat-
ed within this slumped sandstone body yielded the ammo-
nites Busnardoites campylotoxus and Karakaschiceras
biassalensis characteristic for the Campylotoxus Zone, but
did not yield ammonites that characterize the Verrucosum
Horizon. Though generally thought to be time equivalent
to the Calcaire roux or to the Formation de Bourget, the
Sables turbiditiques roux are here thought to represent ei-
ther the lowstand systems tract deposited above sequence
boundary Va3', on account of the ammonites they contain,
or the lowstand systems tract directly above type 1 se-
quence boundary Va4, because they are directly overlain
by the lower part of the Pronecostatum Horizon. In the lat-
ter case the ammonites should be reworked and the whole
unit would have been deposited during the Pronecostatum
time. The latter interpretation would also explain why the
Sables turbiditiques roux produced such a big erosion
channel, but cannot explain the absence of reworked Verru-
cosum Zone ammonites. It rather represents the erosion
products of the Calcaire roux instead of being equivalent
to it. The so-called Petit Lumachelle in the Carejuan sec-
tion in SE France is directly overlain by the Verrucosum
Horizon and represents the lowstand systems tract of se-
It should finally be noted that the Boreal ammonites
(black triangles in column 7) invaded the Tethyan Realm
generally during sea-level lowstands, whereas Tethyan am-
monites invaded the Boreal Realm generally during high-
stands. This suggests a one-way traffic in the Polish Strait:
during lowstands from the north, during highstands from
the south. It must also be emphasized that almost all Boreal
ammonites present in the Mediterranean region invaded
the Tethyan Realm during the Valanginian, which may indi-
cate a cooler climate during that time.
For the Boreal marine successions the belemnite zones
are also given, and for the English Wealden succession the
ostracod zones of Anderson (1985). The Chara assem-
blage zones are given for the lower Purbeck Beds. The mu-
tual correlation of the English, German and Swiss Chara
assemblages by Feist et al. (1991), Feist et al. (1995); Detraz
& Mojon (1989) and Schudack (1996) is quite different from
the correlation with the help of sequence stratigraphy and
ostracods as presented here. More study is necessary.
The signs E1 to E6 in the second column refer to the six
most prominent shaly intercalations between the pre-Ap-
tian Cretaceous sandstones in the subsurface of northern
Germany (Kemper 1992). Some of these intercalations are
referred to as Zwischenmittel (= substance in between).
The bases and tops of the preserved parts of the depo-
sitional sequences (white blocks) in column 3 are corre-
lated with the named faunicycles of Anderson (1985), but
this should be considered a mere approximation of the
stratigraphic levels of the sequence boundaries. As these
faunicycles provide the finest subdivision of the Purbeck
and Wealden successions, they represent the finest bios-
tratigraphic resolution; we cannot be more precise. If a
faunicycle comprises only one saline phase (S phase)
overlain by one freshwater phase with Cypridea (C
phase) it may correspond to one parasequence. However,
most faunicycles comprise more than one S/C doublets,
the number of which has not been published. It must be
realized that in many cases the sequence boundaries are
situated within a faunicycle as is apparent from the de-
tailed logs of the Warlingham borehole.
Each column has a white strip on the right side in which
all relevant biostratigraphic information is given. The first
) and last (
) occurrences of fossils are marked, as well
as some single occurrences (
). The first and last occur-
rences of the ostracods from the English Purbeck and
Wealden (column 3) are given according to Anderson
(1985) and those of the Wealden in Germany (column 2)
mainly from Wolburg (1959) and, to a lesser extent, Elstner
& Mutterlose (1996). The latter use a slightly different tax-
onomy and in the schemes the taxonomy and synonymy of
Anderson is used. In the white strip along column 5 the
various proposals for stage boundaries are marked. From
the scheme it becomes obvious that the boundaries clos-
est to the type 1 sequence boundaries are the most natural
stage boundaries, because the changes among the fossil
species are the most rapid and the biochrono-stratigraphic
definitions of the boundary stratotypes are therefore easy
to give and easy to recognize in other sections. In shallow
depocenters they are preserved as hiatuses, which are also
natural and easily traceable boundaries.
In the white strips along columns 3 and 7 the magneto-
stratigraphies of Ogg et al. (1994a,b) and Galbrun et al.
(1985), respectively, are depicted. It should be noted that
the magnetostratigraphy of the Berriasian stratotype as
presented by Jan du Chêne et al. (1993) deviates in several
details from those presented by Galbrun in 1984, 1985 and
1986. The magnetostratigraphy of the basal Valanginian
Otopeta Zone is the one of Ogg et al. (1988). The magneto-
stratigraphy of the remainder of the Valanginian is the one
published by Besse et al. (1986) and discussed in the the-
sis of Boisseau (1987).
In the white strip along column 6 the stratigraphic posi-
tions of the type 1 sequence boundaries are shown, but
also the numbered depositional discontinuities (Di1 to Di3)
discerned in the shallow carbonate Berriasian to Valangin-
ian sediments by the French in the southern Jura Moun-
tains (Darsac 1983; Boisseau 1987). These discontinuities
are now recognized as representing maximum flooding sur-
faces (Arnaud, personal communication). In the white strip
along column 7 the discontinuities discerned by Autran
(1989) are marked (DVm, DVs, DZl).
In the following the sequence-stratigraphic interpreta-
tion of the Boreal pre-Aptian successions presented in the
correlation chart is elucidated. Each Boreal sequence
boundary is given the code of the Mediterranean se-
quence boundary with which it can be correlated. First the
interpretation of the English sequences will be given,
which is necessary to interpret the sequences of the Ger-
man Wealden succession.
Sequence-stratigraphic analysis of the English
sections (Columns 3, 4, 5)
1. Purbeck Beds in South England: Berriasian (col-
umn 3) (Fig. 1)
Magnetostratigraphic investigations of the Purbeck
Limestone Formation of the Durlston section in southern
England (Ogg et al. 1991; Ogg et al. 1994, 1995) and of the
stratotype section of the Berriasian Stage (Galbrun & Ras-
plus 1984; Galbrun 1985; Galbrun et al. 1986) permit correla-
tion of the Purbeck Limestone with the uppermost Titho-
nian, Berriasian and lowermost Valanginian. In addition
Hunt (1987) documented characteristics of dinoflagellate
cyst and acritarch associations in the Purbeck formations
of the Durlston section. The peaks in the dinoflagellate
cyst diversity given by Hunt are here inferred to reflect
highstand systems tracts; the bases of the intervals with
low dinoflagellate cyst diversity on top of these diversity
peaks are interpreted as representing sequence bound-
aries. The positions of the sequence boundaries in relation
to the various polarity chrons in the Purbeck Succession
precisely match those in the Berriasian stratotype. This
strengthens the reliability of the Boreal-Tethyan correla-
tion of the Berriasian succession.
1. Ogg et al. (1994) and Ogg et al. (1995) showed that magneto-
zone M19r is situated within the Broken Beds, which means that it
correlates with the Mediterranean Durangites Zone (Ogg et al.
1984). The gypsum-bearing Broken Beds are therefore interpreted
as the transgressive systems tract and the fully marine lower part of
the Cypris Freestones on top of the latter as the highstand systems
tract of the latest Jurassic sequence below sequence boundary Be1 at
the base of the Jacobi Zone. The sequence boundary of Be1 should
be situated on top of the fully marine lower part of the Cypris
2. Sequence Be1 comprises the brackish, more marly upper part
of the Cypris Freestones interpreted as the transgressive systems
tract, and the Hard Cockle Limestone Bed interpreted as the high-
stand systems tract. The basalmost part of the succeeding marly
Soft Cockle Beds shows a high microplankton diversity peak and is
interpreted as the topmost part of the highstand systems tract. The
Hard Cockle Bed is situated within polarity chron M19n.
3. The next sequence (Be1) is rather thin and merely represents
the lower part of the Soft Cockle Beds below the gypsum beds. The
bed just below the gypsum shows a microplankton diversity peak and
is interpreted as the topmost part of the highstand systems tract.
4. The base of the gypsum beds is considered to represent a se-
quence boundary Be2; the gypsum beds themselves are interpreted
as the transgressive systems tract of this sequence. Sequence Be2 is
topped by the Mammal Bed. The lower part of the Marly Fresh
Water Beds just below the Mammal Bed is considered to represent a
highstand systems tract, because it shows a peak in the diversity of
A TETHYAN-BOREAL CORRELATION: CORRELATING THE UNCORRELATABLES 105
microplankton. The gypsum beds and the part of the Soft Cockle
Beds directly above it embrace polarity chron M18r. The upper
part of sequence Be2 embraces polarity chron M18n, which is trun-
cated by the hiatus of the Mammal Bed.
5. The Mammal Bed represents a very important emergence ep-
isode, during which a thick soil layer was formed in which a famous
collection of vertebrate remnants has been found. It correlates with
the channelled erosion surface overlying the Lower Purbeck in the
Weald area. This bed is therefore interpreted as representing the se-
quence boundary of Be3, a type 1 sequence boundary. The Mammal
Bed is situated within the Ashdown faunicycle (Morter 1984). Se-
quence Be3 comprises the upper part of the Marly Fresh Water
Beds, the Cherty Fresh Water Beds and the Cinder Bed, which clear-
ly represents the highstand systems tract of sequence Be3. The
next sequence boundary, Be 4, is just above the diversity peak of
the microplankton in the top part of the Cinder Bed. The Fresh
Water Beds above the Mammal Bed are situated in the polarity
chron M17r, which is truncated by the Mammal Bed hiatus. There-
fore the Fresh Water Beds correlate with the lower part of the Sub-
alpina Subzone. The upper part of the Subalpina Subzone and the
lower part of the overlying Privasensis Subzone in the stratotype
of the Berriasian Stage have not been analysed magnetostratigraph-
ically by Galbrun (1984). As the Cinder Bed correlates with the
highstand systems tract in the upper part of the Subalpina Subzone,
it implies that the upper part of the Subalpina Subzone should be
situated within polarity chron M17n, as is the Cinder Bed.
6. The next microplankton diversity peak is situated in the mid-
dle of the Intermarine Beds and represents the top highstand sys-
tems tract of sequence Be4. It probably represents the so-called
Royal event of Morter (1984), which is followed immediately by
sequence boundary Be4. The lower Intermarine Beds are situated
within polarity chron M17n.
7. The Scallop Bed is interpreted as representing the highstand
systems tract of sequence Be4 and is characterized by a microplank-
ton diversity peak. The sequence boundary of Be5 is situated just
above the Scallop Bed. The upper Intermarine Beds are situated with-
in polarity chron M16r. The base of M16r coincides with the base of
the Dalmasi Subzone in the stratotype of the Berriasian Stage. The
Scallop Bed is probably situated at the base of M16n.
8. Sequence Be5 embraces the Corbula Beds, which are topped by
a microplankton diversity peak representing the highstand systems
tract. The Corbula Beds are situated within polarity chron M16n.
Fig. 1. The magnetostratigraphic analysis of the Purbeck Formation (Ogg et al. 1991) makes it possible to correlate this formation with
the stratotype of the Berriasian Stage in France. The microplankton associations and diversities studied by Hunt (1987) make it possible to
do a sequence stratigraphic analysis, which exactly matches the sequences of the Berriasian Stage in the stratotype section and in the suc-
cession along the Río Argos (Hoedemaeker & Leereveld 1995; Hoedemaeker 1999). Mikroplankton associations: 1a freshwater to
brackish; 1b brackish lagoon; 2a,b,c,d restricted, brackish to shallow marine; 3 shallow marine.
The boundary between the Horsham Phase and the
Henfield Phase is also characterized by a marked ostra-
cod faunal change (Anderson 1985) and therefore tenta-
tively correlated with the type 1 sequence boundary of
Ha3 in the upper part of the Nodosoplicatum Zone just be-
low the boundary between the lower and upper Hauterivi-
an. The sequences of the Horsham Phase itself are the re-
sult of scientific guessing since no lithological log was
Topleys bed 5 (the numbering of Worssam & Ivimey-
Cook 1971 is used here, not the numbering of Feist et al.
1995), a prominent sandstone bed at the top of the Hen-
field Phase, is tentatively correlated with the top part of the
last and highest highstand systems tract below the type 1
sequence boundary in the uppermost Hauterivian Ha7. It is
interpreted as a latest highstand subaerial complex, which
is characterized by fluvial sediments deposited during a
relative sea-level stillstand and built-up above sea level,
enabling the fluvial systems to maintain their optimum
equilibrium gradient as the highstand systems tract pro-
grades seaward. The sand and the pellets (at depth 1325/8)
in the upper part of the Bonnington faunicycle are also in-
terpreted as such. Topleys bed 6, a limestone bed (at
depth 1252) with large Paludina (= Viviparus fluviorum),
is interpreted as a maximum flooding surface.
Topleys bed 7, another prominent sandstone interval, is
interpreted in the same way as Topleys bed 5 and is corre-
lated with the highest highstand systems tract directly be-
low type 1 sequence boundary Ba2 (sharp top lined with a
pebble bed at depth 1219/8). So, the type 1 sequence
boundaries could readily be indicated.
In addition, the four thin pebble beds in the Henfield
Phase that contain pebbles or coarse quartz grains, are in-
terpreted in the same way. They are correlated with the
topmost parts of the highstand systems tracts: at depths
of 1450 ft./6 in. in the lower part of the Plumpton faunicy-
cle, 1442 ft. at the top of the Ockley faunicycle, 1430 ft./6
in. at the top of the Newdigate faunicycle, 1416 ft., i.e. 8
inches above the top of Topleys bed 5 within the Capel
faunicycle. The ironstone beds (at depths of 1513 ft./11 in.,
1105 ft./4 in., 1076 ft./4 in., 1066 ft./10 in.) are interpreted as
marking the transgressive surfaces of depositional se-
quences. Beds with marine fauna or with Filosina and
Cyrene are interpreted as maximum flooding surfaces.
In this way many sequences of the Wealden Clay were
reconstructed. It appears that the numbers of sequences
thus found between the type 1 sequence boundaries Ha3,
Ha7, Ba2 and from there up to the base of the Aptian, are
the same as in the Río Argos succession in SE Spain. This
suggests that the correlation proposed is realistic.
There is one biostratigraphic correlation possible:
Cribroperidinium boreas enters just above Cement Bed
number 4, in bed 138 of the Gott section in Germany (beds
with Hemicrioceras rude) and in the Warlingham borehole
at 1078 ft./1 in. depth, two feet below the ironstone bed
(Harding 1990). These beds were already correlated with
each other through sequence-stratigraphic considerations
before the detection of this biostratigraphic tie, which thus
supports the correlation achieved.
9. The next sequence embraces the Chief Beef Beds and the
Broken Shell Limestone. The latter contains a peak in the mi-
croplankton diversity and represents the top part of the high-
stand systems tract of sequence Be6. It is topped by the sequence
boundary of Be7. The upper part of the Chief Beef Beds, and pos-
sibly also the Broken Shell Limestone, are situated within polarity
10. The lower part of the Upper Cypris Clays and Shales falls
within polarity chron M15n and correlates with the Valanginian
Otopeta Zone. The upper part of the Upper Cypris Clays and
Shales, the Battle faunicycle, is however situated within M14r.
This implies that the sequence boundary of Va1 should be situated
within the upper part of the Upper Cypris Clays and Shales, pre-
sumably between the Tyneham and Battle faunicycles. It coincides
with the last occurrences of Cypridea alta alta, C. setina setina,
and C. obliqua and with the first appearance of C. recta recta.
The Battle faunicycle is the top part of the Purbeck For-
mation in its stratotype area. The base of the type
Wealden, however, correlates with the base of the Broken
Shell Limestone, which is appreciably lower. The types of
the Purbeck and Wealden formations overlap (Morter
1984). For convenience the description of the Wealden in
the next paragraph begins with the Hastings faunicycle
overlying the Battle faunicycle.
It appears that the distribution of magnetozones in the
Lower and Middle Purbeck sequences are exactly the
same as in the stratotype of the Berriasian Stage, thus
supporting the inter-realmal correlation, but also the num-
ber and stratigraphic position of the sequence bound-
2. The Wealden succession in the Warlingham borehole:
Valanginian, Hauterivian and Barremian (Column 3)
The correlation of this succession is rather tentative
because of a scarcity of means of biostratigraphic corre-
The base of the Weald Clay has traditionally been corre-
lated with the base of the Hauterivian. I followed this as-
sumption and considered it as a calibration point. Conse-
quently the Hastings Beds are regarded as Valanginian in
The ostracod faunal change at the base of the Cypridea
aculeata ostracod zone was typified by Anderson (in ap-
pendix B of Worssam & Ivimey-Cook 1971) as one of the
most evident in the whole Purbeck-Wealden succession.
This faunal change coincides with a significant change in
sedimentation. Below, the lithology is more akin to that of
the Purbeck Beds, i.e. predominantly shale with limestones
whilst above it the sandstones, silts and clays of the
Wealden are most common. The Lindfield Cycle is the ho-
rizon at which the change becomes evident. This faunal
change is here interpreted as the expression of a type 1 se-
quence boundary in the upper Valanginian, i.e. Va4, in the
basal part of the Pronecostatum Horizon. The changing
frequency of ostracods and the schematic lithological col-
umns depicted by Anderson (1985) were used to interpret
the sequence-stratigraphic signal.
A TETHYAN-BOREAL CORRELATION: CORRELATING THE UNCORRELATABLES 107
3. Speeton section parts E and D: Valanginian (Col-
umns 4 and 5) (Figs. 2 and 3)
The uppermost highstand systems tracts of the various
sequences in this part of the Speeton Clay Formation can be
picked out quite easily with the help of the distribution of
foraminifers (Fletcher 1973) and ostracods (Neale 1962b),
and by the variations in the amount of pyrite (Neale 1968) at
exactly the same levels. These three different lines of evi-
dence lead to one and the same sequence-stratigraphic in-
1. Foraminiferal fauna 5 in beds D8D7E. The base of the Spee-
ton Clay Formation is considered to be represented by the so-called
Late Kimmerian Unconformity, which separates Kimmeridgian
clays from late Ryazanian clays. The transgression on top of the
unconformity begins with the coprolite bed E. Foraminiferal fauna
5 with only species of Haplophragmoides, a restricted fauna of
arenaceous foraminifers, begins in bed D8 immediately above the
coprolite bed. Bed D7G yielded the first dinoflagellate cyst Oli-
gosphaeridium diluculum and the last Kleithriasphaeridium poro-
sispinum (Heilmann-Clausen 1987), the association of which is
characteristic of the Stenomphalus Zone. In the Río Argos succes-
sion O. diluculum appears at the base of the lowstand marls just
above bed Y234. The top of bed Y234 is the type 1 sequence
boundary of Be7, which is considered equivalent to the so-called
Late Kimmerian Unconformity in the North Sea. Beds E-top
D5E3 comprise one depositional sequence, Be7, and embraces also
foraminifer fauna 4.
Foraminiferal fauna 4 in beds D7D to top D6 (a similar division
can be made with ostracods). It is interpreted here that during the
deposition of bed D7E the water gradually became more aerated,
for bed D7E yields the first ammonite and the first dinocyst
Pseudoceratium pelliferum, bed D7D has the first foraminifer of
foraminiferal fauna 4. Bed D7E may be equivalent to the base of
the Valhall Formation in the subsurface of the northern North Sea.
The whole bed D6 contains many ostracods, many foraminifers and
much pyrite, and can be interpreted as a highstand systems tract.
Bed D6I may be the maximum flooding surface, because it contains
the peak in the abundance of ammonites. The lowest part of bed
D5, i.e. levels D5E4+3, is barren of foraminifers, has the relatively
poorest pyrite content and is considered to represent the shallow
deposits in the top part of the highstand systems tract. Sequence
boundary Va1 and the transgressive surface are interpreted to be on
top of level D5E3, which represents a paleontological break (Neale
1968); above this level the pyrite content increases again.
With respect to the position of the Stenomphalus Zone in rela-
tion to the so-called Late Kimmerian Unconformity, stratigra-
phers seem to be confronted with the problem of two different
rockunits that have been given the same age, but which have differ-
ent stratigraphic positions: one above and the other below the
Late Kimmerian Unconformity. So something must be wrong.
In its type area the Stenomphalus Zone is characterized by the
concurrence of the last K. porosispinum and Gonyaulacysta sp. A,
and of the first O. diluculum and overlies an important unconfor-
mity, which separates Kimmeridgian strata from upper Ryazanian
strata. The same situation exist in the Speeton section and in the
southern North Sea (Lott et al. 1989), where strata with K. poro-
sispinum and O. diluculum (according to Heilmann-Clausen 1987;
Davey 1982 these species occur in bed D7G) overlie a hiatus which
separates them from Kimmeridgian strata. In the northern part of
the North Sea, however, a stratigraphic unit characterized by (Dav-
ey 1979) the concurrent range of the last Gonyaulacysta sp. A
(which starts its range in the Kochi Zone) and the first O. dilucu-
lum is situated directly below the Late Kimmerian Unconformity.
It is called the Stenomphalus Maximum Flooding Surface (Parting-
ton et al. 1993).
In the northern part of the North Sea the Late Kimmerian Un-
conformity is considered to be at the base of the Valhall Forma-
Fig. 2. Section through the lower D beds of the Speeton Clay near
Speeton (ED5); modified after Neale 1962.
tion. The tectonic event producing this unconformity caused the
relatively restricted and stagnating bottom waters of the North Sea
to be flushed by well-oxygenated waters from outside the area. Ac-
cording to Rawson & Riley (1982) this event is situated below the
Stenomphalus Zone, as is the case in the onshore situation. Howev-
er, according to Partington et al. (1993) the characteristic
Stenomphalus dinoflagellate cyst association is situated below this
event in the northern North Sea.
In fact there are only two solutions to the problem. Either the
true Late Kimmerian Unconformity in the northern North Sea
subsurface is situated still undetected within a more or less hot
clay succession directly below the Stenomphalus dinoflagellate cyst
association (if this is true, the base of the Valhall Formation would
be merely an oxygenating event), or there is a stratigraphic unit
situated directly below the Late Kimmerian Unconformity and
confusingly called Stenomphalus MFS which is not time-equiva-
lent to the Stenomphalus ammonite zone (= transgressive systems
tract of sequence Be7), but instead time-equivalent to the Tethyan
upper Picteti Subzone (= highstand systems tract of sequence Be6).
The latter solution is preferred here. The upper Picteti highstand
systems tract is one of the highest sea-level stands of the Berriasian
Stage and it would be strange if the corresponding depositional sys-
tems tract is not preserved in the North Sea; it is definitely not
preserved onshore. If this stratigraphic unit is preserved in the
northern North Sea, it may be characterized by a similar, but not
the same, dinoflagellate cyst association to that of the Boreal
Stenomphalus association. If the Stenomphalus MFS below the
Late Kimmerian Unconformity really correlates with the upper
Picteti Subzone, O. diluculum would start its range in this strati-
graphic unit instead of in the true Stenomphalus Zone directly
above the Late Kimmerian Unconformity. The presence of O. di-
luculum in the Río Argos succession at a level very close to the
Late Kimmerian Unconformity at the base of the lowstand systems
tract (Leereveld 1997), which is not preserved in the Boreal Realm
but is correlatable with levels appreciably below the Icenii Zone,
may point in this direction. The Icenii Zone is a Remanié Horizon
at the base of the Stenomphalus Zone and contains only fossils that
are reworked from older stratigraphic units.
The English Kochi Zone was correlated by Hoedemaeker (1987,
1991) with the Tethyan Privasensis/Dalmasi subzones. It contains
the ammonite Borealites cf. fedorovi. However, since it represents
the lowest preserved transgressive deposits of the Ryazanian (the
Runctoni Zone is merely based on phosphatic ammonites reworked
in the basal part of the Kochi Zone), it correlates better with the
worldwide large upper Berriasian transgression at the beginning of
the Paramimouna Subchron. The so-called fedorovi-beds within
the Kochi Zone sensu lato (Hoedemaeker 1987, 1991) may there-
fore better correlate with the transgressive systems tract of se-
quence Be4 near the base of the Paramimouna Subzone. The Sibe-
rian Constans Subzone and the Buchia okensis Zone in British
Columbia may correlate with the maximum flooding interval of the
same sequence (= Be 4).
2. Foraminiferal fauna 3 in beds D5E2 to top D4D. Level D5E2
yielded the first foraminifers of foraminiferal fauna 3. The base of
bed D4D contains much pyrite and should therefore still be inter-
preted as forming part of the highstand systems tract. The upper
part of bed D4D is devoid of foraminifers and should, by analogy
with the levels D5E4+3, be considered to represent the shallowest
deposits in the top part of the highstand systems tract, it is devoid
of pyrite. The sequence boundary of Va1' and the transgressive sur-
face of the overlying sequence should be situated on top of D4D.
Foraminifers reappear in level D4C6.
3. The sequence comprising levels D4C6D4C2. These levels
still form part of foraminifer fauna 3. Level D4C2 is devoid of for-
aminifers and is interpreted as representing the shallow deposits in
the topmost part of the highstand systems tract, but also represent-
Fig. 3. Section through the upper D beds of the Speeton Clay
near Speeton (D4D1); modified after Neale 1960. The whole
section consists of clay. Beds D1, D3A, and D3E contain lime-
stone nodules and are prominent marker beds. Beds D2a and D2c
are strongly mottled. The other prominent marker bed is D2D,
which is highly glauconitic; black phosphatic nodules occur at its
base; this base is packed with belemnites and other macrofossils.
The small fossil symbols denote Exogyra sinuata. Sequence
boundary Va2 is situated just below the column shown here.
ing the basal sediments of the overlying sequence, since it contains
the first specimens of a new ostracod fauna (Neale 1962b). The se-
quence boundary of Va2 and the trangressive surface of the overly-
ing sequence is situated within level D4C2. The overlying level
D4C1 yielded the first foraminifers of foraminiferal fauna 2.
A TETHYAN-BOREAL CORRELATION: CORRELATING THE UNCORRELATABLES 109
4. Beds D4C2D3C represent the next sequence of which the for-
aminifers-barren bed D3C is interpreted as representing the upper
highstand systems tract. This bed contains the highest percentage of
light fraction, siderite crystals, much pyrite and many remains of
Serpula. The sequence boundary of Va3 and the transgressive surface
of the next sequence are situated on top of bed D3C.
5. Beds D3BD2E embrace the next sequence. It constitutes the
upper part of foraminiferal fauna 2. Sequence boundary Va3' is on
top of bed D2E, which represents a large hiatus with an important
paleontological break. Bed D3A may be the maximum flooding sur-
face; it contains brown nodules and much pyrite. Bed D2D and
higher are of Hauterivian age.
4. Speeton section D2D to LB5E: Hauterivian (Fig. 4)
In principle, the pale clay beds are interpreted as shal-
lower water deposits than the dark clay beds, so that sud-
den changes from dark bed sets (sets of beds in which
dark clay dominates) to pale bed sets (sets of beds in
which pale clays dominate) are candidates for sequence
boundaries. Relatively abundant occurrences of ammo-
nites are interpreted as representing more condensed de-
posits than the sediments in which the ammonites are rela-
tively scarce. Abrupt changes in ammonite composition
are also interpreted as candidates for sequence bound-
aries. The sea-level highstand systems tracts are clearly
recognizable and often contain ammonites which immigrat-
ed from the Tethys. By determining these highstand sys-
tems tracts the sequences could be reconstructed.
1. The first highstand systems tract comprises bed D1 because of
the abundance of ammonites and the presence of Tethyan taxa (Ol-
costephanus sp.). The abrupt end of this abundance marks the se-
quence boundary of Ha1 on top of bed D1. This horizon is biotur-
2. The second highstand systems tract comprises bed C9D be-
cause of the dark colour of the clay. The abrupt appearance of
many new ammonite species in the overlying pale bed C9C marks
sequence boundary Ha2 on top of C9D; this top is bioturbated.
3. The third highstand systems tract is bed C8B because of the
abundance of ammonites and of the dark colour of the clay. The
ammonite fauna contains several Tethyan taxa. An abrupt change
in the ammonite fauna on top of C8A marks the sequence bound-
ary of Ha2'. This change marks the base of the Inversum Zone.
4. The fourth highstand systems tract comprises bed C7H. The
fauna in this bed is quite different from that in the underlying beds
and is abruptly separated by the sequence boundary of Ha3 from the
overlying bed and fauna. This sequence boundary marks the transi-
tion from a fauna with warm-water organisms to a pure cold-water
fauna, which begins with a pale clay. Bed C7H comprises the whole
sequence; the glauconite in this bed is reworked.
These four sequences are relatively thin, which implies
a relatively slow deposition. This is also indicated by the
relative richness in ammonites. The two next sequences,
the fifth and sixth, are relatively thick and rather poor in
ammonites. This implies rapid deposition during that time.
5. The fifth highstand systems tract comprises beds C6C5K
because of the abundance of fossils, among which are Tethyan
species, and the dark colour of the clay. Sequence boundary Ha4 is
chosen at the bioturbated top of the first pale bed C5J.
Fig. 4. Section through the Hauterivian of the Speeton clay succes-
sion near Speeton (D2DLB5E); modified after Rawson 1970.
6. The sixth highstand systems tract comprises beds C4LG be-
cause of the dark colour of the clay and because of the presence of
ammonites. C4L is considered the maximum flooding surface as it
contains several ammonites; they mark the beginning of the
Gottschei fauna. The sequence boundary of Ha5 is placed below the
first pale bed C4F on top of a bioturbated bed.
The next two highstands are relatively thin again and
contain many ammonites.
7. The seventh highstand systems tract is bed C3 because of the
abundance of ammonites of the Margaritatus Zone, and the pres-
ence of many Echinospatangus. Although it is a highstand systems
tract, bed C3 is very pale instead of dark, which means that there
had been a change in environment. Apparently most of the dysaer-
obic deeper waters had disappeared. It seems that the extreme aver-
age high sea level caused an influx of well-oxygenated water. The
sequence boundary of HA6 was placed at the base of the abrupt fau-
nal change at the top of C2D. This faunal change marks the base of
the Variabilis Zone.
8. The eighth highstand contains the dark clay beds LB5E+D.
The glauconite bed LB5E yields the last Hauterivian Simbirskites.
LB5D yielded already flattened ammonites resembling Crioceratites
(Paracrioceras) rarocinctum, from which it can be inferred that
the Hauterivian/Barremian boundary sensu Hoedemaeker (1996)
(i.e. in the middle of the Pseudothurmannia beds at the base of the
Catulloi Zone), is probably situated between LB5E and LB5D. The
sequence boundary of HA7 is considered to be on top of bed LB5C,
which consists of pale clay and is barren of foraminifers (Fletcher
1973), and is therefore considered to represent the shallow facies
characteristic of the top part of highstand systems tracts. The Vari-
abilis Zone has been put into the basal Barremian (Kemper et al.
1981) merely on account of the presence of Paracrioceras spathi
in bed C2C. Because of the similarity of the ornamentation this
species has been considered close to Emericiceras thiollierei
(Kemper et al. 1981), which is restricted to the Barremian. Howev-
er, P. spathi is not an Emericiceras, because the latter genus is
characterized by a very open initial spire, has a very slow increase
in whorl height and has a compressed whorl section; P. spathi does
not show these characteristics and therefore is no basis for includ-
ing the Variabilis Zone in the Barremian.
5. Speeton section LB5B to lowest 2 Cement Beds:
Barremian (Fig. 5)
1. The first highstand above HA7 comprises beds LB4D to LB3E
and yielded a few ammonites Crioceratites (Paracrioceras) cf.
rarocinctum and C. (P.) cf. occultum. Beds LB4B, LB4A, and
LB3E consist of pale clay and contain a level without foraminifers,
bed LB4A (Fletcher 1973). They are therefore interpreted in a
similar way as bed LB5C, as the top highstand systems tract. The
sequence boundary of Ba1 is considered to be on top of LB3E.
2. The second highstand comprises at least bed LB3A, which also
yielded a few ammonites, viz. Hoplocrioceras cf. phillipsi and C.
(P.) fissicostatum. The sequence boundary of Ba1' is considered to
be on top of bed LB3A.
3. The third highstand consists of dark clays with pyrite. It con-
tains the ammonites C. (P.) fissicostatum and, at two levels, C. (P.)
cf. varicosum. The sequence boundary of Ba2 is considered to be
situated at the base of the first group of pale coloured beds on top
of bed LB1F.
4. The fourth highstand also consists of dark clays with pyrite
and ammonites, Barremites sp. and C. (P.) elegans at two levels.
The sequence boundary of Ba3 should be drawn on top of bed LB1A
Fig. 5. Section through the Lower B Beds and Lower Cement Beds
(Barremian) of the Speeton clay succession near Speeton (LB6
bed CB6); modified after Rawson & Mutterlose 1983.
A TETHYAN-BOREAL CORRELATION: CORRELATING THE UNCORRELATABLES 111
at the base of the next shallow, pale coloured bed, which is at the
base of the first, double, cement bed (bed 50 = cement bed 7).
5. The fifth highstand consists of dark clays with pyrite and am-
monites and comprises bed 47 (= directly above cement bed 6). The
sequence boundary of Ba3' is on top of this bed and is followed by a
pale coloured clay bed, bed 46.
A sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the higher
Cement Beds and the Upper B Beds is not possible be-
cause of the lack of detailed lithological and paleontolog-
ical descriptions. The subdivision into sequences is
Sequence-stratigraphic analysis of the German
sections (column 2)
1. Katzberg Member, Serpulit Member and Bückeberg
Formation (Figs. 6 and 7).
The Isterberg 1001 borehole described by Strauss et al.
(1993), is the best log of the Bückeberg Formation de-
scribed in the literature. The sequences can be interpreted
with the aid of the palynology and palynofacies records
from this borehole. The depositional sequences as inter-
preted by Strauss et al. (1993) are largely followed. It is
thought that the lowstand systems tracts are not pre-
served because of the extremely shallow depositional set-
ting and that the Bückeberg Formation is a stacking of
mainly highstand systems tracts. The intervals with abun-
dant degraded terrestrial matter are interpreted here as ter-
restrial freshwater deposits prograding basinward in the
highest parts of highstand systems tracts. The tops of the
intervals with abundant degraded organic matter are inter-
preted as sequence boundaries/transgressive surfaces.
The thin or absent transgressive systems tracts and the
maximum flooding episodes exhibit clean palynofacies as-
semblages and the blocky claystone beds are the most
frequent type of lithology in these assemblages.
The correlation of the sequences can only be done after
correlation with the Purbeck-Wealden succession in En-
gland by means of ostracods. The correlation with the En-
glish Purbeck and the Tethyan Río Argos succession are
discussed in Leereveld & Hoedemaeker (in prep.).
The sequences drawn in the correlation chart (see folded
chart in enclosure) in the Katzberg Member are attribut-
able to pure inference. The appearance of Cypridea inver-
sa was chosen as the base of the correlation chart. This
species appears at the base of the Cypris Freestones but
also low in the Katzberg Member. These levels were corre-
lated with each other. On account of magnetostratigraphy,
the basal part of the English Purbeck Beds up to a level
within the Cypris Freestones correlates with the Tethyan
Durangites Zone (Ogg et al. 1994a,b). A similar age can
therefore be inferred for
the basal part of the Katzberg
Member and for the entry of C. inversa.
On account of the presence of the ostracods Cypridea dunkeri
dunkeri (= C. sowerbyi) and C. posticalis, the Serpulit Member cor-
relates with the lower part of the Middle Purbeck (Anderson &
Hughes 1964), or, more precisely, with the upper Ashdown,
Swanage, Netherfield and Durlston faunicycles. The Mammal Bed,
within the Ashdown faunicycle (Morter 1984), represents the most
prominent emergence episode during Purbeck times and most likely
corresponds to type 1 sequence boundary Be3. This level correlates
with the base of the Serpulit Member. The top part of the Serpulite
Member can be correlated with the Durlston faunicycle (Anderson
& Hughes 1964; Anderson & Bazley 1971; Anderson 1985); this
cycle and the highest part of the Serpulit Member contain the
overlap of the ranges of Cypridea posticalis and C. granulosa fas-
ciculata (Klingler et al. 1962; Anderson 1985).
The correlation of the Cinder Bed with the lower part of the
German Wealden 1 has been made by Anderson & Hughes
Fig. 6. Wealden succession in Isterberg Borehole 1001; modified
after Strauss et al. 1993.
(1964), by Anderson & Bazley (1971) and by Anderson (1973)
on the basis of ostracods. In this paper the Cinder Bed is correlat-
ed with the blocky claystones and shell beds in the upper part of
Wealden 1. The sequence boundary of Be4 is considered to be situ-
ated a few metres above the base of Wealden 2, at 340 m depth
along the core.
The Middle Purbeck Scallop Beds, a quasi marine interval
amidst brackish to freshwater deposits in England, is marked by
the entry of Cypridea dolabrata s.l., C. brevirostrata, C. rectidor-
sata, C. bimammata (Anderson 1962; Anderson & Bazley 1971;
Anderson 1985). On the basis of these ostracods this level corre-
lates with the highest part of the German Wealden 2. This
means that the sequence boundary, interpreted as being at the top
of the interval with degraded organic matter in the middle of
Wealden 2, should represent the sequence boundary of Be4' (316
m depth). This implies that the sequence boundary considered to
top the thin interval of degraded organic matter at the base of
Wealden 3 should represent the sequence boundary of Be5
(depth 288 m).
The sequence boundary of Be6 is not readily apparent, but is in-
terpreted as occurring at 270 m depth along the core. The di-
noflagellate cyst peak at 276.1 m depth represents the maximum
flooding surface that in France has been called Discontinuité 1
(Di1). The maximum flooding surface drawn by Strauss et al.
(1993) at 233 m depth is not interpreted as a maximum flooding
The base of the Lulworth faunicycle, which comprises the Up-
per Broken Shell Limestone at the base of the Upper Purbeck in
England, is marked by the entry of Cypridea setina setina (= C.
setina ovata). According to Wolburg (1959) this species also ap-
pears in the middle of Wealden 3 in Germany. As the Broken
Shell Limestone Bed represents the highest prograding part of the
highstand systems tract of sequence Be6, this would imply that
the Upper Broken Shell Limestone apparently correlates with the
interval of degraded organic matter in the middle of Wealden 3.
This would also mean that the sequence boundary on top of this
interval with degraded organic matter (at 252 m depth) should be
the type 1 sequence boundary of Be7, the so-called Late Kimme-
rian Unconformity. This unconformity seems to coincide with
the well-known K-horizon of the Schlumberger resistivity curve
of the Bückeberg Formation (Wick & Wolburg 1962; also appar-
ent from fig. 5 in Strauss et al. 1993), which near the basin mar-
gins seems to be onlapping. According to Wolburg (1959) C. alta
alta and C. setina s.l. appear just below the K-horizon, which is in
accordance with the appearances of these taxa in England, i.e.
just below the sequence boundary of Be7. The ranges for C. alta
alta and the subspecies of C. setina given by Elstner & Mutterlose
(1996) are quite different from those of Anderson (1985) and
Wolburg (1959). As to C. alta alta: Anderson & Bazley (1971)
state that forms similar to this species occur in the Scallop fauni-
cycle, which would explain the early start of the range of C. alta
alta according to Elstner & Mutterlose (1996) in the highest part
of Wealden 2.
The dinocyst acme at 220.6 m depth along the core would rep-
resent the maximum flooding surface that in France is called Dis-
continuité 2. This dinoflagellate cyst acme contains the concur-
rence of Amphorula delicata and Kleithriasphaeridium fasciatum,
which occur together only in the upper part of the Be7 sequence
in the Tethyan Realm. Between 220.7 and 221.5 m depth the co-
occurrence of the ostracods Cytheropterina triebeli and
Schuleridea juddi permits a correlation with Speeton Bed D6
(Neale 1962b) in the upper part of sequence Be7.
The next sequence boundary, that of Va1, should be drawn on
top of the thick interval of degraded matter at 153 m depth along
the core. The boundary between Wealden 4 and 5 is character-
ized by the disappearance of Cypridea alta alta, C. setina setina,
Fig. 7. Platylenticeras Beds at Suddendorf; modified after Kemper 1961.
A TETHYAN-BOREAL CORRELATION: CORRELATING THE UNCORRELATABLES 113
and C. obliqua and by the appearance of C. recta recta (Wolburg
1959). This level can therefore be correlated with the top of the
stratotype of the Purbeck Formation in England, which is the
boundary between the Battle and Hastings faunicycles.
The sequence boundary of Va1 is interpreted as occurring on
top of the thin interval with degraded organic matter at 114 m
depth along core. The maximum flooding interval of sequence
Va1 is considered to be represented by the first fully marine am-
monite bearing beds of the Robustum Zone, the lower Platylen-
ticeras Beds. The Robustum highstand systems tract is shallowing
upward into brackish fossil-rich deposits, which are interpreted as
the basinward prograding shallow near-coastal facies in the top
part of the highstand systems tract. The top of this brackish in-
terval is interpreted as sequence boundary Va2 and abruptly over-
lain again by fully marine sediments with many ammonites.
The sequence of Va2 has been referred to by Kemper (1961) as
the second more extensive Valanginian transgression. The se-
quence boundary of Va2 is situated in the lower part of the Het-
eropleurum Zone and sequence Va2 embraces the middle and upper
part of the Heteropleurum Zone and the Involutum Zone. This
depositional sequence yielded the first Dissiliodinium globulum
and Occusicysta tentorium (Below 1981) which also have their
first appearances in the same sequence in the Río Argos succes-
sion. The presence of species of the genus Paratollia (Kemper
1961, 1976, 1992) in the upper part of the Platylenticeras Beds
confirms the correlation of the Platylenticeras Beds with the up-
per part of the English Paratollia Beds. Several species of the gen-
era Propolyptychites, Polyptychites and Euryptychites were also
found above the sequence boundary of Va2 in the upper Platylen-
ticeras Beds (Kemper 1961). None of these genera have been
found yet in the upper Paratollia Beds of the Speeton section
where only one badly preserved specimen of Platylenticeras cf. in-
volutum (Doyle, personal communication). The specimens of
Platylenticeras found in the Mediterranean area are all from se-
quence Va2 (Thieuloy 1973, 1977) and are restricted to the low-
stand systems tract.
The base of the Bentheimer Sandstone is interpreted as the se-
quence boundary of Va3, the main sandstone body as the lowstand
systems tract of sequence Va3.
2. The middle Valanginian of Northern Germany
For this stratigraphic interval no detailed log is available.
The appearance of Saynoceras verrucosum slightly above
the base of the Hollwedensis Zone (Kemper et al. 1981)
provides a good correlation with the base of the Mediterra-
nean Verrucosum Zone. The top of the Bentheimer Sand-
stein, i.e. the base of the Erectum Zwischenmittel, is a
well-known transgressive event, which corresponds to the
top lowstand surface just below the base of the Verruco-
sum Zone. The Erectum Zwischenmittel itself represents
the transgressive and highstand systems tracts of se-
quence Va3'. Bartenstein & Bettenstaedt (1962) and
Kemper (1978, 1987) repeatedly emphasized the important
faunal break at the top of the Erectum Zwischenmittel,
which is directly followed by the second mass influx of
Tethyan taxa. This level is interpreted to represent type 1
sequence boundary Va4.
The Romberg Zwischenmittel, a shaly intercalation
within the Bentheimer Sandstein (Kemper 1992), should
consequently correlate with the high sea-level stand
(transgressive and highstand systems tracts of sequence
Va3) in the upper part of the Campylotoxus Zone, equiva-
lent to the Eristavites platycostatus Subzone.
The genus Polyptychites is present from the top low-
stand surface of sequence Va2 to the top of sequence Va3'
in the Boreal as well as in the Tethyan Realm (Thieuloy
1973, 1977). Prothocythere hannoverana has the same
range in Germany and England (Bartenstein & Betten-
steadt 1962; Neale 1962b). The first occurrences of Prodi-
chotomites and of the ostracod Protocythere praetriplica-
ta are situated in sequence Va3' in both realms (Donze
1976; Cotillon 1971; Bartenstein & Bettensteadt 1962;
Thieuloy 1973, 1977).
3. The uppermost Valanginian and lowermost
Hauterivian along the Mittellandkanal near Pollhagen
The maximum flooding surfaces in this stratigraphic inter-
val are recognized only by the ammonite frequency peaks
shown by Quensel (1988: fig. 11) and the lowstand systems
tracts by the frequency minima between the peaks.
The most prominent peak-frequency of the ammonites is
situated at the base of the Noricum Zone, which is therefore
considered to coincide with a maximum flooding surface.
There are two other peak-frequencies, viz. in the middle
of the Bidichotomoides Zone and near the base of the
Paucinodum Zone. The upper part of the Bidichoto-
moides Zone and the upper part of the Paucinodum Zone
are therefore interpreted as highstand systems tracts.
Deep lows in the megafossil frequency are situated in
the Ivanovi Zone and in the lower Amblygonium Zone.
The Ivanovi Zone and the lower Amblygonium Zone are
therefore interpreted as lowstand systems tracts. The
lowstand systems tract in the Ivanovi Zone contains a
peak in detrital quartz grains.
Also the Grenzsandstein is interpreted as an expres-
sion of a lowstand systems tract, and this is an argument
for the assumption of the Grenzsandstein being time-
equivalent with the lower Amblygonium Zone. Another
argument is that the first Endemoceras has been found
by the oil geologists in Emsland at a level just below the
upper dentation of the so-called BH-dentations (Kemper
1992), which mark the Schlumberger resistivity curve of
The higher part of the German Amblygonium Zone con-
tains the level in which the first Acanthodiscus radiatus
has been found (which by definition is the base of the
Hauterivian) and the Grenzsandstein therefore probably
represents the lowstand systems tract at the top of the
Valanginian; thus the lower part of the Amblygonium
Zone is of Valanginian age. The two peak-frequencies of
ammonites below the Amblygonium Zone, viz. of the Pau-
cinodum and Bidichotomoides zones, should therefore
correspond to the highstands in the top and at the base
of the Furcillata Horizon respectively. This is in accor-
dance with the range of Olcostephanus densecostatus,
which starts in the Furcillata Horizon and is abundantly
present in the Paucinodum Zone (Bulot 1992).
The Crassus and Triptychoides zones are considered
to correlate with two transgressive/highstand systems
tracts between the Bidichotomoides and Polytomus high-
stands and should as a matter of course correspond to
the highstands determined in the lower Peregrinus and
lower Nicklesi horizons.
As a consequence of these correlations the ranges of
Varlheideites perigrinus in Germany and in France coin-
cide exactly with each other, as do the first appearances
of Dichotomites and of Protocythere frankei (ostracod)
and the last occurrence of Protocythere praetriplicata
(ostracod) (Bartenstein & Bettenstaedt 1962; Donze
1976). The entry of P. triplicata in the Paucinodum Zone
(Niedziolka 1988) also correlates with its appearance in
the Tethyan Furcillata Horizon (Donze 1976). Thus, there
is good biostratigraphic support for the correlation of the
sequences in this stratigraphic interval.
4. Sequences in the Moorberg clay pit near Sarstedt
(Germany) (Fig. 8)
The principle sequence-stratigraphic line of thought
followed with respect to the analysis of this clay succes-
sion is that the dark-grey clay intervals represent sedi-
ments deposited during relative sea-level highstands,
when the rising anoxic/dysoxic, cool deeper waters
reached the local depositional level, whereas the light-
grey clay intervals represent sediments deposited during
relative sea-level lowstands in better oxygeneted, shal-
lower, warmer waters. Moreover, in such clayey succes-
sions the sea-level highstand systems tracts generally
have a relatively high lime content because of the con-
centration of calciflora due to condensation. The bases of
the intervals in which dark-coloured clay beds dominate,
are interpreted as maximum flooding surfaces; the bases
of the intervals in which light-coloured clay beds domi-
nate, are interpreted as sequence boundaries. When dark-
grey beds cyclically alternate with light-grey beds, the
former are interpreted as deposited on top of marine
flooding surfaces and the dark-light couples as parase-
This means that the following (groups of) beds in the
Moorberg clay pit are interpreted as highstand systems
1) The lower part of the Noricum Zone (bed 99). The sequence
boundary of Ha1 on top of bed 99.
2) The middle part of the Regale Zone (beds 9087). The se-
quence boundary of Ha2 on top of bed 87.
3) The lower part of the upper Regale Zone (beds 83 + 82).
Maximum flooding surface in bed 83. The sequence boundary of
Ha2' on top of bed 82, which has a high lime content (i.e. more
condensed) and a bioturbated top. Sequence Ha2' begins with beds
with a relatively low lime content (i.e. less condensed).
4) The upper part of the Regale Zone (beds 8074). The type
1 sequence boundary of Ha3 on top of bed 74. This is the level of
the so-called DHo discontinuity of Kemper (1992) interpreted
by him as an important global regressive/transgressive event at-
tended by an important faunal turnover.
5) The lower part of the Staffi Zone (bed 72). The sequence
boundary of Ha4 on top of bed 72.
6) The upper part of the Staffi Zone (beds 6459). The se-
quence boundary of Ha5 on top of bed 59.
7) The upper part of the Gottschei Zone and the basal part of
the Discofalcatus Zone (beds 39 to 13). The glauconite-bearing
bed 1 is maximum flooding surface (correlates with bed 50 of the
Gott section). The sequence boundary of Ha6 on top of bed 13
marks the end of a bioturbated interval.
8) The uppermost part of the Discofalcatus Zone (bed 24).
the type 1 sequence boundary of Ha7 on top of bed 24.
9) The Rarocinctum Zone (beds 29 to 34). The sequence
boundary of Ba1 on top of bed 34.
10) The lower Fissicostatum Zone (beds 36 to 48) (Chon-
drites Beds). Sequence boundary on top of bed 48.
11) The upper Fissicostatum Zone (bed 50) (Hauptblätterton).
The type 1 sequence boundary of Ba2 on top of bed 50.
5. Sequences in the Gott clay pit near Sarstedt
(Germany) (Fig. 9)
The same sequence-stratigraphic line of thought as in
the Moorberg clay pit is used to determine the sequences
in the Gott clay pit. The following (groups of) beds are in-
terpreted as highstand systems tracts:
1) The upper part of the Gottschei Zone and lower part of the
Discofalcatus Zone (beds 5057). The sequence boundary of Ha6
on top of bed 57.
2) The upper part of the Discofalcatus Zone (beds 6971). The
type 1 sequence boundary of Ha7 on top of bed 71. This level
corresponds to a faunal caesura (Mutterlose 1984).
3) The Rarocinctum Zone (beds 7982). The sequence bound-
ary of Ba1 on top of bed 82.
4) The lower Fissicostatum Zone (beds 8498). The sequence
boundary of Ba1' on top of bed 98.
5) The upper Fissicostatum Zone (bed 100) (Hauptblätterton).
The type 1 sequence boundary of Ba2 on top of bed 100.
6) Bed 109115, interpreted to be the Elegans Zone. The se-
quence boundary Ba3 on top of bed 115.
7) Bed 117, interpreted to represent the Denckmanni Zone.
The sequence boundary of Ba3' on top of bed 117.
8) Bed 135137 (= beds with Hemicrioceras rude according to
Kemper, personal communication in Heilmann-Clausen & Thom-
sen 1995). The sequence boundary of Ba4 on top of 137. (Beds
126132 = beds with Crioceratites sparsicostata according to
Kemper, personal communication in Heilmann-Clausen & Thom-
9) Bed 185, possibly equivalent to the Stolley Zone. The se-
quence boundary of Ba4' on top of bed 185.
10) Bed 191198, presumably Bidentatum Zone. The sequence
boundary of Ba5 on top of bed 198.
Berriasian and Valanginian of the Swiss and
French Jura Mountains (column 6)
It is difficult to detect sequences in very shallow marine
limestones. In such facies lowstand systems tracts are not
preserved. For the middle and upper Berriasian Stage and
the Valanginian Stage the sequence stratigraphic interpre-
tation by Arnaud (personal communication) in the Cham-
botte section (southern Jura) was used. For the lower Ber-
A TETHYAN-BOREAL CORRELATION: CORRELATING THE UNCORRELATABLES 115
riasian the section of the Goldberg Formation was used
(Strasser 1988, 1994). Strasser interpreted the beds of the
Goldberg Formation as an expression of the Milankovitch
cyclicity and numbered the 100,000 year cycles (Fig. 10).
1. Ostracods of the Goldberg Formation indicate a correlation
with Andersons (1985) ostracod assemblages 2 and 3 (Detraz &
Mojon 1989) of the Lower Purbeck of England. This means that
the lowest sequence boundary, at the base of cycle 17, should be
considered to be equivalent to Be1. The base of cycle 17 has been
Fig. 8. Section through the Hauterivian of the Moorberg clay pit near Sarstedt; modified after Mutterlose 1984.
chosen as a sequence boundary because it shows brecciation and cal-
crete has formed on top of it. This bed is the first subtidal oolite
grainstone bed on top of an intratidal bed with algal mats and dess-
2. The next sequence boundary, that of Be1, is placed on top of
cycle 22 which is slightly evaporitic. Calcrete has also formed here
on top of the bed signifying emersion. Cycle 22 is overlain by the
first subtidal rudstone bed and underlain by a set of intratidal beds.
3. The next sequence boundary, that of Be2, is placed at the top
of cycle 24, which is brecciated, topped by calcrete and was subaeri-
ally exposed. It is slightly evaporitic and is probably a sabkha de-
posit. It forms the top of a set of supratidal beds with much Chara-
Fig. 9. Section through the Barremian of the Gott clay pit near Sarstedt; modified after Mutterlose 1984.
A TETHYAN-BOREAL CORRELATION: CORRELATING THE UNCORRELATABLES 117
remains and is overlain by a subtidal bed. It seems to be the base of
Chara Zone M1b (Detraz & Mojon 1989) and of ostracod assem-
4. The sequence boundary which tops the Goldberg Formation is
the type 1 sequence boundary of Be3 and is inferred to be on top of
cycle 32, which shows dessiccation polygons. This sequence bound-
ary is followed by the Pierre Châtel Formation the base of which is
generally thought to be equivalent to the Oolitische Mergel und
Kalk Zone (= Unité inférieur oolithique). The lacustrine interval in-
tercalated within this fully marine unit is interpreted as representing
the prograding top part of the highstand systems tract of sequence
Be3, which is equivalent to the Cinder Bed in England. Ostracods
support this correlation (Detraz & Mojon 1989).
The sequence-stratigraphic interpretation of the Pierre
Châtel, Vions, Chambotte and Bourget formations is largely
in accordance with the interpretation of Arnaud (personal
communication, 1992), which is based on the detailed facies
analyses of Darsac (thesis 1983). The few modifications in-
troduced here result from the recognition of three more se-
quences, Be4', Va1', and Va 3', in this stratigraphic interval.
The stratigraphic position of the famous Astieria Mer-
gel (= Marnes à Astieria) in the Neuchâtel area (Switzer-
land) was solved by Bulot 1992, who showed that the dom-
inant species in the Astieria Mergel is Olcostephanus
guebhardi and that the biostratigraphically significant os-
tracod is Protocythere praetriplicata. This implies that the
Astieria Mergel correlates with the top part of the
Campylotoxus Zone and/or with the Verrucosum Horizon
and that it was deposited during the high sea-level stand
of sequence Va3.
The Hauterivian succession in the Neuquén Basin
in Argentina (column 6)
In this scheme we used the Austral-Tethyan correlation
of the Hauterivian as proposed by Aguirre-Urreta & Raw-
son (1997), who correlated the Argentinian Holcoptychites
neuquensis Zone with the Mediterranean Acanthodiscus
radiatus Zone. Their correlations were largely followed
here with the exception of the Avilé Sandstone. For, from a
sequence-stratigraphic point of view it is preferred here to
relate the Avilé Sandstone to the type 1 sequence bound-
ary of Ha3. This deviates from the correlation by Aguirre-
Ureta & Rawson. It is interpreted here that the fluvial Avilé
Sandstone represents the prograding top part of the high-
stand systems tract during the rapid and extra deep fall of
the sea level at the close of sequence Ha2'. As a conse-
quence the Spitidiscus ricardii Zone should correlate with
the Cruasense Horizon in France and with the Spitidiscus
rotula level in England instead of with the Mediterranean
Nodosoplicatum Zone. It is a matter of course that the
Paraspiticeras groeberi Zone has a lowest Barremian age.
The correlation of the other Argentinian zones is merely in-
The lowest Aptian sequences
The works of Casey (1961) and Kemper (1967) were con-
sulted for the lowest Boreal Aptian. Casey illustrated the
stratigraphic succession of the Lower Greensand of Ather-
field, Isle of Wight. The abundance of fossils may indicate
that the highest part of the Perna Beds represent a maxi-
mum flooding interval. The overlying Atherfield Clay and
Lower Lobster Bed may represent the highstand systems
tract of the same sequence, which should be Ba5. The
sandstone of the Crackers is intercalated within a predomi-
nantly clayey succession (= the so-called Atherfield Clay
Series of Casey 1961) and can be interpreted as represent-
ing the highest shallowing-upward part of the highstand
systems tract. The overlying clays of the Upper Lobster
Bed represent the highstand systems tract of the next se-
quence (Ap1) (Hesselbo et al. 1990). These clays are over-
lain by the Ferruginous Sands, the lowest part of which be-
Fig. 10. Section through the Goldberg Formation (Berriasian)
near Salève (France); modified after Strasser 1994.
longs to the Deshayesites deshayesi Zone. The strong
lithological change from the Atherfield Clay Series to the
Ferruginous Sands is interpreted as a direct consequence
of the type 1 sequence boundary Ap2.
If this sequence-stratigraphic interpretation is true, the
correlation with Germany may be as follows: The German
beds with Prodeshayesites bodei in the lower part of the
Prodeshayesites tenuicostatus Zone (P. tenuicostatus
(Koenen) is a younger synonym of P. fissicostatus (Phil-
lips)) are not preserved in England, whereas the middle and
upper parts of the Prodeshayesites tenuicostatus Zone
without P. bodei correlates (1) with the English Perna
Beds, which are included in the English Prodeshayesites
fissicostatus Zone, and also (2) with the overlying De-
shayesites forbesi Zone. As the German Fischschiefer
should represent the highest sea-level highstand directly
before the type 1 sequence boundary of Ap2 (Hoedemaek-
er 1995; Kemper 1995), it should be incorporated in the up-
per part of the Tenuicostatus Zone and should correlate
with the Upper Lobster Beds in the upper part of the En-
glish Forbesi Zone. This highstand systems tract is direct-
ly followed by the first appearance of Leupoldia cabri in
the Río Argos sucession as well as in northern Germany
(Kemper 1995). The Fischschiefer correlates with the Selli
Level (Hoedemaeker 1995; Kemper 1995), which is also di-
rectly followed by the first appearance of L. cabri. The
sea-level fall corresponding to the type 1 sequence bound-
ary of Ap2 caused the drowning of the Urgonian platform
in SE France.
It should be noted that the Aptian beds of the Río Ar-
gos succession marked by the letter D were assigned to
the Deshayesi ammonite Zone because of the presence of
the first Cheloniceras (Hoedemaeker & Leereveld 1995);
this is erroneous because Cheloniceras is already
present in the Weissi Zone (Delanoy 1995). The Weissi
Zone should therefore be extended up to the sequence
boundary of Ap2.
The various biostratigraphic events and fossil
The first and last occurrence data of the dinoflagellate
cysts that occur in the Boreal as well as in the Tethyan
Realm and that are relevant to a Boreal-Tethyan correlation,
were added in the white strips alongside the columns only
after the correlation of the depositional units by sequence
stratigraphy was finished. They can therefore be consid-
ered a confirmation of the correctness of this correlation.
The dinoflagellate cysts are the best biostratigraphic corre-
lation tools available at this moment, and therefore of the
Río Argos, LO bed Y240 (Leereveld 1997a)
Isterberg, LO depth 220.6 m (Strauss et al. 1993)
La Buissière, SE France, FO lowest part of Sayni Zone (Londeix
Speeton, FO bed C7E (Leereveld 1995)
Boring Konrad 101, FO middle part of Aegocrioceras beds (= mid-
dle of transgressive systems tract) (Prössl 1990)
Fig. 11. Section along the Mittellandkanal near Pollhagen: frequency distribution of macrofossils; modified after Quensel 1988. Hatch-
ing: ammonite frequency; dotted: frequency of other macrofossils. The vertical scale is logarithmic.
A TETHYAN-BOREAL CORRELATION: CORRELATING THE UNCORRELATABLES 119
Río Argos, LO bed A131 (Leereveld 1997b)
Speeton, LO bed C2D (Leereveld 1995)
Northern Germany, LO in the lower part of the Gottschei Zone
England, FO in Lamplughi Zone
Purbeck Formation, FO in a buff calcareous shale with ostracods
immediately above the Broken Beds at the base of the Marls with
Gypsum and Insect Beds in the Durlston section (Norris 1985,
referring to his Ph. D. thesis written in 1963).
This is a rather cryptic level, for in old literature the Marls
with Gypsum containing Insect Beds were supposed to begin with
the Cypris Freestones immediately overlying the Broken Beds.
But the Cypris Freestones are marine limestones and not calcare-
ous shales. Arkell (1956), however, who was regarded as an au-
thority on the Purbeck Beds when Norris wrote his Ph. D. thesis,
considered the Marls with Gypsum and Insect Beds to begin
above the limestones of the Hard Cockle Beds (see the correlation
of Arkells subdivision with Bristows subdivision by Norris 1969,
table 2). Nowadays the name Marls with Gypsum and Insect
Beds is not used anymore. Norris apparently used Arkells subdi-
vision when he wrote his Ph. D. thesis, which would mean that
the first B. pomum was found at the base of what is now generally
referred to as Soft Cockle Beds. However, this level is not imme-
diately above the Broken Beds; it may however actually be the
first sample he took above the latter.
Río Argos, LO bed A154 (Leereveld 1997b)
SE France, LO in middle of undivided Angulicostata Zone (= near
top of Ohmi Zone) (Londeix 1990)
Speeton, LO in bed C2D (Leereveld 1995)
Gott, LO in upper part Dicofalcatus Zone (Lutat 1995)
Gott, FO bed 117 (Heilmann-Clausen & Thomsen 1995)
Speeton, FO directly below bed CB6 (Heilmann-Clausen & Thom-
sen 1995; Duxbury 1980)
Río Argos, FO bed A92 (lower part Ligatus Zone) (Leereveld
Vergons, FO bed 108 (lower part Ligatus Zone) (Londeix 1990).
FO in the middle of Staffi Zone (Lutat 1995)
Speeton, FO base of C4 (Davey 1979)
Speeton, FO just below bed CB3 (Harding 1990)
Warlingham borehole, Wealden, FO depth 1078/1 (Harding
Gott, FO in bed 138 (Harding 1990)
Río Argos, FO bed M249 (Leereveld 1997a)
P. heteropleurum Zone, Suddendorf 27 m (Below 1981)
Río Argos, LO bed A170 (Leereveld 1997b)
Speeton, LO bed LB4D (Harding 1990)
Gott, LO bed 78 (Harding 1990)
Río Argos, FO bed A48 (Leereveld 1997b)
Speeton, FO upper part of bed C6 (Leereveld 1995)
Río Argos, LO bed V
45 (Leereveld 1997b)
Speeton, LO just below bed CB3 (Duxbury 1980)
Río Argos, FO bed Y267 (Leereveld 1997a)
Speeton, FO bed D7A (Duxbury 1977)
Berrias, FO bed 198 (Monteil 1993)
Angles, FO bed 170 (Monteil 1993)
Isterberg 1001, FO depth 220.6 m (Strauss et al. 1993)
Río Argos, LO bed Q93 (Leereveld 1997b)
Speeton, LO bed LB1A (Leereveld 1995; Duxbury 1980)
Río Argos, FO bed P11 (Leereveld 1997b)
Top part Amblygonium Zone (Lutat 1995)
Río Argos, FO bed P13 (Leereveld 1997b)
Speeton, FO bed C11 (Davey 1979)
Río Argos, LO bed Q100 (Leereveld 1997b)
Speeton, LO bed LB1A (Leereveld 1995; Duxbury 1980)
Río Argos, FO bed M248 (Leereveld 1997a)
Suddendorf, FO in P. heteropleurum Zone, at 21 m (Below 1981)
Río Argos, FO bed Q93 (Leereveld 1997b)
Speeton, FO bed LB1A (Leereveld 1995)
Angles, FO bed 142 (Wilpshaar 1995a,b)
Río Argos, FO bed Y271 (Leereveld 1997a)
Isterberg 1001, depth 120 m (Strauss et al. 1993)
Oligosphaeridium diluculum (see comments in chapter: Spee-
Speeton, FO bed D7G (Heilmann-Clausen; Davey 1982)
Río Argos, FO bed Y234 (Leereveld 1997a)
Subsurface North Sea, FO in Stenomphalus maximum flooding
surface K. 10 (Partington et al. 1993)
Río Argos, FO bed V
45 (Leereveld 1997b)
Barremian Angles, FO bed 144 (De Reneville & Raynaud 1981)
Gott, FO top part bed 116 (Heilmann-Clausen & Thomsen 1995)
Speeton, FO directly below bed CB6 (Heilmann-Clausen & Thom-
Speeton, FO bed D7E (Lott et al. 1989)
Río Argos, FO bed Y206 (Leereveld 1997a)
Berrias, FO bed 198 (Monteil 1993)
Río Argos, FO bed Y271 (Leereveld 1997a)
Isterberg, FO depth 61.6 m (Strauss et al. 1993)
Río Argos, FO bed A78 (Leereveld 1997b)
Speeton, FO base of C4 (Davey 1979)
Río Argos, LO bed Q100 (Leereveld 1997b)
Speeton, LO bed LB1A (Harding 1990)
Gott, LO bed 109 (Harding 1990)
Ammonite names mentioned in the white strips:
Acanthodiscus bivirgatus (begins its range in the Amblygonium
Zone before the so-called Bivirgaten-Schichten, Mutterlose 1984).
Aconeceras sp. and Heteroceras sp. Speeton: Upper B Beds,
base of Bidentatum Zone (Rawson 1995).
Breistrofferella sp. and n.sp. (depicted as Ammonit indet. by
Kemper 1992): The presence of Breistrofferella is a new still un-
published fact and confirms the correlation of the Boreal upper
Amblygonium and lower Noricum zones with the Tethyan Radia-
tus Zone. The specimens were identified by J. Klein (National
Museum of Natural History of The Netherlands) as Breistrofferel-
la (personal communication).
Barremites sp. In Speeton bed LB1A (Doyle, personal commu-
Crioceratites duvali: First occurrence in the Boreal Realm is at
the same level as in the Tethyan Realm (Kemper et al. 1981).
Dichotomites: The ranges are similar for the Boreal and Tethy-
an Realm (Thieuloy 1973, 1977; Cotillon 1971).
Endemoceras: First occurrence in the Grenzsandstein
Jeannoticeras jeannoti. Speeton: lower part of bed C7H (Doyle
Karakaschiceras biassalense, K. cf. inostranzewi, and Neohop-
loceras submartini. Speeton: base of bed D2D (Kemper et al.
Lytoceras in the Speeton section (Donovan 1957; Whitehouse
& Brighton 1924).
Olcostephanus: Last Boreal occurrence at the DHo discontinui-
ty (Kemper 1985; Rawson 1971). In the Río Argos in the low-
stand systems tract between the beds A34 and A35 just above the
Platylenticeras: The range of this genus in the Tethyan Realm
is shorter than in the Boreal Realm (Thieuloy 1973, 1977). This
genus occurs only in the lowstand systems tract of sequence Va2'.
Platylenticeras cf. involutum. Speeton: bed D4C (Doyle, per-
Polyptychites: The Boreal and Tethyan ranges are nearly the
Prodichotomites: This genus starts its range in the Boreal and
Tethyan realms at the same level (Thieuloy 1977).
Sarasinella cf. trezanensis + Menjaites: Base of Clax by Iros-
tone (Kemper et al. 1981).
Shasticrioceras anglicum. Speeton: bed D1 (Doyle 1963).
Other fossils named in the white strips. They are listed
here in order to know to which group they belong.
Belemnites: Praeoxyteuthis pugio, Hibolithes jaculoides, Acro-
Ostracods (they all belong to the genus Cypridea): C. alta alta,
C. altissima, C. amisia, C. bimammata, C. brevirostrata, C. dola-
brata, C. dunkeri carinata, C. dunkeri dunkeri, C. fasciculata, C.
inversa, C. obliqua, C. posticalis, C. recta recta, C. rectidorsata,
C. setina setina, C. tuberculata adjuncta, C. tumescens tumescens.
Nannoplankton: Calcicalathina oblongata, Cruciellipsis cuvil-
lieri (Boreal last occurrence datum according to Jakubowski
1987), Chiastozygus litteratus (according to Kemper 1995, and
Thierstein 1971, 1976, this species appears just below the Barre-
Acknowledgements: I am grateful for the stimulating dis-
cussions and enthusiastic support of Han Leereveld, who
provided many biostratigraphic ties to the schemes. I am
also grateful to mr. E. Aksoy, E. Bosch, S.B. Blankevoort
and L.R. Jansen for drawing the complicated schemes on
their computer and to mr. R. Malherbe without his manage-
ment this scheme would not have come into being. I also
thank Dr. C.W. Winkler Prins for taking over the production
of the schemes during my illness.
Aguirre-Urreta M. & Rawson P.F., 1997: The ammonite sequence
in the Agrio Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Neuquén basin,
Argentina. Geol. Mag., 134, 449458.
Allen P. & Wimbledon W.A., 1991: Correlation of NW European
Purbeck-Wealden (nonmarine Lower Cretaceous) as seen from
the English type areas. Cretaceous Research, 12, 511526.
Anderson F.W., 1962: Correlation of the upper Purbeck Beds of En-
gland with the German Wealden. Geol. J., Liverpool, 3, 2132.
Anderson F.W., 1973: The Jurassic-Cretaceous transition: the non-ma-
rine ostracod faunas. In: Casey R. & Rawson P.F. (Eds.): The bo-
real Lower Cretaceous. Seel House Press, Liverpool, 101110.
Anderson F.W., 1985: Ostracod faunas in the Purbeck and Wealden
of England. J. Micropalaeont., 4, 168.
Anderson F.W. & Bazley R.A.B., 1971: The Purbeck Beds of the
Weald. Bull. Geol. Sur. Gt Br., 34, 1138.
Anderson F.W. & Hughes N.F., 1964: The Wealden of north-west
Germany and its English equivalents. Nature, 201, 907908.
Arkell W.J., 1956: Jurassic geology of the world. Oliver and Boyd
Ltd., Edinburgh, London, 1 806.
Atrops F. & Reboulet S., 1993: Nouvelles données sur la zonation
par ammonites du Valanginien supérieur de lhypostratotype
dAngles (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) et sur ses corrélations. C.
R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 317, Sér. II, 499506.
Atrops F. & Reboulet S., 1995: Le Valanginien-Hauterivien basal du
bassin vocontien et de la bordure provençale: zonation et cor-
rélations. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 320, sér. IIa, 985992.
Autran G., 1989: Lévolution de la marge nord-est provençale (Arc
de Castellane) du Valanginien R lHauterivien R travers
lanalyses biostratigraphique des séries de la région de Pey-
roules: séries condensées, discontinuités et indices dune tecto-
genèse distensive. Thèse de lUniversité de Nice, 232.
Bartenstein H. & Bettenstaedt F., 1962: Marine Unterkreide (Bore-
al und Tethys). In: Arbeitskreis deutscher Mikropaläontologen:
Leitfossilien der Mikropaläontologie. Gebrüder Borntraeger,
Below R., 1981: Dinoflagellaten-Zysten aus den Platylenticeras-
Schichten (unteres Mittel-Valendis) der Ziegeleitongrube
Schnepper in Suddendorf/Nordwest-Deutschland. Newslett.
Stratigr., 10, 115125.
A TETHYAN-BOREAL CORRELATION: CORRELATING THE UNCORRELATABLES 121
Besse J., Boisseau T., Arnaud-Vanneau A., Arnaud H., Mascle G. &
Thieuloy J.P., 1986: Modifications sédimentaires, renouvelle-
ments des faunes et inversions magnétiques dans le Valanginien
de lhypostratotype dAngles. Bull. Cent. Rech. Explor.-prod.
Elf-Aquit., 10, 365368.
Birkelund T., Clausen C.K., Hansen H.N. & Holm L., 1983: The
Hectoroceras kochi Zone (Ryazanian) in the North Sea Cen-
tral Graben and remarks in the Late Cimmerian Unconformity.
Dan. Geol. Unders., Årbog 1982, 5372.
Boisseau T., 1987: La plate-forme jurassienne et sa bordure subal-
pine au Berriasien-Valanginien (Chartreuse-Vercors). Analyse
et corrélations avec les séries de bassin. Thèse de doctorat de
lUniversité Scientifique Technologique et Médicales de
Grenoble, 31 octobre 1987, 1413.
Bulot L.G., 1992: Les Olcostephaninae valanginiens et hauteriviens
(Ammonitina, Cephalopoda) du Jura franco-suisse: System-
atique et intérêt biostratigraphique. Rev. Paléobiol., 11, 149
Bulot L.G., Thieuloy J.P., Blanc E. & Klein J., 1992: Le cadre strati-
graphique du Valanginien supérieur et de lHauterivien du Sud-Est
de la France: Définition des biochronozones et caractérisation
de nouveaux biohorizons. Géol. Alp., 68, 1356.
Busnardo R., 1965: Le stratotype du Barrémien. In: Colloque sur le
Crétacé inférieur, Lyon 1963. Mém. Bur. Rech. Géol. Min., 34,
Busnardo R., 1984: 1.2. Stratotypes et parastratotypes; 1.3. Ech-
elles biostratigraphiques; 1.3.1. Ammonites. In: Cotillon P.
(Ed.): Crétacé Inférieur. Mém. Bur. Rech. Géol. Min., 126,
Busnardo R. & Thieuloy J.P., 1989: Les ammonites de
lHauterivien jurassien: révision des faunes de la région du stra-
totype historique de létage Hauterivien. Mém. Soc. Neuch.
Sci. Natur., 11, 101147.
Busnardo R., Thieuloy J.P. & Moullade M., 1979: Hypostratotype
mesogéen de létage Valanginien (sud-est de la France). (Eds.):
Comité français de stratigraphie, Editions du C.N.R.S. Les stra-
totypes français, 6, 143.
Busnardo R. & Vermeulen J., 1986: La limite Hauterivien-Bar-
rémien dans la région stratotypique dAngles. C. R. Acad. Sci.
Paris, 302, Sér. II, 7, 457459.
Casey R., 1961: The stratigraphical palaeontology of the Lower
Greensand. Palaeont., 3, 487621.
Casey R., 1973: The ammonite succession at the Jurassic-Creta-
ceous boundary in eastern England. In: Casey R. & Rawson P.F.
(Eds.): The Boreal Lower Cretaceous. Geol. J. Spec. Issue, 5,
Colloque Lyon, 1963: Conclusions générales du Colloque. In: Col-
loque sur le Crétacé inférieur, Lyon 1963. Mém. Bur. Rech.
Géol. Min., 34 (1975), 827834.
Colloque Lyon, 1973: VII. Discussions sur la position de la limite
Jurassique-Crétacé. VIII. Discussion générale préliminaires au
dépôt des motions. In: Colloque sur la limite Jurassique-
Crétacé, Lyon, Neuchâtel, 1973. Mém. Bur. Rech. Géol. Min.,
Company M., Sandoval & Tavera M., 1995: Lower Barremian am-
monite biostratigraphy in the Subbetic domain (Betic Cordille-
ra, southern Spain). Cretaceous Research, 16, 243256.
Congress Copenhagen, 1984: Birkelund T., Hancock J.M., Hart
M.B., Rawson P.F., Remane J., Robaszynsky F., Schmid F. &
Surlyk F., 1984: Cretaceous stage boundaries proposals.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Denmark, 33, 320.
Congress Brussels, 1996: Rawson P.F., Dhondt A.V., Hancock J.M.
& Kennedy W.J. (Eds.): Proceedings Second International
Symposium on Cretaceous Stage Boundaries Brussels 816
September 1995. Bull. Inst. Royal Sci. Natur. Belgique, 66
Cotillon P., 1971: Le Crétacé inférieur de larc subalpin de Castel-
lane entre Asse et le Var. Stratigraphie et sédimentologie.
Mém. Bur. Rech. Géol. Min., 68,1313.
Darsac C., 1983: La plate-forme berriaso-valanginienne du Jura
méridional aux massifs subalpins (Ain, Savoie). Thèse de
lUniversité Scientifique et Médicale de Grenoble (unpublished).
Davey R.J., 1979: The stratigraphic distribution of dinocysts in
the Portlandian (latest Jurassic) to Barremian (Early Creta-
ceous) of northwest Europe. Amer. Assoc. Stratigr. Palynol.
Contr. Ser. 5B, 2, Mesozoic Palynology, 4981.
Davey R.J., 1982: Dinocyst stratigraphy of the latest Jurassic to
Early Cretaceous of the Haldager No 1 borehole, Denmark.
Dan. Geol. Under., B, 6, 57.
Delanoy G., 1994: Les zones à Feraudianus, Giraudi et Sarasini du
Barrémien supérieur de la région stratotypique dAngles-Bar-
rême-Castellane (Sud-Est de la France). Géol. Alp., Mém. Hors
Sér. 20, 279319.
Delanoy G., 1995: About some significant ammonites from the
Lower Aptian (Bedoulian) of the Angles-Barrême area (South-
East France). Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. Italia, 51, 65101.
Detraz H. & Mojon P.O., 1989: Evolution paléogéographique de la
marge jurassienne de la Téthys du Tithonique-Portlandien au Va-
langinien: corrélations biostratigraphiques et séquentielles des
faciès marins à continentaux. Eclogae Geol. Helv., 82, 37112.
Donovan D.T., 1957: The Jurassic and Cretaceous Systems in East
Greenland. Meddr. Grønl., 155, 1214.
Donze P., 1976: Répartition stratigraphique des espèces du genre
Protocythere Triebel 1938 (Ostracode), dans le Valanginien de
la région de Chabrières (Alpes de Haute-Provence). Rev. Mi-
cropaléont., 19, 1926.
Donze P. & Thieuloy J.P., 1975: Sur lextrême condensation du Va-
langinien supérieur dans le Jura neuchâtelois, en particulier
dans le stratotype de Valangin, et sa signification dans
lensemble des formations valanginiennes du Sud-Est de la
France. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 280, D, 16611664.
Doyle J.C., 1963: A new heteromorph ammonite from the Lower
Cretaceous of Yorkshire. Palaeontology, 6, 575578.
Doyle J.C., 1989: The stratigraphy of a late lower Hauterivian ho-
rizon in the Speeton Clay Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of
East Yorkshire. Proc. Geologists Assoc., 100, 175182.
Duxbury S., 1977: A palynostratigraphy of the Berriasian to Barre-
mian of the Speeton Clay of Speeton, England. Palaeonto-
graphica, B 160, 1767.
Duxbury S., 1980: Barremian phytoplankton from Speeton, East
Yorkshire. Palaeontographica, B173, 107146.
Elstner F. & Mutterlose J., 1996: The Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian
and Valanginian) in NW Germany. Cretaceous Research, 17,
Feist M., Lake R.D. & Wood C.J., 1995: Charophyte biostratigra-
phy of the Purbeck and Wealden of southern England. Palae-
ontology, 38, 2, 407442.
Feist M. & Schudack M.E., 1991: Correlation of charophyte as-
semblages from the nonmarine Jurassic-Cretaceous transition
of NW Germany. Cretaceous Research, 12, 495510.
Fletcher B.N., 1973: The distribution of Lower Cretaceous (Berria-
sian-Barremian) forminifera in the Speeton Clay of Yorkshire,
England. In: Casey R. & Rawson P.F. (Eds.): The boreal Lower
Cretaceous. Geol. J. Spec. Issue, 5, 161168.
Galbrun B., 1985: Magnetostratigraphy of the Berriasian stratotype
section (Berrias, France). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 74, 130
Galbrun B. & Rasplus L., 1984: Magnétostratigraphie du stratotype
du Berriasien. Premiers résultats. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, sér. 2,
Galbrun B., Rasplus L. & Le Hégarat G., 1986: Donnés nouvelles sur le
stratotype du Berriasien: corrélations entre magnétostratigraphie
et biostratigraphie. Bull. Soc. Géol. France, 8, 2, 575584.
Giraud F., 1995: Recherche des périodicités astronomiques et des
fluctuations du niveau marin à partir de létude du signal car-
bonaté des séries pélagiques alternantes. Docum. Lab. Géol.
Lyon, 134, 1279.
Hallam A., Grose J.A. & Ruffell A.H., 1991: Palaeoclimatic signifi-
cance of changes in clay mineralogy across the Jurassic-Creta-
ceous boundary in England and France. Palaeogeogr.
Palaeoclimat, Palaeoecol., 81, 173187.
Harding I.C., 1990: A dinocyst calibration of the European boreal
Barremian. Palaeontographica, B218, 176.
Heilmann-Clausen C., 1987: Lower Cretaceous dinoflagellate bios-
tratigraphy in the Danish Central Trough. Dan. Geol. Under.,
A, 17, 54.
Heilmann-Clausen C. & Thomsen E., 1995: Barremian-Aptian di-
noflagellates and calcareous nannofossils in the Ahlum 1 bore-
hole and the Otto Gott clay pit, Sarstedt, Lower Saxony basin,
Germany. Geol. Jb., A, 141, 256365.
Hesselbo S.P., Coe A.L. & Jenkyns H.C., 1990: Recognition and
documentation of depositional sequences from outcrop: an ex-
ample from the Aptian and Albian on the eastern margin of
the Wessex Basin. J. Geol. Soc. London, 147, 549559.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1981: The Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary near
Miravetes (Caravaca, SE Spain); arguments for its position at
the base of the Occitanica Zone. Quader. Geol., 10 (1979),
Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1982: Ammonite biostratigraphy of the upper-
most Tithonian, Berriasian, and lower Valanginian along the
Río Argos (Caravaca, SE Spain). Scripta Geol., 65, 181.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1983: Reconsideration of the stratigraphic posi-
tion of the boundary between the Berriasian and the Nemausian
(= Valanginian sensu stricto). Zitteliana, 10, 447457.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1984: Proposals for the stratigraphic position
of the Berriasian-Valanginian and the Valanginian-Hauterivian
boundaries. Bull. Geol. Soc. Denmark, 33, 139146.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1987: Correlation possibilities around the Ju-
rassic-Cretaceous boundary. Scripta Geol., 84, 164.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1991: Tethyan-Boreal correlations and the Ju-
rassic-Cretaceous boundary. Newslett. Stratigr., 25, 3760.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1994: Ammonite distribution around the Hau-
terivian-Barremian boundary along the Río Argos (Caravaca,
SE Spain). Géol. Alp., Mém. Hors Sér. 20 (1994), 219277.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1995: Ammonite evidence for longterm sea-
level fluctuations between the 2nd and the 3rd order in the
lowest Cretaceous. Cretaceous Research, 16, 231241.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1996: Proposal for a new stratigraphic posi-
tion for the Hauterivian-Barremian boundary at one of the
faunal turnovers that are caused by long-term cyclic high-am-
plitude sea-level falls. Mitt. Geol.-Paläont. Inst. Univ. Ham-
burg, 77, 271273.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J., 1999: The Berriasian-Barremian sequences in
the Río Argos succession near Caravaca (SE Spain). Soc. Econ.
Paleont. Mineralog., Spec. Publ., 60, 423441.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J. & Bulot L., 1990: Preliminary ammonite zo-
nation for the Lower Cretaceous of the Mediterranean re-
gion. Géol. Alp., 66, 123127.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J., Cecca F. (reporters) & 16 co-authors, 1995:
Report on the 3rd international workshop on the standard
Lower Cretaceous ammonite zonation of the Mediterranean
region. Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. Italia, 51, 213215.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J., Company M. (reporters) & 16 co-authors,
1993: Ammonite zonation for the Lower Cretaceous of the
Mediterranean region; basis for the stratigraphic correlations
within IGCP-Project 262. Rev. Esp. Paleont., 8, 117120.
Hoedemaeker Ph.J. & Leereveld H., 1995: Biostratigraphy and
sequence stratigraphy of the Berriasian-lowest Aptian (Lower
Cretaceous) of the Río Argos succession, Caravaca, SE Spain.
Cretaceous Research, 16, 195230.
Hunt C.O., 1985: Miospores from the Portland Stone Formation
and the lower part of the Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic /
Lower Cretaceous) from Dorset, England. Pollen et Spores,
Hunt C.O., 1987: Dinoflagellate cyst and acritarch assemblages in
shallow marine and marginal-marine carbonates; the Portland
Sand, Portland Stone, and Purbeck Formations (Upper Jurassic
Lower Cretaceous) of southern England and northern
France. In: Hart M.B. (Ed.): Micropalaeontology of carbonate
environments. Brit. Micropalaeont. Soc. Ser., Ellis Horwood
Ltd., Chichester, U.K., 208225.
Immel H., 1979: Die Ammonitengliederung des mediterranen und
borealen Hauterive und Barrême unter Berichtigung hetero-
morpher Ammoniten der Gattung Crioceratites Leveillé. News-
lett. Stratigr., 7, 121141.
Immel H. & Mutterlose J., 1980: Barrême-Cephalopoden aus dem
kretazischen Untergrund des Stadtgebietes von Hannover
(NW-Deutschland). Paläont. Z., 54, 241266.
Jakubowski M., 1987: A proposed Lower Cretaceous calcareous
nannofossil zonation scheme for the Moray Firth area of the
North Sea. Abh. Geol. BA, Wien, 39, 99119.
Jan du Chêne R., Busnardo R., Charollais J., Clavel B., Deconinck
J.F., Emmanuel L., Gardin S., Gorin G., Manivit H., Monteil
E., Raynaud J.F., Renard M., Steffen D., Steinhauser N., Strass-
er A., Strohmenger C. & Vail P.R., 1993: Sequence-stratigraph-
ic interpretation of upper Tithonian-Berriasian reference
sections in south-east France: a multidisciplinary approach.
Bull. Centr. Rech. Explor.-Prod. Elf-Aquit., 17, 151181.
Kakabadze M.V., 1983: On the Hauterivian-Barremian correlation
between the south of the USSR and certain southern and
northern regions of Europe. Zitteliana, 10, 501508.
Kemper E., 1961: Die Ammonitengattung Platylenticeras (= Garn-
ieria). Beih. Geol. Jb., 47, 1195.
Kemper E., 1967: Die älteste Ammoniten-Fauna im Aptium Nord-
west-Deutschlands. Paläont. Z., 41, 119131.
Kemper E., 1976: Geologischer Führer durch die Grafschaft Ben-
theim und die angrenzenden Gebiete mit einem Abrisz der
emsländischen Unterkreide, 5. Auflage. Das Bentheimer Land,
Kemper E., 1978: Die Beckenfacies der Unterkreide im nördlichen
Vorland des Wiehengebirges. In: Kemper E., Ernst G. & Thier-
mann A. (Eds.): Excursion A1. Die Unterkreide im Wiehenge-
birgsvorland bei Lübbecke und in Osning zwischen Bielefeld
und Bevergern. Exkursionsführer Symposiums deutsche Kre-
ide, Münster, A1/14A1/26.
Kemper E., 1987: Das Klima der Kreide-Zeit. Geol. Jb., A96,
Kemper E., 1992: Die tiefe Unterkreide im Vechte-Dinkel-Gebiet,
Stichting Staringmonument, Losser, 95.
Kemper E., 1995a: Die Grenze Barrême/Apt und die Unterteilung
dieser Stufen. Geol. Jb., A141, 4761.
Kemper E., 1995b: Changes in the Marine environment around the
Barremian/Aptian boundary. Geol. Jb., A, 141, 587607.
Kemper E., Mutterlose J. & Wiedenroth K., 1987: Die Grenze Unt-
er-/Ober-Hauterive in Nordwestdeutschland, Beispiel eines
stratigraphisch zu nutzenden Klima-Umschwungs. Geol. Jb.,
Kemper E., Rawson P.F. & Thieuloy J.P., 1981: Ammonites of
Tethyan ancestry in the early Lower Cretaceous of north-west
Europe. Palaeontology, 24, 251311.
Kilian W., 1896: Notice stratigraphique sur les environs de Sisteron
et contributions à la connaissance des terrains secondaires du
sud-est de la France. Bull. Soc. Géol. France, 3, 23, 659803.
Klingler W., Malz H. & Martin G.P.R., 1962: Malm NW-Deut-
A TETHYAN-BOREAL CORRELATION: CORRELATING THE UNCORRELATABLES 123
schlands. In: Arbeitskreis deutscher Mikropaläontologen: Leit-
fossilien der Mikropaläontologie, Gebrüder Borntraeger, Ber-
Leereveld H., 1995: Dinoflagellate cysts from the Lower Creta-
ceous Río Argos succession (SE Spain). Thesis Laboratory of
Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utrecht LPP Contribution Se-
ries, 2: 175.
Leereveld H., 1997a: Upper Tithonian-Valanginian (Upper Juras-
sic-Lower Cretaceous) dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy of the
western Mediterranean. Cretaceous Research, 18, 385420.
Leereveld H., 1997b: Hauterivian-Barremian (Lower Cretaceous)
dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy of the western Mediterranean.
Cretaceous Research, 18, 421456.
Leereveld H. & Hoedemaeker Ph.J. (in prep.): Stratigraphical cor-
relation (magneto-, bio- and sequence stratigraphy) of the Pur-
beck Formation in S. England, and the Wealden Formation
Platylenticeras Beds in Germany with the Berriasian Val-
anginian (Tethyan) standard succession.
Le Hégarat G., 1971: Le Berriasien du sud-est de la France. Doc.
Lab. Géol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, 43, 576.
Londeix L., 1990: La distribution des kystes de dinoflagellés dans
les sédiments hémipélagiques (Ardèche) et pélagiques (Arc de
Castellane, S.E. de la France) en domaine vocontien, du Val-
anginien terminal au Barrémien inférieur. Biostratigraphie et
relations avec la stratigraphie séquentielle. Thèse Univ. Bor-
deaux I, 478, III, 323275.
Lott G.K., Fletcher B.N. & Wilkinson I.P., 1986: The stratigraphy
of the Lower Cretaceous Speeton Clay Formation in a cored
borehole off the coast of north-east England. Proc. Yorkshire
Geol. Soc., 46, 3956.
Lott G.K., Thomas J.E., Riding J.B., Davey R.J. & Butler N., 1989:
Late Ryazanian black shales in the southern North Sea basin
and their lithostratigraphic significance. Proc. Yorkshire Geol.
Soc., 47, 321324.
Lutat P., 1995: Die Fluktuationen der Palynomorphen-Vergesell-
schaften des Hauterive Nordwest-Deutschlands: Steuerung
durch Meeresspiegel- und Klimaschwankungen. Unpublished
Ph. D. thesis, University of Hannover, Germany, 1141.
Mitchell S.F., 1992: The belemnite faunal changes across the Hau-
terivian-Barremian boundary in north-east England. Proc.
Yorkshire Geol. Soc., 49, 129134.
Monteil E., 1992: Kystes de dinoflagellés index (Tithonique-Valang-
inien) du sud-est de le France. Proposition dune nouvelle zona-
tion palynologique. Rev. Paléobiol., 11, 299306.
Monteil E., 1993: Dinoflagellate cyst biozonation of the Titho-
nian and Berriasian of south-east France. Correlation with
the sequence stratigraphy. Bull. Centr. Rech. Explor.-Prod.
Elf- Aquit., 17, 249263.
Morter A.A., 1984: Purbeck-Wealden beds mollusca and their re-
lationship to ostracod biostratigraphy, stratigraphical corre-
lation and palaeoecology in the Weald and adjacent areas.
Proc. Geologists Assoc., 95, 217234.
Mutterlose J., 1983: Phylogenie und Biostratigraphie der Unter-
familie Oxyteuthinae (Belemnitida) aus dem Barrême (Unter-
Kreide) NW-Europas. Palaeontographica, A180, 190.
Mutterlose J., 1984: Die Unterkreide-Aufschlüsse (Valangin-Alb)
im Raum Hannover-Braunschweig. Mitt. Geol. Inst. Univ.
Hannover, 24, 61.
Mutterlose J., 1991: Das Verteilungs- und Migrationsmuster des
kalkigen Nannoplankton in der Unterkreide (Valangin-Apt)
NW-Deutschlands. Palaeontographica, B221, 27152.
Mutterlose J., 1992: Migration and evolution patterns of floras and
faunas in marine Early Cretaceous sediments of NW Europe.
Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimat. Palaeoecol., 94, 261282.
Mutterlose J. & Harding I., 1987: Phytoplankton from the anox-
ic sediments of the Barremian (Lower Cretaceous) of north-
west Germany. Abh. Geol. B.-A. Wien, 39, 177215.
Neale J.W., 1960: The subdivision of the upper D Beds of the Spee-
ton Clay of Speeton, East Yorkshire. Geol. Mag., 97, 353362.
Neale J.W., 1962a: Ammonoidea from the lower D beds (Berria-
sian) of the Speeton Clay. Palaeontology, 5, 272296.
Neale J.W., 1962b: Ostracoda from the type Speeton Clay (Lower
Cretaceous) of Yorkshire. Micropalaeontology, 8, 425484.
Neale J.W., 1968: Biofacies and lithofacies of the Speeton Clay D
beds, E. Yorkshire. Proc. Yorkshire Geol. Soc., 36, 309335.
Niedziolka K., 1988: Die Mikrofauna im Valangin-Hauterive-Gren-
zbereich des zentralen niedersächsischen Beckens (Pollhagen,
Wiedensahl II). Berliner Geowissenschaft. Abh., A94, 89173.
Norris G., 1963: Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous miospores
and microplankton from southern England. Ph. D. thesis,
Cambridge University, 406.
Norris G., 1985: Correspondence: Palynology and British Purbeck
facies. Geol. Mag., 122, 187190.
Ogg J.G., Hasenyager R.W. & Wimbledon W.A., 1994: Jurassic-Cre-
taceous boundary: Portland-Purbeck magnetostratigraphy and
possible correlation to the Tethyan faunal realm. Geobios, M.
S., 17, 519527.
Ogg J.G., Hasenyager R.W. & Wimbledon W.A., 1995: Jurassic-Cre-
taceous boundary: Portland-Purbeck magnetostratigraphy and
possible correlation to the Tethyan faunal realm. International
symposium on Jurassic Stratigraphy, Poitiers.
Ogg J.G., Hasenyager R.W., Wimbledon W.A., Channell J.E. &
Bralower T.J., 1991: Magnetostratigraphy of the Jurassic-Cre-
taceous boundary interval Tethyan and English faunal
realms. Cretaceous Research, 12, 455482.
Ogg J.G., Steiner M.B., Company M. & Tavera J.M., 1988: Magne-
tostratigraphy across the Berriasian-Valanginian stage bound-
ary (Early Cretaceous), at Cehegin (Murcia Province, southern
Spain). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 87, 205215.
Ogg J.G., Steiner M.B., Olóriz F. & Tavera J.M., 1984: Jurassic
magnetostratigraphy, 1. Kimmeridgian-Tithonian of Sierra
Gorda and Carcabuey, southern Spain. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.,
Partington M.A., Copestake P., Mitchener B.C. & Underhill J.R.,
1993: Biostratigraphic calibration of genetic stratigraphic se-
quences in the Jurassic lowermost Cretaceous (Hettangian to
Ryazanian) of the North Sea and adjacent areas. In: Parker
J.R. (Ed.): Petroleum Geology of Northwest Europe: Proceed-
ings of the 4th Conference, 1, 371386.
Prössl K.F., 1990: Dinoflagellaten der Kreide Unter-Hauterive bis
Ober-Turon im niedersächsischen Becken. Paleontographi-
ca, B218, 93191.
Quensel P., 1988: Die ammonitenfauna im Valangin-Hauterive-
Grenzbereich vom Mittellandkanal bei Pollhagen. Berliner Ge-
owissenschaft. Abh., A94, 1571.
Rawson P.F., 1970: The Hauterivian (Lower Cretaceous) biostratig-
raphy of the Speeton Clay of Yorkshire, England. Newslett.
Stratigr., 1, 6176.
Rawson P.F., 1993: The influence of sea-level changes on the mi-
gration and evolution of Early Cretaceous (pre-Aptian) am-
monites. In: House M.R. (Ed.): The Ammonoidea:
Environment, Ecology, and Evolutionary Change. System. As-
soc. Spec. Vol., Clarandon Press, Oxford, 47, 227242.
Rawson P.F., 1995a: The Boreal Early Cretaceous (Pre-Aptian)
ammonite sequences of Nw Europe and their correlation with
the western Mediterranean faunas. Mem. Descr. Carta Geol.
Italia, 51, 121130.
Rawson P.F., 1995b: Biogeographical affinities of NW European
Barremian ammonite faunas and their palaeographical impli-
cations. Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. Italia, 51, 131136.
Rawson P.F., Curry D., Dilley F.C., Hancock J.M., Kennedy W.J.,
Neale J.W., Wood C.J. & Worssam B.C., 1978: A correlation
of Cretaceous rocks in the British Isles. Geol. Soc. London
Spec. Rep., 9, 170.
Rawson P.F. & Mutterlose J., 1983: Stratigraphy of the Lower B
and basal Cement Beds (Barremian) of the Speeton Clay, York-
shire, England. Proc. Geologists Assoc., 94, 133146.
Rawson P.F. & Riley L.A., 1982: Latest Jurassic Early Cretaceous
events and the Late Cimmerian Unconformity in the North
Sea area. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists Bull., 66, 2628
Reboulet S., 1995: Lévolution des ammonites du Valanginienn-Hau-
terivien inférieur du bassin vocontien et de la plate-forme
provençale (sud-est de la France): relations avec la stratigraphie
séquentielle et implications biostratigraphiques. Doc. Lab. Géol.
Lyon, 137, 1371.
De Reneville P. & Raynaud J.F., 1981: Palynologie du stratotype du
Barrémien. Bull.Centr.Rech. Explor.-Prod. Elf-Aquit., 5, 129.
Ruffel A.H. & Rawson P.F., 1994: Palaeoclimate control on se-
quence stratigraphic patterns in the late Jurassic to mid-Creta-
ceous, with a case study from eastern England. Palaeogeogr.
Palaeoclimat. Palaeoecol., 110, 4354.
Schudack M.E., 1996: Die Charophyten des Niedersächsischen
Beckens (Oberjura-Berriasium): Lokalzonierung, überregionale
Korrelation und Palökologie. Neu. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh.,
Spath L.F., 1924: On the ammonites of the Speeton Clay and the
subdivisions of the Neocomian. Geol. Mag., 61, 7389.
Strasser A., 1988: Shallowing-upward sequences in Purbeckian per-
itidal carbonates (lowermost Cretaceous, Swiss and French Jura
Mountains). Sedimentology, 35, 369383.
Strasser A., 1994: Milankovitch cyclicity and high-resolution se-
quence stratigraphy in lagoonal-peritidal carbonates (Upper
TithonianLower Berriasian, French Jura Mountains). Spec.
Publ. Intern. Assoc. Sedimentol., 19, 285301.
Strauss C., Elstner F., Jan du Chêne R., Mutterlose J., Reiser H. &
Brandt K.H., 1993: New micropaleontological and palynologi-
cal evidence on the stratigraphic position of the German
Wealden in NW-Germany. Zitteliana, 20, 389401.
Thierstein H., 1971: Tentative Lower Cretaceous calcareous nan-
noplankton zonation. Eclogae Geol. Helv., 64, 459488.
Thierstein H., 1973: Lower Cretaceous calcareous nannoplankton
biostratigraphy. Abh. Geol. B.-A., 29, 152.
Thierstein H., 1976: Mesozoic calcareous nannoplankton bios-
tratigraphy of marine sediments. Mar. Micropalaeontology, 1,
Thieuloy J.P., 1973: The occurrence and distribution of boreal am-
monites from the Neocomian of southeast France (Tethyan
Province). In: Casey R. & Rawson P.F. (Eds.): The Boreal
Lower Cretaceous. Geol. J. Spec. Issue, 5, 289302.
Thieuloy J.P., 1977: Les ammonites boréales des formations néo-
comiennes du Sud-Est français (Province subméditerranéenne).
Geobios, 10, 395461.
Vaíèek Z., Michalík J. & Reháková D., 1994: Early Cretaceous
stratigraphy, palaeogeography and life in western Carpathians.
Beringeria, 10, 3169.
Whitehouse F.W. & Brighton A.G., 1924: Notes on some Neoco-
mian Cephalopoda from Speeton. Naturalist, London, 1 Dec.
Wick W. & Wolburg J., 1962: Wealden in NW-Deutschland. In: Ar-
beitskreis deutscher Mikropaläontologen: Leitfossilien der Mik-
ropaläontologie. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin-Nikolassee,
Wilpshaar M., 1995a: Direct stratigraphic correlation of the Ver-
cors carbonate platform in SE France with the Barremian stra-
totype by means of dinoflagellate cysts. Cretaceous Research,
Wilpshaar M., 1995b: Applicability of dinoflagellate cyst stratigra-
phy to the analysis of passive and active tectonic settings.
(Thesis Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utre-
cht). Geologica Ultraiect., 134, 132.
Wimbledon W.A. & Hunt C.O., 1983: The Portland-Purbeck junc-
tion (Portlandian-Berriasian) in the Weald, and correlation of
the latest JurassicEarly Cretaceous rocks in southern En-
gland. Geol. Mag., 120, 267280.
Wolburg J., 1959: Die Cyprideen des NW-deutschen Wealden.
Senckenberg. Lethaea, 40, 223315.
Worssam B.C. & Ivimey-Cook H.C., 1971: The stratigraphy of the
Geological Survey borehole at Warlingham, Surrey. Bull. Geol.
Surv. Gr Br., 36, 1146.