GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 50, 1, BRATISLAVA, FEBRUARY 1999
LATE CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERIDS AND CALCAREOUS
NANNOPLANKTON FROM THE WÊGLÓWKA MARLS
(SUBSILESIAN UNIT, OUTER CARPATHIANS, POLAND)
M. ADAM GASIÑSKI
, MA£GORZATA JUGOWIEC
and ANDRZEJ L¥CZKA
Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geological Sciences, Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Krakow, Poland;
Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, Skrzatow 1, 31-560 Krakow, Poland
(Manuscript received February 3, 1998; accepted in revised form June 16, 1998)
Abstract: The foraminiferal and nannoplankton assemblages analysed in the Wêglówka Marls, Subsilesian Unit,
indicate the CampanianMaastrichtian age. These sediments were deposited on the outer shelf and the uppermid
part of the slope. Paleoecological analyses indicated a relationship between some morphotypes and their life strate-
gies. Morphogroup analysis of the foraminiferids are indicative of paleobathymetrical changes in the studied part of
the basin, based on the relationship between keeled/non keeled taxa as well as on the quantitative distribution of the
several benthic genera. The foraminiferids and the calcareous nannoplankton assemblages indicate the Tethyan/
Key words: Late Cretaceous, Polish Flysch Carpathians, Wêglówka Marls, paleoecology, paleobiogeography,
bioprovinces, foraminiferids, calcareous nannoplankton.
Gasiñski et al. 1997). Due to the general absence of planktonic
foraminiferids, the Late Cretaceous sequences of the External
Carpathians are stratigraphically dated mainly on the basis of
deep-water agglutinated foraminiferids. Consequently, these
Wêglówka Marls, which are rich in planktonic foraminiferids
can be used to establish the precise biostratigraphical position
as well as the paleobiogeographical affinity.
The preliminary results presented concern the Late Creta-
ceous part of the Wêglówka Marls, which are exclusively well
exposed in Wêglówka village, north of the town of Krosno
(Fig. 1) and represents the only outcrop along the stream
(Fig. 2B). Further studies, concerning the uppermost part of
the Upper Cretaceous/Tertiary part of the Wêglówka Marls
will be carried out later, after a complete section have been
exposed by cutting trenches.
In the area of Wêglówka village, the Subsilesian Unit ap-
pears underlying the Silesian Nappe in a tectonic semi-win-
dow (Teisseyre 1947; Wdowiarz in: Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1968;
Figs. 1, 2). It was formed by a secondary folded anticline,
overthrust on the more external Skole Nappe.
The Subsilesian Unit represents a part of the Northern
Carpathian depositional area, which was connected with a
submarine swell developed during the Early Cretaceous
period; that unit extends from Moravia in the West to the
town of Lesko in the East. In the eastern part of the
Northern Carpathians, the sedimentary basin of the Sub-
silesian swell was situated between the Silesian and Skole
troughs and is characterized by the occurrence of varie-
The first geological data from the Wêglówka area were pub-
lished by Uhlig in 1883. Subsequently, a summary of the his-
torical investigations of the Wêglówka Unit was outlined by
Huss (1957). Hiltermann (1943), Czernikowski (1949), Huss
(1957, 1966), Huss (in Mitura & Birecki 1966) and Geroch (in
Bieda et al. 1963) were the first who described foraminiferids
from the Wêglówka Unit. The Wêglówka Marls were strati-
graphically evaluated as the Senonian-Paleocene sediments of
the Subsilesian Unit by Bieda et al. (1963), Koszarski (1985)
and l¹czka (1996) on their lithostratigraphical charts. In the
meantime, Olszewska (1997, fig. 1) has indicated the strati-
graphic position of the Wêglówka Marls and Shales Formation
from the Santonian to the top of the Bartonian.
An examination of the published micropaleontological data,
which have been compiled up to date, taken together with new
trends in micropaleontology, suggest that it is necessary to
examine and to revise the micropaleontology of this
significant stratigraphical horizon in the Carpathians. This is
especially important, because the Subsilesian Unit occupies a
significant position within the Outer Carpathian Basin and the
Wêglówka Marls form the main Late Cretaceous pelagic
sequence of this unit. This unit is presumably continued by the
Helveticum and Buntmergelserie in the Eastern Alps.
In the Carpathian Basin, autochthonous Late Cretaceous
pelagic facies containing relatively rich planktonic
foraminiferids, are rather uncommon within the dominant
turbiditic sequences (Bieda et al. 1963). However, it is often
difficult to differentiate between the autochthonous and al-
lochthonous elements of the interturbidite pelagic sediments
(see Winkler 1984; Winkler & Stuijvenberg 1982; Winkler in:
64 GASIÑSKI, JUGOWIEC and L¥CZKA
gated pelagic sediments of Late Cretaceous, Paleocene and
Eocene ages (Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1962).
The Early Cretaceous sediments of the Subsilesian Unit are
very similar to the sediments of the Silesian trough and they
are represented by black clayey shales with intercalations of
In the area of Wêglówka, the Subsilesian Unit starts with
the Lower Cretaceous sequence, which comprise the follow-
ing beds: black, clayey shales (Verovice Shales) with inter-
calations of thick to medium-bedded turbidites (Grodziszcze
Sandstones) of BarremianAptian age; thick-bedded turbid-
ites (Lower Lgota Beds) representing the early part of Albi-
an; dark, spotted and greenish shales with medium and thin-
bedded turbidites, mainly gaize facies (Gaize Beds) of Late
The Upper Cretaceous sequence begins mainly with green
shales with Radiolaria and radiolarites, followed by red clayey
shales of Turonian age; these sediments are similar to the co-
eval sediments found in other parts of the Carpathian deposi-
tional area. Later on, the sediments of the North Carpathians
became differentiated due to local uplifts. In the Wêglówka
area, the shales pass quickly upwards to red, pink, green and
yellow homogenous marls (Wêglówka Marls) of Santonian
Eocene age (after Olszewska 1997). In the adjacent Silesian
and Skole basins thick siliciclastic turbidites prevailed. It is
difficult to establish the total thickness of the Wêglówka Marls
because of its strong tectonic deformation, but they are in ex-
cess of 600 metres (Wdowiarz in Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1968). This
marly sedimentation lasted for about 45 Ma, at a sedimenta-
tion rate of about 0.03 cm/a (30 cm/1000a).
Fig. 1. A. Position of the Polish Carpathians. B. General geologi-
cal sketch of the Northern Carpathians (Polish sector; after
Cieszkowski 1992, simplified). 1 Pieniny Klippen Belt
(PKB); 2 Magura Nappe; 3 Grybów Unit; 4 Dukla Unit;
5 Michalczowa zone; 6 Silesian Nappe; 7 Subsilesian
Nappe; 8 Skole Nappe; 9 Miocene deposits on the Car-
pathians; 10 Carpathian Foredeep; 11 Carpathian over-
thrust; 12 main thrust-zones; 13 Wêglówka section. C. Lo-
calization of the Wêglówka (after Jucha, Mitura & Swidzinski in
Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1968, simplified).
LATE CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERIDS AND CALCAREOUS NANNOPLANKTON, OUTER CARPATHIANS 65
The younger sequence comprises sediments which are
similar to those of the adjoining Silesian and Skole troughs:
thin-bedded turbidites (Hieroglyphic Beds) of the Middle
and Late Eocene age, green shales and Globigerina Marls of
the Late Eocene age, bituminous, brown shales with cherts
(Menilite Beds) and turbidites (Krosno Beds) of the Oli-
The Upper Cretaceous deposits are generally badly exposed
and slightly longer sections are visible only in a few places.
The best and longest outcrop exists along the stream running
south of Wêglówka village (Fig. 1). The marls visible in that
stream belong to the southern limb of the Wêglówka anticline
which dips at an angle of 2030
(Fig. 2A). However, neither
the lower nor upper contacts are visible.
In the lower part of the profile, the marls are pinkish-red
with weak fissility, interbedded with secondary green marls.
The red marls have greenish spots, generally considered to be
an effect of bioturbation; these are followed by pinkish-grey
and red marlstones. In the upper part of the studied section,
brownish, whitish and red marlstones appear (Fig. 2B).
The composition of the foraminiferal assemblages from the
studied samples are presented on Fig. 3 and characteristic taxa
Fig. 2. A. Geological cross-section of the Wêglówka area (after Jucha, Mitura & widziñski, in Ksi¹¿kiewicz 1968, simplified). Subsilesian
Unit: 1 Verovice Shales; 2, 3 Lgota Beds with gaizes; 4 Variegated shales; 5 Wêglówka Marls; 6 thrust-line of the Silesian
Nappe. B. Lithology and samples location of the Wêglówka Marls studied. 1 red marlstones; 2 green marlstones; 3 pinkish-grey
marlstones; 4 brownish marlstones; 5 whitish marlstones; 6 samples location.
Fig. 3. Quantitative diagram of the studied foraminiferids. Abbreviations: calc. others other calcareous benthic foraminiferids; aggl.
tubular agglutinated tubular foraminiferids (suspension feeders morphogroup).
66 GASIÑSKI, JUGOWIEC and L¥CZKA
are illustrated on Plates III. The identified foraminiferids are
relatively well-preserved and are high diversified. The investi-
gated assemblages are dated as being of CampanianEarly
Maastrichtian age, mainly on the basis of the planktonic fora-
miniferids as well as selected benthic taxa (e.g. Stensioeina
Calcareous nannoplankton (see Appendix)
Watznaueria sp. and Micula sp. are the dominant genera in
the studied samples. Eiffellithus turriseiffelii, Cribrosphaerella
ehrenbergii, Prediscosphaera cretacea, Microrhabdulus
decoratus and Aspidolithus parcus are also present.
Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis, Lucianorhabdus cayeuxii,
Petrarhabdus copulatus, Quadrum sissinghii, Q. trifidum and
Calculites obscurus are relatively infrequent (110 specimens
per sample). The studied nannoflora are relatively rich, well-
preserved and, like the foraminiferids, highly diversified.
The important taxa are shown in Plates IIIIV.
Biostratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous sediments of the
The presence of planktonic foraminiferids, such as: Globi-
gerinelloides prairiehillensis Pessagno, Heterohelix striata
(Ehrenberg), H. navarroensis Loeblich, Planoglobulina
acervulinoides (Egger), Pseudotextularia elegans (Rzehak),
Rosita fornicata (Plummer), Globotruncana arca (Cush-
man), Globotruncanita subspinosa (Pessagno) as well as
benthic Stensioeina exsculpta (Reuss) enable the studied
samples to correlates with the interval of G. elevata?G. gan-
sseri zones sensu Caron (1985), Robaszynski & Caron
(1995) i.e. CampanianMaastrichtian. The samples Nos.W-
1/97 to W-3/97 were dated to the Campanian and conse-
quently, the foraminiferal assemblages belong to Carons
(1985) G. elevata? to G. calcarata zones. The samples Nos.
W-4/97 to W-8/97 were compared with the Early Maastrich-
tian G. aegyptiaca Zone sensu Caron (1985), mainly on the
basis of stratigraphic range of G. prairiehillensis, H. navar-
roensis, G. subspinosa, R. fornicata. These samples were
compared with the revised chronostratigraphic position of
zones by Robaszynski & Caron (1995), as being Late Cam-
panian in age. In sample No. W-9/97, a few specimens were
identified as Abathomphalus cf. mayaroensis (Bolli), which
suggests the Late Maastrichtian.
However, it should be noted, that most of the index taxa of
the Late Cretaceous standard zones are absent in the studied
assemblages: this is probably because of their bathymetric
and/or paleobiogeographic preferences (cf. Hart & Bailey
1979; Caron & Homewood 1983; Hart & Ball 1986; Gasiñs-
ki 1998). Affiliation to the standard zones is confirmed
Fig. 4. Distribution of the stratigraphically significant calcareous nannofossils, with the standard nannofossils zones of Sissingh (1977) and
Perch-Nielsen (1985). 1 solution resistant taxa; 2 marginal (shallow water) species; 3 low and mid-latitude species; 4 hig h-
latitude species (after various authors).
LATE CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERIDS AND CALCAREOUS NANNOPLANKTON, OUTER CARPATHIANS 67
Plate I: Foraminiferids. Fig. 1 Hormosina cf. excelsa (Dylazanka), W-3;
100. Fig. 2 Goesella rugosa (Hanzlikova), W-3,
75. Fig. 3
Neoflabellina numismalis (Wedekind), W-2,
75. Figs. 4, 5 Heterohelix striata (Ehrenberg), W-6; 4
100. Fig. 6 H.
navarroensis Loeblich, W-4,
200. Fig. 7 Planoglobulina acervulinoides (Egger), W-9,
200. Fig. 8 Pseudotextularia elegans (Rze-
150. Figs. 9, 10 Globigerinelloides prairiehillensis Pessagno; 9 W-4; 10 W-6;
200. Figs. 11, 13 Globotruncana
arca (Cushman); 11 W-4,
150; 13 W-8,
100. Fig. 12 Schackoina cf. tappanae Montanaro-Gallitelli, W-8,
68 GASIÑSKI, JUGOWIEC and L¥CZKA
Plate II: Foraminiferids. Fig. 1 Abathomphalus cf. mayaroensis (Bolli), W-9,
200. Fig. 2 Rosita fornicata (Plummer), W-7,
Figs. 3, 7 Aragonia velascoensis (Cushman), W-3,
150. Figs. 4, 8 Reussella szajnochae (Grzybowski), 4 W-1; 8 W-3;
Fig. 5 Globotruncanita subspinosa (Pessagno), W-8,
100. Fig. 6 Globotruncana arca (Cushman), W-8,
100. Fig. 9 Pullenia
cretacea Cushman, W-5,
150. Fig. 10 Pleurostomella subnodosa Reuss, W-5,
75. Fig. 11 Stensioeina exsculpta (Reuss), W-1,
Fig. 12 Globorotalites michelinianus (dOrbigny), W-5,
LATE CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERIDS AND CALCAREOUS NANNOPLANKTON, OUTER CARPATHIANS 69
Plate III: Calcareous nannofossils. All specimens
2400. Figs. 13 Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis Vekshina. Figs. 46 Aspidolithus
parcus (Stradner) Noel. Figs. 7, 8 Biscutum magnum Wind & Wise. Figs. 9, 10 Cribrosphaerella ehrenbergii (Arkhangelsky)
Deflandre. Fig. 11 Ceratolithoides aculeus (Stradner) Prins & Sissingh. Fig. 12 Calculites obscurus (Deflandre) Prins & Sissingh.
Fig. 13 Petrarhabdus copulatus (Deflandre) Wind & Wise. Fig. 14 Zeugrhabdotus pseudanthophorus (Bramlette & Martini) Perch-
Nielsen. Fig. 15 Watznaueria barnesae (Black & Barnes) Perch-Nielsen. Figs. 16, 17 Prediscosphaera grandis Perch-Nielsen.
Figs. 1821 Prediscosphaera cretacea (Arkhangelsky) Gartner. Fig. 22 Stradneria crenulata (Bramlette & Martini) Noel. Fig. 23
Quadrum trifidum (Stradner & Papp) Prins & Perch-Nielsen. Figs. 24, 25 Quadrum sissinghii Perch-Nielsen.
only by resolution of the stratigraphic range of recognized
Sissinghs (1977) zonation was applied to determine the age
of the identified taxa. Samples Nos. W-1/97 to W-4/97 have
been classified as a part of the CC 21 (Quadrum sissinghii)
Zone sensu Sissingh (1977; nom. corr.early Late Campa-
nian), on the basis of the presence of Q. sissinghii and the lack of
Q. trifidum, the scarcity of A. cymbiformis, C. verbeekii, and the
abundance of C. aculeus, R. anthoporus, E. eximius, E. turrise-
iffelii, C. ehrenbergii, P. cretacea and M. decoratus (see Fig. 4).
Samples Nos. W-5/97 to W-9/97 are correlated with CC 22
(Quadrum trifidum) Zone after Bukry & Bramlette 1970;
70 GASIÑSKI, JUGOWIEC and L¥CZKA
emended by Sissingh 1977; nom. corr.early Late Campa-
nian; the most diagnostic taxa are: Q. trifidum (first occur-
rence: the FO of this species indicates the base of the zone), R.
anthoporus, R. levis, A. parcus, P. cretacea, A. cymbiformis, P.
copulatus, L. cayeuxii. B. coronum and M. decoratus. Further-
more, in sample No. W-7/97, increases in A. cymbiformis and
R. levis are obvious. In addition, rare specimens of P. grandis
were identified, suggesting that this sample could be classified
into CC 23 Zone: Tranolithus phacelosus Zone (mainly CC
23b, based on the FO of P. grandis), i.e. Early Maastrichtian
(according to Sissingh 1977). However, T. phacelosus was not
identified in the investigated samples (according to Doeven
1983; this species has its extinction before the last occur-
rence: LO of Q. trifidum). Furthermore, the absence of E. ex-
imius, the last occurrence of which is correlated with the ex-
tinction of R. anthoporus, was observed.
Plate IV: Calcareous nannofossils. All specimens
2400. Figs. 1, 2 Lucianorhabdus cayeuxii Deflandre. Figs. 3, 4, 7, 8 Eiffellithus
turriseiffelii (Deflandre & Fert) Reinhardt. Fig. 5 Microrhabdulus decoratus Deflandre. Fig. 6 Thoracosphaera sp. Kamptner. Fig. 9
Micula decussata Vekshina. Figs. 10, 11 Micula swastica Stradner & Steinmetz. Figs. 1215 Reinhardtites anthoporus (Deflandre)
Perch-Nielsen. Figs. 16, 17 Reinhardtites levis Prins & Sissingh. Fig. 18 Eiffellithus cf. eximius (Stover) Perch-Nielsen.
LATE CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERIDS AND CALCAREOUS NANNOPLANKTON, OUTER CARPATHIANS 71
The stratigraphic ranges and paleobiogeographical affinity
of the significant nannofossil taxa are shown in Fig. 4.
Paleoecology and Paleobiogeography
An examination of the quantitative analysis of the studied
samples from the Campanian to earliest Maastrichtian (Fig. 3)
shows that during the studied timespan, the composition of
foraminiferal assemblages show a following tendency towards
the Campanian/Maastrichtianearliest Maastrichtian (for sam-
ples W-7/97W-9/97): keeled planktonic taxa (Globo-
truncana, Globotruncanella, Rosita) increased in reverse pro-
portion to the non-keeled taxa (such as genera:
Globigerinelloides, Pseudotextularia, Planoglobulina, Het-
erohelix, Hedbergella). It should be remembered that the rela-
tionship of keeled/non-keeled taxa is also diagnostic for paleo-
bathymetry; i.e. keeled forms were found to be bathypelagic
group and non-keeled taxa are epipelagic dwellers (cf. Sliter
1972, 1977; Sliter & Baker 1972; Gasiñski 1997a, 1998).
Therefore, domination of keeled taxa can be used as the main
criterion among planktonic taxa, indicating the deep water
character of the studied deposits.
A morphogroup analyses sensu Jones & Charnock (1985),
Corliss & Chen (1988), Corliss & Fois (1990), Koutsoukos &
Hart (1990), Nagy (1992), Gasiñski et al. (1997) and Gasiñski
(1998) has indicated that suspension feeders (agglutinated for-
aminifers, Rhabdammina-type tubular taxa) also become more
numerous as keeled taxa decrease; this is probably related to
an increasing organic flux to the sea bottom, during the regres-
sion episode. In particular, the youngest sample studied (No.
W-9/97) showed a decrease in the number of keeled taxa and
an associated increase of the suspension feeders morphogroup.
Nodosariids are relatively abundant in samples Nos. W-5/
97 and W-6/97 (Early Maastrichtian); this abundance can be
correlated with a rapid decrease in planktonic taxa (keeled
and non-keeled forms; particularly in sample No. W-5/97);
suspension feeders were relatively numerous in this sample
and this can be interpreted as an indication of falling sea lev-
el which caused increasing organic flux on the sea bottom (cf.
Corliss & Fois 1990; Gasiñski 1998). These samples probably
represent an environment which was located under a shallower
water column, affected by eustatic and/or tectonic sea level
changes. Towards the Maastrichtian samples, the decrease in
the quantity of calcareous benthics is also obvious. Specimens
of the genus Reussella (mainly R. szajnochae) were also rela-
tively abundant in the Campanian assemblages (samples Nos.
W-1/97 to W-3/97) and this genus gradually decreased to-
wards the Maastrichtian. According to Kuhnt & Obert (1989)
Reussella szajnochae (Grzybowski) is characteristic for the
middle bathyal zone of the Morrocan Rif basin; this species
was recognized in the Carpathian Velasco-type assemblages,
as being characteristic of the bathyal zone, in the part located
above the CCD (Olszewska 1984, table II); Hart & Bailey
(1979; fig. 3) have also confirmed its deep-water preferences.
However, keeled planktonics are relatively scarce or even ab-
sent in samples Nos. W-5/97 and W-6/97. Specimens of Sten-
sioeina are also relatively abundant in those samples, where
specimens of genus Reussella are relatively common (Fig. 3).
Taking into consideration the above findings, the Campa-
nian sediments were deposited in a deeper (uppermostmid
slope) environment, while the Maastrichtian ones indicate
shallower conditions (outer shelfuppermost slope). Another
possible explanation is related to a local invasion of cold Bore-
al, less dense water masses carrying non-keeled taxa which,
being dominant, do not indicate eustatic events (cf. Gasiñski
1997a). The indicated mixed Tethyan-Boreal affinity of few
species of calcareous nannoflora may have been caused by an
invasion of epipelagic Boreal coccoliths, floating within the
thin, cold surface waters. According to Olszewska (1997) red
marls of the Wêglówka type were deposited at the middle-low-
er bathyal depth.
The Tethyan affinity of the Wêglówka Marls is confirmed
by the foraminiferal assemblages. In contrary to the Andry-
chow klippes, having a transitional affinity (cf. Gasiñski
1995, 1997b, 1998), the foraminiferal assemblages in the
Wêglówka Marls contain predominantly characteristic
Tethyan species, e.g. very abundant Reussella szajnochae
(Grzybowski), which is very scarce among the Andrychow
assemblages (Fig. 3; cf. Gasiñski 1998, fig. 13, table I).
Geroch (in Geroch et al. 1967) described this species as
being rather common in the Campanian marls of the Sub-
silesian Unit (see also: Liszkowa 1956, 1959, 1967; Ksi¹¿-
The majority of the identified calcareous nannoplankton
species are resistant forms. Most of the taxa studied are well
preserved and only some of them show signs of dissolution or
of being overgrown with secondary calcite.
According to Perch-Nielsen (1979) and Thierstein (1976)
A. cymbiformis, L. cayeuxii, C. obscurus preferred a hemi-
It should be noted that among the studied assemblages, a
very characteristic species, P. copulatus was identified; De-
flandre (1959) noted this species in the Maastrichtian in
France; however, this species has been mainly described
from the Indian and Atlantic oceans, between 30
tude. Nevertheless, the stratigraphic range of P. copulatus
varies and its distribution appears to be limited to temperate
and high latitude sites (cf. Wise 1983); its presence probably
indicates influence on its niche by the Indian and South At-
lantic oceans during the CampanianMaastrichtian period. A
similar suggestion has also been expressed by vabenická
(1995) from the Campanian of the Zdanice Unit; this is prob-
ably due to an imprecise determination of the paleobiogeo-
graphical range of this species. The calcareous nannoplank-
ton assemblages of the Late Cretaceous part of the
Wêglówka Marls indicate a mixed Boreal-Tethyan affinity
(see Fig. 4); some species are indicative of shallow (epiconti-
nental seas and large shelf areas) water environments and
these are mainly Boreal epipelagic nannoplankton taxa (see
Fig. 4); their presence suggests possible activity of (wind-
generated?) water surface currents; this fact supports the
above opinion concerning the invasion of cold, Boreal sur-
face waters into the Tethyan Realm.
Therefore, a consideration to be taken into account, is that
this part of the Carpathian domain (see Geological setting) is
located and/or influenced by the so-called tension zone
(i.e. ecotone between the Boreal and Tethyan realms; see
72 GASIÑSKI, JUGOWIEC and L¥CZKA
Gasiñski 1995, 1997a,b, 1998; Olszewska 1996); this influ-
ence is mainly expressed among the epipelagic nannoplank-
ton associations (see Fig. 4).
The Late Cretaceous part of the Wêglówka Marls was dat-
ed as CampanianMaastrichtian (within the G. elevata? to A.
mayaroensis zones) on the basis of the planktonic foraminifer-
ids and within the CC 21CC 23b zones (Late Campanian
earliest Maastrichtian), on the basis of the calcareous nanno-
The foraminiferal assemblages have indicated that the de-
posits studied correspond to the uppermid slope during the
Campanian and to the outer shelfuppermost slope environ-
ments at the begining of the Maastrichtian. Such bathymetric
differences have been related to the invasion of cold, Boreal
On the basis of the morphotype analysis, the foramini-
feral assemblages indicate the fluctuation of the bathymetry
which can be roughly correlated to global eustatic fluctuations.
The foraminiferids document the Tethyan biogeoprovince,
although the calcareous nannoplankton assemblages indicate
a tension zone (Tethyan/Boreal) affinity.
Acknowledgements: E. Malata (Jagiellonian University),
T. Neagu (University of Bucharest), L. Hradecká (Czech
Geological Survey) and anonymous reviewer are greatly
appreciated for their helpful comments. A. Latkiewicz, I. Chodyn
and I. Wierzbicka (Jagiellonian University) are sincerely
acknowledged for technical assistance. M. Guzkowska
(University College London) kindly corrected the manuscript.
This is a contribution to IGCP Project 362: Tethyan and Boreal
Cretaceous, sponsored by the State Committee for Scientific
Research (KBN) Grant No. 6PO4D 02314.
(the list of nannofossil taxa, mentioned in the text)
Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis Vekshina (1959)
Aspidolithus parcus (Stradner 1963) Noel (1969)
Biscutum coronum Wind & Wise (1977)
Biscutum magnum Wind & Wise (1977)
Calculites obscurus (Deflandre 1959) Prins & Sissingh (1977)
Ceratolithoides aculeus (Stradner 1959) Prins & Sissingh (1977)
Ceratolithoides verbeekii Perch-Nielsen (1979a)
Cribrosphaerella ehrenbergii (Arkhangelsky 1912) Deflandre (1952)
Eiffellithus eximius (Stover 1966) Perch-Nielsen (1968)
Eiffellithus turriseiffelii (Deflandre & Fert 1954) Reinhardt (1965)
Lucianorhabdus cayeuxii Deflandre (1959)
Micula decussata Vekshina (1959)
Micula swastica Stradner & Steinmetz (1984)
Microrhabdulus decoratus Deflandre (1959)
Petrarhabdus copulatus (Deflandre 1959) Wind & Wise (1983)
Prediscosphaera cretacea (Arkhangelsky 1912) Gartner (1968)
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