GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 49, 6, BRATISLAVA, DECEMBER 1998
LATE MIOCENE PALEOENVIRONMENTS AND SEQUENCE
STRATIGRAPHY: NORTHERN VIENNA BASIN
, IVAN BARÁTH
, MARIANNA KOVÁÈOVÁ-SLAMKOVÁ
, IVAN HLAVATÝ
and NATÁLIA HUDÁÈKOVÁ
Department of Geology and Paleontology, Faculty of Science, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina,
842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Geological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 842 26 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; email@example.com
Nafta Gbely a. s., 908 45 Gbely, Slovak Republic
(Manuscript received June 18, 1998; accepted in revised form November 3, 1998)
Abstract: Late Miocene sedimentary environments were related to the shallow brackish- to fresh-water lake in the
Slovak part of the Vienna Basin. During the Pannonian time, the geological settings gradually changed from deltaic-
dominated in Papps AC zones, through offshore-dominated (DE zones), up to coal-bearing, limnic-dominated (F
H zones). The variation in sediment supply, eustatic sea-level oscillations and the subsidence influenced the formation
of accommodation space and related geometry and lithology of sedimentary bodies. The sedimentary cycles were
characterized by seismostratigraphic, sedimentological methods, well-log data and fossils content and interpreted in
terms of sequence-stratigraphic concept. The Pannonian A, B zones of the recognized sedimentary cycle represents a
duration of approximately 0.5 Ma, with possible further subdivision into two higher-order cycles. These cycles are
regarded as parasequences within the late stage of the 3
-order sequence, which continued from the Sarmatian. In the
Pannonian sediments of the CH zones, a further four full sequences were determined. The definition of the sequences
is based on the recognition of lowstand, transgressive and highstand systems tracts. Erosional surfaces were recognized
on seismic sections, and in the sedimentary record they are marked by redeposited older fauna in the lowstand deposits.
During the sea-level rise a backstepping reflectors termination pattern is visible on seismic sections and during the
transgressions rapid changes of faunal assemblages were also determined. The highstand deposits are often represented
by condensed sections and low-aerated conditions in the Vienna Basin centre. The maximum flooding surface within
the D zone represents the initial highstand stage and can be indicated by a dinoflagellates-rich horizon.
Key words: Vienna Basin, Late Miocene, sequence stratigraphy, paleoenvironments.
The Vienna Basin is situated within the Alpine-Carpathian
mountain chain, between the Eastern Alps and the Western
Carpathians. It represents a polyhistoric basin with Neogene to
Quaternary sedimentary fill, deposited in various types of
basins in relation to the paleotectonic development of the
The Eggenburgian to Ottnangian sedimentation took place
in a system of piggy-back basins and intramontane wrench-
fault furrows, developing in a compressive tectonic regime,
due to the collision of the orogen with the North European
Platform (Kováè et al. 1989; Kováè et al. 1997). During the
Karpatian and the Early Badenian times the Vienna pull-apart
basin was formed, following the lithospheric displacement of
the Western Carpathians northeastwards (Royden 1988;
Ratschbacher et al. 1991a,b). From the Middle Badenian to the
Sarmatian the basin subsidence was controlled by back-arc
synrift extension. The post-rift stage of the basin development
represents the Pannonian and Pontian evolution of the Vienna
Basin, which gradually changed into the tectonic inversion of
the area during the Pliocene and Quaternary times (Kováè et
The aim of this paper is to clarify the sequence stratigraphy
of the Pannonian basin fill, of the basis of new results obtained
by sedimentological and paleontological study of surface out-
crops and boreholes, as well as by reinterpretation of seismic
sections and well-log data in the Slovak part of the Vienna Ba-
sin (Fig. 1).
The Late Miocene radiometric dating of the Neogene stage
boundaries, carried out on volcanic rocks of the Western
Carpathians (Vass et al. 1985) determined: the Sarmatian/
Pannonian boundary as 11.5 ± 0.5 Ma, the Pannonian/Pontian
boundary as 8.5 ± 0.5 Ma and the Pontian/Pliocene boundary as
5.6 ± 0.2 Ma. According to new data, the boundary between the
Pannonian and the Pontian was shifted to 7.1 Ma (Rögl 1996).
The Late Miocene sedimentary environment changes are
well reflected in faunal changes in the Vienna Basin deposits.
The oldest division of these rocks was based on study of
molluscs (Papp 1951, 1985) and subdivided the Pannonian
strata into the lower part, containing small Congeria of the A,
B and C biozones, overlain by a sedimentary succession with
large Congeria of the D and E biozones. Besides the brackish-
water fauna of zone F, the Pontian was characterized by the
fresh-water fauna of the G and H biozones (Rögl & Steininger
1990) (Table1, Pl. I).
446 KOVÁÈ et al.
Fig. 1. Situation of the Vienna Basin within the Alpine-Carpathian mountain chain, thickness of the Pannonian strata in the northern part of
the basin. The studied boreholes are marked: M Malacky, J Jakubov, S Suchohrad, Z 1-Suchohrad; outcrops: G Gbely, BSJ
Borský Svätý Jur.
LATE MIOCENE PALEOENVIRONMENTS AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY: NORTHERN VIENNA BASIN 447
Table 1: Neogene chronostratigraphy and sequence boundary ages.
The first appearance of Hipparion is recorded from the base
of Pannonian zone C (Papp 1951; Rögl et al. 1993; Steininger et
al. 1996). This appearance is correlated throughout Europe with
the base of the MN 9 mammal zone (Mein 1975; Rögl et al.
1993; Rögl 1996). The finding of Hipparion sp., Ictitherium
viverrinum, Perunium ursogulo, Monosaulax sp. and
Lagomerix sp. in deposits of the Papp´s zone E at Borský Svätý
Jur indicate the presence of the MN 10 to MN 11 zones (Lupták
1995a,b; Pipík & Holec 1998).
According to micromammals the boundary between the
zones MN 9 and MN 10 (Mein 1975; Steininger et al.1990,
1996) is based on the first appearance of murids. The first
Progonomys is recorded from the locality Neusiedl am See
from fluvial sands of the zone G (sensu Papp 1951) and the
famous freshwater section of the Eichkogel at the western
border of the Vienna Basin has a very rich fauna of the MN 11
zone (Mein 1975; Steininger et al. 1990, 1996).
Deposits of the GH zones (Papp et al. 1985) represented in
the northern part of the Vienna Basin by the Gbely Fm., were
correlated with the Early Pliocene (Bartek 1989). We incline
to the opinion, that the formation represented a deposition be-
low the boundary of 7.1 Ma, during late Pannonian times (Ta-
ble 2). The Pliocene sedimentation started with deposition of
the Brodské Fm. (Bartek 1989).
Paleoenvironments and sea-level oscillations
The end of the Middle Miocene (Late Sarmatian) was
characterized by sea-level fall in the Vienna Basin. A shal-
low brackish-marine environment in the basin is documented
by the Elphidium hauerinum biozone (Grill 1943). The re-
sults of pollen analysis indicate a subtropical, warm and hu-
mid climate of the MF-9 biozone (Planderová et al. 1993).
At the beginning of the Pannonian stage A zone (11.5
11? Ma) (Papp 1951, 1985), the higher-order lowstand sea-
level fall led both to the erosion of older sediments and to
deposition of a prograding lowstand wedge (Table 2). In the
study area it is documented by an unconformity between the
Sarmatian and Pannonian strata (Jiøíèek 1985a), above which
448 KOVÁÈ et al.
Table 2: Late Miocene biozones, lithology and sequence stratigraphy of the Vienna Basin.
LATE MIOCENE PALEOENVIRONMENTS AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY: NORTHERN VIENNA BASIN 449
Fig. 2. Seismic sequence stratigraphy from the Jakubov area.
a delta front facies was deposited. The sandstones of the del-
ta front contain water-escape structures and synsedimentary
slump deformations and become finer upwards into laminat-
ed sandy-clayey prodelta facies (Pl. II). The heavy minerals
association indicates a transport mostly from the Outer Car-
pathian Flysch zone.
A brackish-water sedimentary environment with decreased
salinity (1510 ) is documented by ostracods, e.g. Cypri-
deis pannonica Mehes, C. tuberculata Mehes, Hungarocyp-
ris auriculata (Reuss) etc. The erosion of older sediments
and their transport basinwards is reflected by the redeposited
Sarmatian, Badenian and Karpatian macro- and microfauna
during this time.
The offshore facies consists of hemipelagic laminated and
homogenous clays and silty clays with abundant plant debris
and infaunal bioturbation.
The arctotertiary elements of geoflora, predominantly Abies,
Tsuga, Picea and Cedrus, indicate a temperate and humid cli-
mate at the Sarmatian/Pannonian boundary. The lowstand pe-
riod with marshes and lagoons at the basin margins caused the
increased pollen portion of Chenopodiaceae and Taxodium,
less Myrica and Nyssa (swamp vegetation elements) in the pa-
lynospectra. The increased pollen portion of Ericaceae points
to a fluvial influence. The accumulation of Chenopodiaceae in
the interfluve areas probably indicates a local saline swampy
environment during the sea level fall (Pl. III).
In the Early Pannonian strata B zone (11.5?11 Ma)
(Papp 1951), two horizons of prodeltaic and basinal sedi-
ments are separated by delta-front sandy and gravelly facies
with an erosive base. The prograding delta-front facies can
be interpreted as deposited during a higher order lowstand
period within the lower frequency transgressive systems tract
(Fig. 2). The clastic material was transported from the north-
west, as it is visible in seismic sections.
The offshore facies is represented by grey calcareous clays
with typical small congerias (Congeria ornithopsis Brusina)
and gastropods Melanopsis impressa bunellii Manyoni, Mel-
anopsis impressa posterior Papp. The ostracods Cyprideis,
Amplocypris sp. and Hungarocypris auriculata (Reuss) doc-
ument a still brackish-water sedimentary environment with
the salinity of 1510 (Tables 1, 2, Pl. IV).
The vegetation assemblage of MF-9 biozone (Planderová
et al. 1993) (Pl. III) with dominating Pinus and AlnusUl-
musMyrica subdominance on the basin margin indicates a
temperate climate. The near-shore facies at the base of the
Pannonian zone B is represented besides brackish-water also
by freshwater lagoonal coal bearing sediments (Kyjov Mb.),
representing the initial transgressive stage (Table 2).
During the Middle Pannonian C zone (1110.5? Ma)
(Papp 1951; Rögl et al. 1993), the shelf-margin wedge (or
lowstand wedge) development was followed by transgres-
sion. Incised valleys in deposits of the A and B zones were
filled by conglomerates, passing upwards into coarse-grained
sands (Fig. 2). During this time a sandy sedimentary body up
to 150 m thick was deposited, containing a rich mollusc fau-
na with Melanopsis fossilis Martini-Gmelin, M. bouei Ferus-
sac, Dreissena turislavica Jekelius, Theodoxus intracar-
pathicus Jekelius, Congeria hoernesi Brusina. Basinwards,
the upper part of the sands passes into calcareous clays with
Congeria partschi Papp, documenting still brackish environ-
ment with the salinity of 1510 .
During the Pannonian D zone (10.5?9.7? Ma) (Papp
1951; Rögl et al. 1993), the basin subsidence accelerated and
about 100 m of grey calcareous clays were deposited, contain-
ing large congerias Congeria partschi partschi Czjzek, C. glo-
bosatesta Papp (Pl. I), as well as Melanopsis fossilis
pseudoimpressa Papp and Limnocardium ornatum ornatum
Pavlovic (Jiøíèek 1985a). The marginal sandy facies contains
Melanopsis fossilis coaequata Handmann and M. fossilis con-
stricta Handmann. The rapid change of the faunal assemblage
is considered to be related to the 3
transgression (Table 2).
450 KOVÁÈ et al.
Plate I: Fig. 1. Ervilia dissita Eichwald and fragments of small congeria, S-38
borehole. Large congeria: Figs. 2, 3. Congeria subglobosa subglobosa Partsch.
Fig. 4. Congeria ungulacaprae Münster.
The deposition of fine-grained prodeltaic sedi-
ments continued in the study area. Synsedimenta-
ry siltstone intraclasts in clays point to sea-level
fall in the upper part of the D zone. Ostracods
Amplocypris recta (Reuss), A. abscissa (Reuss)
point out to the lowered salinity of sedimentary
environment ranging from 1510 (Pl. IV).
Pollen analysis data with prevailing Alnus
BetulaMyricaNyssa coastal vegetation on the
basin margin, indicate a temperate climate dur-
ing the lower part of the MF-10 biozone (Pland-
erová et al. 1993) (Pl. III).
During the Pannonian E zone (9.7?9? Ma)
(Papp 1951; Rögl 1996; Sacchi et al. 1997), the
accelerated sea-level rise is reflected by blooms
of the dinoflagellate species Spiniferites bentori
oblongus Suto & Szemlai, with which enrichment
indicates an increased depth of sedimentation
(maximum flooding surface) (Pl. VI). The ostra-
cods also indicate the best migration conditions.
Approximately 20 of the 57 Upper Pannonian
species found in Mt. Medvednica (Croatia) are
present in the Vienna Basin. Rundiæ (1991) de-
scribed very similar ostracods from the area
around Belgrade (Yugoslavia). During the high-
stand stage, a retreat of deltaic sedimentation
from the study area is visible, being followed by
an onset of shallow-water basinal facies of biotur-
The palynospectrum corresponds to the MF-
10 biozone (Planderová et al. 1993) and con-
tains a dominance of coniferous woody plants of
mountain vegetation (Pinus, Picea, Abies,
Tsuga) (Pl. V) and Salix. The mountain vegeta-
tion may document a sea-level rise and a flood-
ing of the basin coastal plain. The subdominance
of various herb species in the upper part of the E
zone can be regarded as a consequence of sea-
level fall and widening of steppe environment on
the basin margins.
The offshore clays of the E zone are rich in
large Congeria (Congeria subglobosa Partsch,
Congeria pancici Pavlovic), as well as in Conge-
ria zsigmondyi Halavats, Psilunio atavus Partsch,
Melanopsis vindobonensis Fuchs, Dreissenomya
piriformis Papp, Limnocardium conjungens
Partsch, L. brunnense Andrusov. The salinity of
the sedimentary environment can be determined
as 315 , on the basis of the presence of the os-
tracods Cyprideis heterostigma (Reuss), C. obesa
(Reuss) and a large number of Candoninae (e.g.
Candona unguicula (Reuss), Candona mutans
During the Pannonian F zone (9?8.5? Ma)
(Papp 1951; Rögl 1996; Sacchi et al. 1997), the
sedimentary succession of the Èáry Fm. was de-
The succession started by the Sekule Beds
(Bartek 1989) transgressive sandy-clayey deposits
LATE MIOCENE PALEOENVIRONMENTS AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY: NORTHERN VIENNA BASIN 451
Plate II: Soft-sediment deformations in the delta front facies from the boreholes Z-1 and S-23.
452 KOVÁÈ et al.
Plate III: All photographs enlarged
1000. Fig. l. Caryapollenites simplex (Potonié) Raatz, G outcrop. Fig. 2. Carpinipites carpinoides
(Pflug) Nagy, G outcrop. Fig. 3. Pterocaryapollenites stellatus (Potonié) Thiergart, S-32 borehole. Fig. 4. Alnipollenites verus Potonié,
S-32 borehole. Fig. 5. Myricipites rurensis (Pflug & Thomson) Nagy, S-38 borehole. Fig. 6. Betulaepollenites betuloides (Pflug) Nagy, S-
32 borehole. Fig. 7. Salixipollenites sp., S-32 borehole. Fig. 8. Ulmipollenites undulosus Wolff, S-38 borehole. Fig. 9. Liquidambarpolle-
nites sp., G outcrop. Fig. 10. Ilexpollenites margaritatus (Potonié) Raatz, G outcrop. Fig. 11. Cichoreacidites sp., G outcrop. Fig. 12.
Chenopodipollis multiplex (Weyland & Pflug) Krutzsch, S-32 borehole.
LATE MIOCENE PALEOENVIRONMENTS AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY: NORTHERN VIENNA BASIN
Plate IV: Fig. 1. Loxoconcha muelleri (Mehes), Lv, outside, 107
, M-16 borehole. Fig. 2. Loxoconcha kochi (Mehes), Rv, outside, 111
M-16 borehole. Fig. 3. Cyprideis tuberculata (Mehes), Rv, outside, 81
, S-32 borehole. Fig. 4. Cyprideis tuberculata (Mehes), Lv, inside,
, S-32 borehole. Fig. 5. Cyprideis pannonica (Mehes), Rv, outside, 81
, M-16 borehole. Fig. 6. Cyprideis pannonica (Mehes), Lv, in-
, M-16 borehole. Fig. 7. Cyprideis heterostigma (Reuss), Rv, outside, 57
, J-54 borehole. Fig. 8. Hemicyteria reniformis (Re-
uss), Rv, outside, 67
, J-54 borehole. Fig. 9. Amplocypris recta (Reuss), Rv, inside, 73
, BSJ outcrop. Lv left valve. Rv right valve.
454 KOVÁÈ et al.
Plate V: All photographs enlarged
1000. Fig. 1. Abiespollenites maximus Krutzsch, G outcrop. Fig. 2. Tsugaepollenites rueterbergensis
(Krutzsch) Nagy, G outcrop. Fig. 3. Inaperturopollenites cf. hiatus (Potonié) Thomson & Pflug, S-32 borehole.
with coquinas of Congeria zahalkai Spalek, Congeria neu-
mayri Andrusov and Limnocardium, as well as molluscs Dre-
issena and Valvata (Tables 1, 2). Later the Dubòany lignite
beds were deposited, being than overlain by fine-grained sand-
stones with coquinas. The ostracods Cyprideis seminulum
(Reuss), Cypria abbreviata (Reuss), Candona neglectan Sars,
Darwinula stevensoni Brady & Robertson document the 015
salinity of the sedimentary environment (Pl. IV). The east-
Serbian ostracod assemblages determining the Novorossian
and Portaferian stages (Krstiæ & Stancheva 1989) have no
analogy in the Vienna Basin. The only common species seems
to be Caspiolla venusta (Zalanyi). The paleobotanical data
point to swamp vegetation with Glyptostrobus, Nyssa, Phrag-
mites (Knobloch 1963).
The overlying Jánske Beds are composed of grey clays,
sandy clays with plant debris, sands and thin lignite seams in
the lower part (Table 2). The beds were deposited partly in a
fresh-water environment, which is documented by the mol-
lusc fauna, e.g. Unio sp., Planorbis confusus Soos, Planorbis
grandis (Halavats), Viviparus and Anodonta.
LATE MIOCENE PALEOENVIRONMENTS AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY: NORTHERN VIENNA BASIN
Plate VI: All photographs enlarged
1000. Fig. 1. Spiniferites ben-
torii oblongus Suto Szentai, G outcrop. Fig. 2. Spiniferites sp., G out-
crop. Fig. 3. Achomosphaera cf. andalusiense, G outcrop.
The Pannonian GH zones (8.5?7.1? Ma) (Papp
1951; Rögl et al. 1993) are represented by fresh-water
sediments of the Gbely Fm.
The G zone is represented by sands, sandy clays with
plant debris and typical blue clays. A fresh water environ-
ment is documented by the mollusc fauna e.g. Viviparus,
Valvata and ostracod fauna Darwinula stevensoni Brady
& Robertson, Candona candida (O. F. Müller),
Pseudocandona marchica Hartwig etc.
The H zone is represented by variegated clays and
fresh-water limestones with Valvata, Planorbis, Pisidium
and Characeae orogens.
The overlying Pliocene Brodské Fm. was deposited in
a fluvial environment and consists of gravels, sandy
clays and sands with redeposited lignite fragments
(Jiøíèek 1975; Bartek 1989).
Sedimentary cycles and sequence stratigraphy
On the basis of detailed reflection-seismic data with inter-
preted reflectors-termination patterns, completed by origi-
nal and regionally correlatable electric well-log data
(such as SP and R curves), sedimentological well-core
interpretations and paleontological environmental and
biostratigraphic analysis from both wells and outcrops
we interpreted sedimentary cycles in terms of the se-
quence-stratigraphic concept (Figs. 2, 3, 4, Table 2).
The seismostratigraphic interpretation (Fig. 2) enabled
us to recognize four sedimentary cycles within the Pan-
nonian AE zones. The younger cyclicity (Pannonian E
H) was interpreted from sedimentological and paleonto-
The geological settings changed upwards from deltaic-
dominated (AC zones), through offshore-dominated (D,
E zones), up to coal-bearing, limnic-dominated (FH
zones). The paleoenvironmental transformation is con-
sidered to be caused by eustacy and later by gradual ex-
tinction of sedimentary accommodation place in the Vi-
enna Basin during the Late Miocene and Pliocene times.
The first Pannonian sedimentary cycle has a duration
of 0.5 Ma (Pannonian A, B zones) and represents proba-
bly the 4
-order parasequence (Table 2). It can be further
subdivided into two higher-frequency parasequences (PS
1, PS 2), based on the seismostratigraphic record (Fig.
2). These fine-scale cycles probably belong to the late 3
-order highstand systems tract or falling-stage systems
The higher-order parasequences originated under the
influence of changing sediment supply and related avail-
able accommodation space in the deltaic-dominated set-
ting (Jiøíèek 1985b).
The PS 1 parasequence has an erosive base, correlated
with the Sarmatian/Pannonian boundary. The delta-front
progradation and redeposition of sediments with older
fauna into the basin centre created a lowstand wedge and
basin-floor fans during the Pannonian A zone. The delta-
front facies is covered by backstepping sandy facies of
the transgressive systems tract with characteristic filling
456 KOVÁÈ et al.
Fig. 4. Sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the well logs (SP and R curves) data from the Jakubov and Suchohrad boreholes.
Fig. 3. Sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the well logs (SP and R curves) data from the Jakubov boreholes.
5 + 4
4 + 5
3 - 1
3 - 1
3 - 1
LATE MIOCENE PALEOENVIRONMENTS AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY: NORTHERN VIENNA BASIN
of increased accommodation place, passing upwards into
downlapping highstand systems tract (Fig. 2).
During the Pannonian zone B an onlapping sandy and
gravelly sedimentary body represents the lowstand wedge at
the base of the PS 2 parasequence. The wedge is covered by
finer-grained prodeltaic and basinal facies.
The sedimentary succession of this parasequence is locally
deeply eroded and covered by a thick deltaic sand body of
the next-sequence lowstand systems tract, stratigraphically
correlated with the Pannonian C zone (Fig. 2).
A minor erosive surface within the Pannonian D zone repre-
sents the base of the next sequence. The lowstand prodeltaic
sediments pass upwards into basinal transgressive and thick
highstand clays of the E zone. The upper surface of prograding
highstand deposits is truncated by a major erosive surface
(Fig. 2), thus marking the 3
-order sequence boundary.
The sedimentary succession of the E zone was described
also from outcrops in the Hodonín brick-yard (Jiøíèek
1985a). These sandy-clayey sediments can be divided into
three parts (E1, E2 and E3).
E1 consists of transgressive facies with a thin coal seam on
the basis, passing upwards into dark gray clays with Limno-
cardium schedelianum and L. conjugens. E2 is built by varie-
gated (yellowish) clays with very poor fauna content, repre-
senting the highstand low-aerated conditions. The overlying
sandy sediments of the E3 part containing coquinas with
Congeria spatulata, alternate with calcareous clays with
Congeria subglobosa, Limnocardium brunnense, Dreisse-
nomya primiformis, Caspiolla unguicula and Cyprideis, and
represent deposition under lowstand conditions. These data
are in a good correspondence with the seismostratigraphic di-
vision (Fig. 2).
The sedimentary succession of the F zone contains four
coal-bearing cyclothemes (Jiøíèek 1985a). They consist of
lignite, overlying sands and clays.
F1 Dubòany lignite seams and clays with Congeria
neumayri were interpreted as transgressive deposits, F2
Jánske lignite seams 1 and clays with Congeria zahalkai, as
well as F3 Jánske lignite seams 2 and clays with Congeria
zahalkai represent highstand deposits. F4 Jánske lignite
seams 3 and clays with Congeria neumayri were regarded as
The limnic Gbely Fm. (G, H zones) can be interpreted as
an individual sequence with an erosive base and eroded up-
per part (Table 2). The highstand stage is considered to be
correlatable with the anoxic blue clays without faunal rem-
Discussion and conclusions
The Late Miocene sedimentary environment in the North-
ern Vienna Basin was a shallow brackish- to fresh-water in-
land sea to lake at the northwestern margin of the Pannonian
The geological settings were changed upwards from delta-
ic-dominated during Papps AC zones, through offshore-
dominated (D, E zones), up to coal-bearing, limnic-dominat-
ed (FH zones). The overlying Pliocene deposits show an
alluvial dominance during sedimentation. The dominant geo-
logical settings have a strong influence on the rate of deposi-
tion, due to the sediment supply and related formation of
available accommodation place.
From the sequence-stratigraphical point of view, Pogácsás
& Seifert (1991) considered relating the Late Sarmatian sedi-
ments to the lowstand period of sedimentation. On the basis
of sedimentological studies, a 3
-order transgressive sys-
tems represented by typical limestone facies was identified,
at the beginning of the Late Samartian (Nagy et al. 1993).
continuation is represented by fining-upwards sandy and
clayey facies of a highstand systems tract. According to cor-
relation with another study of Plint & Nummedal (in press)
the partial erosion at the Sarmatian/Pannonian boundary can
be explained also during the late 3
-order highstand period,
thus representing a falling stage systems tract.
The finer-scale parasequences, recognized in the Early
Pannonian strata (A, B zones), are interpreted as local rela-
tive sea-level variations during the late 3
systems tract or falling-stage systems tract, which continued
from the Sarmatian (Table 1).
On the base of Papps C zone a distinct erosive surface
marks the next 3
-order sequence boundary, covered by a
thick delta-front-related lobatic system, representing a low-
stand systems tract. The following transgression influenced
the new faunal migration and significant faunal change from
the small congerias to the large congerias at the base of zone
D. The following highstand deposits show a gradual decrease
of thickness basinwards (to the SE), which can be related to
the synsedimentary normal tectonics on the western margin
of the basin (Table 2).
A minor erosive surface within the D zone indicates the
base of the next sequence with lowstand-related prodeltaic
sediments, passing upwards into zone E, where the thin
transgressive systems tract is covered by a thick highstand-
related silty-clayey facies. The maximum flooding surface is
well indicated by a horizon, rich in dinoflagellates (Table 1).
In the upper part of Papps E zone an erosive surface with
distinct hiatus at the basin margin points to a significant rela-
tive sea-level fall. The lowstand deposits are passing upwards
into the coal-bearing transgressive deposits at the basin mar-
gins during the F zone in which a 4
-order relative sea level
change was observed. The transgression caused a change in
the ostracod faunal assemblages and appearance of their di-
naric forms. The highstand deposits at the northwestern mar-
gin of the basin are also coal-bearing and gradually disappear,
due to the decreasing accommodation place and at the end of
the F zone deposits of falling stage to lowstand systems tracts
are preserved (Table 2).
After a hiatus the Pannonian fresh-water sediments of
zones GH (Rögl et al. 1993) were interpreted as a succes-
sion of transgressive, highstand and lowstand systems tracts,
where the highstand stage is correlated with the anoxic blue
clays without faunal remnants.
Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the
scientific grants VEGA 4076, 4080 and Grant No. 1305296.
For making available their technical database grateful thanks
is owing to Nafta Gbely Oil Company. We also express our
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