GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 49, 2, BRATISLAVA, APRIL 1998
ENCLAVES IN THE ROCHOVCE GRANITE INTRUSION
AS INDICATORS OF THE TEMPERATURE AND ORIGIN
OF THE MAGMA
, ALEXANDER B. KOTOV
, EKATHERINA B. SALNIKOVA
and VIKTOR P. KOVACH
Slovak Geological Survey, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Makarova Emb. 2, 199034 St. Petersburg,
(Manuscript received January 21, 1997; accepted in revised form December 11, 1997)
Abstract: Two boreholes in the Mo-W-bearing porphyric Cretaceous granite, located near the village of Rochovce,
Western Carpathians, reveal the existence of two types of enclaves: 1. micaceous enclaves (biotite-plagioclase gneisses
without quartz, with highly calcitic plagioclases) and 2. mafic microgranular enclaves (MME), with predominantly
dioritic composition. In the first type, corundum, Zn-hercynite and magnetite were produced due to the high temperature
melting of biotite. These are considered to be restites. The melting reactions in biotite indicate that the granite magma
temperatures exceeded 800
C at the time of the enclave melting. The mafic microgranular enclaves represent portions of
mafic magma incorporated in the granitic magma. Seven types of mineralogical-petrological indicators of magma mix-
ing were found. The chemical and Sm/Nd isotopic characteristics of the host granite and MME show that chemical and
isotopic equilibration was achieved within the granite-MME system. The initial
Nd value in granite (3.0) indicates
that some mafic magmatic material was added to the magma chamber. The apparent crustal residence age (T*
1100 Ma) indicates an old, Precambrian history of the crustal source material. Thus, the Rochovce magma was derived
from a crustal source, with addition of more mafic (probably mantle-derived) magma.
Key words: Western Carpathians, Cretaceous, granite, mafic microgranular enclaves, micaceous enclaves, mixing,
The hidden Cretaceous Rochovce granite intrusion in the
Western Carpathians has attracted the attention of research
workers since seventies because of its geotectonic position,
geochemical, petrographic and mineralogical features and
Mo-W mineralization potential. The former investigations
concern: geological-petrographic and petrological features re-
lated to the granite and its host rocks (Klinec & Macek 1979;
Klinec et al. 1980; Korikovsky et al. 1986; Krist et al. 1988;
Korikovsky et al. 1989; Radvanec 1994); mineralogical-
geochemical and metallogenic features (Ivanov 1984; Határ
et al. 1989; Gregor 1992); isotopic-geochronological features
(Kantor & Rybár 1979; Kovach et al. 1986; Cambel et al.
1989; Repèok et al. 1992; ák et al. 1994; Hrako et al. 1995)
and metallogenetic features (Václav et al. 1988, 1990).
The study of enclaves in the Rochovce intrusion provides
a better understanding of the genesis of the granitic magma.
The Rochovce type granite intrudes into an area intersect-
ed by a major regional tectonic zone (the Lubeník Line),
which separates two mega-tectonic blocks, the Veporic and
the Gemeric Superunits (Fig. 1). They are bound to a system
of shear zones running in an E-W direction, oblique to the
strike of the Lubeník Line, which marks a zone formed dur-
ing the Alpine collision of the two structural mega-blocks.
The following rock types crop out in the area (from NW
to SE): porphyritic granitoids of the Vepor type (Variscan),
with frequent superimposed Alpine deformation and recrys-
tallization, aplites and aplitic granitoids, migmatitized
metasediments, Early Paleozoic metasediments of the Hla-
domorná dolina Complex, metasediments of the Revúca
Group (Vozárová & Vozár 1982), composed of the Slatvina
(Stefanian C-D) and Rimava (Permian) Formations.
The Gemeric Superunit, represented in this area by the
Ochtiná Formation (Vozárová in Bajaník et al. 1981), was
thrusted over the Veporic Superunit, along the Lubeník Line
which marks the trace of the thrust plane. The contact be-
tween the two megablocks was intruded by an Alpine granite
body elongated in an E-W direction (Fig. 1). U-Pb dating,
done on abraded zircons, gives to this intrusion a concordant
age of 8182 Ma (Michalko in Hrako et al. 1995).
Description of the Rochovce granitoid
The petrographic features of the Rochovce granitoid have
been recorded in the papers of Klinec et al. (1980) and Határ
et al. (1989). The latter authors specified two intrusive phas-
es, the younger one being a differentiate, which contains the
126 HRAKO, KOTOV, SALNIKOVA and KOVACH
The first phase of granitoids, which represents the northern
part of the body, includes: a) coarse-grained to porphyric gran-
ites with phenocrysts of pink potassium feldspars; they
predominate at greater depths; b) granite porphyries, locally
with parallel fabric, predominating in the marginal parts of the
body; c) different varieties of mafic magmatic enclaves. Only
this type of granite contains MME and rarely micaceous en-
claves. The magmatic accessory mineral association is allan-
Leucogranitoids from the second phase, located predomi-
nantly in the southern portion of the body, are free of en-
claves. Radvanec (1994) has proposed a model, in which
the granites of this phase evolved in a process of melting of
metasediments, subjected to temperatures of 650
pressures of 9 kbar.
Types of enclaves in the Rochovce intrusion
The studied enclaves come from a coarse grained porphy-
ric monzogranite (first phase) intersected in the borehole
KV-3, which reached the deepest part of the granitic body.
Three types of enclaves were observed:
1. xenoliths non melted, irregular, angular small en-
claves from the overlying rocks, i.e. mainly contact horn-
felses, or metagabbros.
2. micaceous (surmicaceous) enclaves are very scarce,
with diffusional or lentiform shape up to 5 cm in diameter,
randomly distributed in granite.
3. mafic microgranular enclaves (MME), with predomi-
nantly dioritic characteristics.
The sizes of enclaves vary from a few cm. Enclaves up to
20 cm are scarce. The latter two types are important as they
can be used to characterize the granitic magma source for
the Rochovce intrusion.
Petrographic and mineralogical characteristics
The enclaves of this type occur locally in the form of diffu-
sional, or lentiform features, up to 35 cm in diameter. The
fabric is slightly parallel, locally randomly oriented and the
Fig. 1. Simplified geological map of the Rochovce area (modified
after Bajaník et al.,1984): 1 Silica Nappe (Lower Triassic), 25
Gemeric Superunit; 2 Meliata Group (Triassic-Jurassic), 3
Goèaltovo Group (Permian), 4 Dobiná Group (Carboniferous), 5
Gelnica Group (Cambrian? Silurian); 6 12 Veporic Superunit;
6 Foederata Group (Lower Triassic), 7 Rimava Formation
(Permian), 8 Slatvina Formation (Stefan CD) and part of the
Hladomorná valley Complex (Lower Paleozoic), 9 Slatvina For-
mation, 10 Krá¾ová ho¾a Complex migmatites, gneisses (Low-
er Paleozoic?), 11 leucocratic aplitoidic granitoids (Upper Car-
boniferous-Permian?), 12 predominantly porphyric granitoids
(Lower Carboniferous), 13 geophysically indicated Rochovce
granite intrusion, 14 nappes, strike slips, observed and inferred
faults, 15 drill holes.
Fig. 2. Al
+ Mg) classification of biotites; void cir-
cles granite biotites, full circles MME biotites, crosses
micaceous enclave biotites.
ENCLAVES IN GRANITE INTRUSION AS INDICATORS OF TEMPERATURE OF MAGMA 127
texture is granolepidoblastic. They were classified as biotitic-
plagioclase gneisses (biotite content is more than 40 vol.%
and plagioclase content more than 45 vol.%). They do not
contain any quartz. Small amounts of the following minerals
occur: K-feldspar, amphibole, epidote, magnetite, corundum,
spinel with Zn-hercynite composition, apatite, titanite, zircon
and allanite. The modal composition of a representative ex-
ample of these enclaves is given in Table 1.
The composition of plagioclases ranges between An
. Rare relics of the calcic labrador (An
or more, Ta-
ble 2), form patches in less calcic plagioclases (non peristerit-
ic) in the vicinity of the corundum crystals. Even more calcic
plagioclases (probably bytownite or anorthite) are present.
However, their composition could not be specified, due to
their small size.
Compared to the biotites found in the granite and/or mafic
microgranular enclaves, these biotites are more aluminous
(Table 3, Fig. 2). The composition of biotites from the most
recrystallized portions resembles that of biotites in the
MME and granite (see also Határ et al. 1989).
Corundum forms irregular grains up to 0.5 mm in diameter.
The marginal parts may be replaced by white mica. Due to
Table 2: Compositions of plagioclases in the MME and in the micaceous enclaves.
Table 1: Modal compositions of the micaceous enclaves and MME (in vol. %). Abbreviations: Pl plagioclase (in MME andesine-oligo-
clase), Ab in MME oligoclase-albite, Kfs K-feldspar, Qtz quartz, Bt biotite, Hbl hornblende, Chl chlorite, Mag magnetite,
Ser sericite (margarite, phengite), Zrn zircon, Spn sphene (titanite), Aln allanite Ap apatite Acc accessories (allanite, zircon,
apatite, corundum, hercynite), Cal calcite, Ep epidote, Zo zoizite/clinozoizite, + present under 0.1 vol.%.
Hbl Mag Ap Zrn Spn Aln Chl Ser Cal Ep CzoAcc
Recalculated to 8 O
centre inter. rim
superimposed alterations its relation to the higher-tempera-
ture mineral assemblage is problematic. However, it is often
included in plagioclase, when biotite is around. Corundum, in
a sample from a depth of 899.6 m, contains: Al
(97 wt. %)
. BEI image (Pl. I: Fig. 1) shows a high temperature
mineral association replaced by a lower temperature associa-
tion (white micas-zoisite). The typical texture of micaceous
enclave is shown in Fig. 3.
Spinel occurs in the form of beer-bottle-green grains,
grouped in large clusters and associated with tiny magnetite
grains. The grain size is less than 0.1 mm. They are consid-
ered to represent the ultimate desintegration product of bi-
otite. Its composition corresponds to that of the Zn-Mg bear-
ing hercynite (Table 4). It is frequently associated with the
magnetite in a matrix composed of very fine-grained white
micas and epidote-zoizite group minerals products of
Alterations: substitution of the corundum by white micas is the
most distinct type of subsolidus alteration. Microprobe study re-
vealed that the phyllosilicate minerals are concentrated in an enve-
lope, the margarite being in the internal and the phengite in the ex-
128 HRAKO, KOTOV, SALNIKOVA and KOVACH
ternal zone. Sphalerite, formed on account of Zn-hercynite, has
also been identified. Its precipitation occurred during a postmag-
matic period and was followed by a fluidization stage, which was
locally associated with increasing activity of sulphur and subse-
quent development of pyrite impregnations.
Fig. 3. Mineral associations in micaceous enclaves: A corundum-
magnetite-biotite-plagioclase; B corundummagnetitebiotite
plagioclase, hercynitemagnetitebiotiteplagioclase. Abbrevia-
tions: Crn corundum, Mag magnetite, Hc hercynite, Bt
biotite, Pl plagioclase, wM white micas (phengite, margarite).
Table 4: Compositions of hercynites in the micaceous enclave
(depth 899.6 m).
Table 3: Compositions of the biotites from the micaceous and
MME (in w. perc.).
recalculated to 22 oxygens
Fe tot 2+
recalculated to 24 cations
Mafic microgranular enclaves (MME)
These enclaves have a mostly dioritic composition. Their
size may reach several cm, rarely more than 15 cm. Their
shapes are amoeboidal (Pl. I: Fig. 2), semioval to oval (Pl. I:
Fig. 3), which is a typical feature for a hot and a less viscous
dioritic magma, trapped within a granitic magma environ-
ment. The enclave margins are mostly sharp, or diffusional.
In the latter case the tiny minerals of the MME are trapped as
poikilitic inclusions in quartz and K-feldspar the latest
products of the granite magma crystallization. They are dark,
or pale grey in the presence of quartz, or pinkish, in the pres-
ENCLAVES IN GRANITE INTRUSION AS INDICATORS OF TEMPERATURE OF MAGMA 129
ence of K-feldspar. The content of alkaline feldspars shifts
the MME modal composition into the fields of quartz diorite-
monzonite-syenite (Fig. 4). The composition of mafic micro-
granular enclaves is given in Table 1.
The texture of enclaves is massive, fine-grained and mi-
crodioritic. They locally contain larger plagioclase xenocrysts
(15 mm), with comparable size and the type of zoning, char-
acteristic for the plagioclases present in the granite, but with a
typically thin, more calcic fringe (X
~ 0.46). The xenoc-
rysts are several times larger than the minerals from the ma-
trix (usually <0.10.5 mm ). Xenocrysts of quartz and locally
also amphibole and biotite are present. The plagioclase (X
~ 0.430.14) laths (up to 0.1
1 mm) are oriented at random,
the spaces between them being filled with a more sodic and
younger plagioclase (X
~ 0.220.17). They may also be in-
cluded in the poikilitic quartz or K-feldspar in the matrix. The
poikilitic minerals are more than ten times (more than 15
20 mm across) larger and fluently pass into the granitic ma-
trix. In small enclaves the poikilitic minerals occupy most of
the enclave area, which causes shifts of their modal composi-
tion to syenitic.
The mafic minerals are biotite (up to 27 %) and amphibole
(up to 9 %). The biotite composition is characterized by a pre-
dominance of Mg over Fe (Mg/Mg + Fe = 0.580.61), reminis-
cent of the composition in the granite host (Table 3, Fig. 2).
The amphibole (Mg/Mg + Fe = 0.680.8) not only forms indi-
vidual grains, but also aggregates of small grains (Pl. I: Fig. 4),
which are probably pseudomorphoses after higher temperature
amphiboles. The amphibole composition is displayed in Ta-
ble 5 (calculated to 13 cations). The majority of amphiboles
are zonal and their composition ranges from magnesium-rich
hornblende in the crystal centres, to actinolite at the margins.
Using Al (Anderson & Smith 1995) as hornblende barometer,
pressure during growth of aggregates, can be assessed to 1.5
The accessory minerals comprise the elongated, prismatic,
to needle-shaped apatite, locally with dusky centres, sphene,
allanite, zircon and metallic ore minerals.
The amoeboidal shape of larger dioritic enclaves (Pl. I: Fig.
2) indicates that they formed fluid vesicles within the granite
magma. Pale grey and pink enclaves are smaller and oval (Pl.
I: Fig. 3). Their composition is more alkaline, approaching
that of monzonite or alkaline-felspathic syenite. K-feldspar
forms here small anhedral grains.
The microfabrics indicate that the beginning of rapid dior-
ite magma crystallization, and formation of the dark enclaves,
started after the crystallization of first generation plagioclase
and quartz in the granitic magma. These, early-crystallized
minerals, were later included in a form of much larger xenoc-
ryst within the fine-grained matrix. The ocellar quartz xenoc-
rysts, surrounded by tangentially oriented amphiboles (Pl. II:
Fig. 2) or biotites and plagioclases (Pl. II: Fig. 3). The thermal
effects of a hotter dioritic magma observed in the immediate
contacts of enclaves with the host granitic magma are demon-
strated by the formation of plagioclase envelopes, surround-
ing K-feldspar crystals (Pl. II: Fig. 4), thus resembling a rapa-
Geochemical and Sm/Nd isotope characteristics
of a MME and a granite
Owing to the small amount and size of enclaves the chance
to collect a sample for chemical analysis (Table 6) was quite
limited. Only one granite sample taken at the depth of 1222 m
and one MME sample from 1036.6 m (borehole KV-3) were
submitted to the Sm/Nd isotope analyses (Table 7).
Geochemical characteristics of a MME
The MME sample (Table 6) represents a monzonitic vari-
ety. The petrographic observations have shown that its com-
position, enriched in K, reflects a process of mingling and
mixing of the mafic and felsic components and biotitization
processes, rather than the primary magma composition of the
Comparing the composition of the MME with granite, an
enrichment in Fe, K, Li, Rb, Cr, Zr, LREE, Y and Th can be
noted. This difference is partially of primary origin. The
chemical transfer between the granite and the enclave can
result in the increased contents of SiO
O, Li, Zr, Nb, Y
and REE in enclaves (Orsini et al. 1991). Mechanical mix-
ing of the granite magma crystals with the MME magma en-
hances the effects of this process.
Several authors (in Orsini et al. l.c.) noted that the least
acidic composition enclaves has in each association the high-
est contents of K
O, Rb and Li. They relate this to a chemical
transfer of alkalies from the acidic magma. Increased con-
tents of Y, Nb, Zr and REE can be explained in the same way.
Thus this process is probably controlled by the modal abun-
dances of biotite and amphibole the principal concentra-
tors of the above mentioned elements in an enclave. K, Rb, Zr
Fig. 4. QAP diagram for modal composition of mafic microgran-
ular enclaves (full circles) and associated granites (open circles). 3a
syenogranites, 3b monzogranites, 6 alkali-syenite, 8
quartz-monzodiorite, 10 diorite, 10
130 HRAKO, KOTOV, SALNIKOVA and KOVACH
and LREE enrichment in the enclaves as compared to the
host granitoids and average diorites, was proved by Petrík &
Broska (1989) and Broska & Petrík (1993) in the Variscan I-
type granitoids of the Western Carpathians. The authors as-
sign this enrichment to the migration of ions towards the en-
clave from the granitoid magma environment, in a process
accompanied by biotitization. A similar, but more pro-
nounced enrichment trend has been observed in the granite-
MME pair from Rochovce.
Sm/Nd characteristics of the Rochovce Granite and MME
The results are shown in Table 7.
Analytical technique: Rock powders for Sm-Nd studies were
analysed following the method of Richard et al. (1976). They were
totally spiked with
Nd mixed solution and dissolved in a
mixture of HF+HNO
. Sm and Nd were separated using
conventional cation-exchange chromatography and then extraction
chromatography on HDEHP covered with teflon powder. The total
blanks during the study were 0.10.2 ng for Sm and 0.10.5 ng for
Nd. Isotopic measurements were performed at the Institute of Pre-
cambrian Geology and Geochronology, Russian Academy of Sci-
ences, St. Petersburg on a Finnigan MAT 261 8-collector mass-
spectrometer in static mode. The accuracy of the measurements is:
Sm and Nd isotopes ±0.5 %,
Nd ±0.5 %,
±0.005 % (2s). During this work the weighted average of 31 La
Jolla Nd-standard runs yielded 0.511845 ± 4(2s) for
using 0.7219 for
Nd to standardize. A linear model with
Nd = 0.2136,
Nd(0) = 0.513151 was
used for depleted mantle (DM) (Goldstein & Jacobsen 1988) and
modern values for chondrite uniform reservoir (CHUR) (Jacobsen
& Wasserburg 1980). Details of analytical technique were de-
scribed in Neymark et al. (1993).
Interpretation of results: The closeness of the
Nd (T) val-
ues was probably caused by an isotopic equilibration between
Table 7: Sm-Nd isotope characteristics of the granite and MME from the borehole KV-3. (T*
according to model Liew & Hofmann 1988).
Table 6: Chemical composition of the MME and granite. Explana-
tions: ( ) average value for granites from the borehole KV-3.
Table 5: Compositions of the amphiboles from the MME (depth
1145.3 m )
recalculated to 13 cations
T (DM) T*(DM)
ENCLAVES IN GRANITE INTRUSION AS INDICATORS OF TEMPERATURE OF MAGMA 131
132 HRAKO, KOTOV, SALNIKOVA and KOVACH
Plate II: Fig. 1
Lath-shaped plagioclases in poikilitic K-feldspar. BEI image.
Ocellar quartz grain rimmed by tangentially oriented amphiboles (Hbl); BEI
ENCLAVES IN GRANITE INTRUSION AS INDICATORS OF TEMPERATURE OF MAGMA 133
the granite host and the MME. This is also one of the reasons
why this enclave does not have a Sm/Nd characteristic corre-
sponding to a mantle derivation, even though it is closer to
the field of the depleted mantle than granite. An example of a
missing isotopic contrast between granite and associated en-
claves was given by Pin (1991) to demonstrate the presence
of re-equilibration processes during the high temperature
magmatic regimes. Apparent crustal residence ages T(DM)
characterize the time span needed for the separation of the
material precursor for the Rochovce Granite from the mantle
materials (including possible multiple recycling in a crustal
environment). The T(DM) value indicates the existence of an
old crustal, probably Proterozoic source.
Enclaves in granitoid rocks a source of information
on the origin of magmas
Study of enclaves in granitoid rocks can provide informa-
tion on the source of granitoid magmas.
Can be regarded as a metamorphosed crustal material. Its
metamorphic nature is shown by the occurrence of planar
fabric. Locally observed microfabrics indicate a considerable
plastic deformation. The existence of Al-rich minerals, such
as corundum and hercynite (the other Al-minerals could not
be identified due to superimposed alterations), found in the
intrusive granitoids, have been described especially in the en-
claves enriched in micas. These minerals normally result
from high temperature melting reactions of micas, alumino-
silicates and Fe-Mg containing minerals, such as garnet,
cordierite, staurolite, etc.
Montel et al. (1991) described the enclaves in the granites
of the French Massif Central whose compositions is similar
to that found in the Rochovce Granite. The micaceous en-
claves from the Sidobre Massif have the following composi-
tion: 45 % biotite, 3546 % plagioclase, less than 1 % her-
cynite and 34 % corundum. These enclaves are considered
to be rocks from the source area, which did not melt owing to
their special chemical composition, or they represent frag-
ments of the host rocks, incorporated in the deeper parts
the so called deep xenoliths.
The micaceous enclaves are referred to by some authors
as being the restites after the granite magma melting (e.g.
Didier 1973). However, such quartz-less rocks can also de-
velop due to the repetition of melting episodes (Montel et
al. 1986), or due to a continual removal of the granite melts,
generated at the beginning of partial melting (Harris 1981).
Corundum in association with spinel has been described
in high degree metamorphic rocks, which formed under
nearly anatectic conditions (Godard 1990), from granulites
(Perchuk et al. 1989; Bertrand et al. 1992), from enclaves of
predominantly metapelitic xenolithic nature, found in mag-
matites of either more basic (Owen & Greenough 1991), or
more acid composition (Montel et al. 1991; Suarez et al.
1992). The corundum is stable in the rock free of quartz.
The stability field of hercynite expands as the gahnite
component increases (Schulters & Bohlen 1989), or when
the oxygen fugacity increases in the system (Hensen 1986).
Increasing content of Zn shifts the hercynite stability toward
higher pressures. The hercynite usually exists in both
quartz-rich and quartz-free associations under either higher
amphibolite facies (Harley & Fitzsimmons 1991), or contact
metamorphism conditions (Pattison & Tracy 1991). Forma-
tion of the Zn-hercynite due to thermal desintegration of
staurolite has also been described (Cesare 1994).
Pattison & Tracy (1991) refer to dehydration-melting reac-
tions of biotite associated with the Al
, with cordierite
and/or garnet, and the resulting formation of corundum and/or
spinel. In all cases the K-feldspar forms simultaneously. This
also happens when the muscovite melts. The corundum oc-
curs more frequently at the contacts between the metasedi-
ments and intermediary or basic intrusives, indicating that
higher reaction temperatures are needed for corundum to
The association of corundum with hercynite + magnetite
(Fig. 3) suggests that these minerals were formed as a result
of high temperature melting of a Fe-Mg-Al mineral, proba-
bly biotite. Experiments of high temperature dehydration-
melting of biotite at T = 800
C and p = 1 kbar with the f
at the level of QFM buffer (Brearley 1987a), led to the for-
mation of hercynite and a melt along the cleavage plains of
biotite, according to the reaction:
Al-rich biotite = 0.2 hercynite +0.13 melt + 0.83 Al-poor
Under natural conditions at the contact with a dolerite sill,
Brearley (1987b) found that the biotite in a pelitic gneiss
melts, following the reaction:
Fe-Al biotite = Mg-Al biotite + magnetite + hercynite +
K-feldspar + melt/vapour.
He inferred, that the temperature of this dehydration-melt-
ing exceeded 770
C. Such reaction could also explain the
hercynite + magnetite formation in the enclaves of the Roch-
ovce Granite and should also be responsible for the shift of
the biotite composition in the enclaves (Table 3, the first two
analyses) towards more magnesian types (Table 3, the third
analysis), which occur in the most recrystallized parts of the
At the same time decreasing Al content in the biotite could
contribute to the formation of corundum. The presence of an
An-rich plagioclase may be explained by the reaction (Suarez
et al. 1992):
biotite + plagioclase
= hercynite + An-rich plagio-
clase + melt.
Experimental melting of metagreywacke (biotiteplagio-
clasequartz) composition (Vielzeuf & Montel 1994) leads
134 HRAKO, KOTOV, SALNIKOVA and KOVACH
clave melting, accompanied by corundum, her-
cynite and magnetite, could have taken place
within a quite large pressure interval ranging from
the magma source up to the area of its emplace-
ment. The increased content of Zn in hercynite al-
lows us to assume its formation under relatively
high pressure conditions.
Occurrence of retrograde alteration of corundum
or spinel with resulting formation of white micas
(phengite and margarite) were already described in
micaceous enclaves by several authors (Rosing et
al. 1987; Montel et al. 1991; Suarez et al. 1992).
Mafic microgranular enclaves (MME)
Several hypotheses to explain the origin of
MME were summarized in Didier & Barbarin
(1991). The most popular is that MME are glob-
ullae of mantle-derived magmas.
The petrographic description of MME given
above has shown that the magma of hotter (dior-
itic or more alkaline) MME had the consistency
of a fluid. Due to the difference in the tempera-
tures of the solidus of the MME magma versus
the granite magma, the globullae of a more maf-
ic magma crystallized suddenly in a form of mi-
crogranular textures. Mutual enclosures of dif-
ferent minerals indicate that this had taken place
after the crystallization of quartz, plagioclase
and also biotite and amphibole of the first stage
crystallization of the granite magma, but before
the crystallisation of quartz and K-feldspar of
the last generations.
However, a portion of MME has a remarkably
alkaline character, they are K-feldspar-rich. Didi-
er (1987) explains the existence of K-feldspar-
rich enclaves and the presence of dioritic enclaves
as a result of the coexistence of various types of
magma. Alkalinity increases partially due to the
marginal MME poikilitic minerals being trapped
in the granitic K-feldspars or in sodic plagioclase
and due to high temperature diffusion (biotitiza-
Plate III: Fig. 1 A granite plagioclase xenocryst (Pl) with a calcic rim (ar-
row); BEI image. Fig. 2 Boxy cellular plagioclase in a microgranitic matrix;
the lighter phase is more calcic; BEI image.
to formation of a new mineral association: garnet/cordierite/
spinel + orthopyroxene + K-feldspar + melt. The tempera-
ture required for this type of melting exceeded 800
Spinel was stable over the temperature range of 800850
and the pressures of less than 500 MPa.
It is probable that the biotite-plagioclase gneiss enclaves in
the Rochovce Granite, either represent the restites after sepa-
ration of the granite melt within the Rochovce Granite mag-
ma source area (but this should produce Na-rich melt), or the
so-called abyssal biotite-plagioclase gneissic xenoliths, which
are the restitic mineral association after the melting of older
granites. This type of xenolith was brought into the higher
crustal horizons by the Rochovce granitoid. Their location at
depth cannot be far away from the source area of the Rochovce
The high temperature melting of the biotite, obviously ex-
ceeding the boundary 800
C, at the time of micaceous en-
tion). System MMEplagioclasepoikilitic K-feldspar did not
reach an equilibrium, which resulted in a substitution of pla-
gioclase and frequent resorption (Pl. II: Fig. 1).
The following mineralogical indicators for the mixing of the
felsic and mafic magma can be observed in the MME textures:
1. plagioclase margins in the orthoclase crystals devel-
oped at the contacts of dioritic MME (Pl. II: Fig. 4). It is a
result of cooling-provoked epitaxial nucleation of plagio-
clase at the surface of orthoclase, which already existed in
the granitic magma (Hibbard 1991).
2. formation of poikilitic quartz or K-feldspar or plagio-
clase (Pl. II: Figs. 1, 3) developed due to crystallization of
large quartz or K-feldspar or plagioclase crystals from the
granitic magma environment, together with crystallization of
small MME minerals. This led to a dispersion of fine MME
minerals throughout the quartz-K-feldspar-plagioclase
poikilocrysts (Hibbard 1991).
ENCLAVES IN GRANITE INTRUSION AS INDICATORS OF TEMPERATURE OF MAGMA 135
3. ocellar texture composed of large quartz grains fringed
by tangentially oriented small amphibole, biotite (or/and
plagioclase) crystals (Pl. II: Figs. 23). It is often described
in hybrid systems as being a result of mafic and felsic mag-
ma mechanical mixing (Palivcová 1978; Lindberg & Eklund
1988; Vernon 1991; Hibbard 1991).
4. acicular apatites referred to often as being a result of
mixing (Didier 1987), suggest in any case that a rapid cool-
ing of the mafic system versus the felsic has taken place.
5. small lathy plagioclases in the MME with a length/
width ratio up to 10:1 (Pl. II: Fig. 1) also indicate that cool-
ing takes place in the MME system with respect to the gran-
ite magma. The development of more sodic margins here in-
dicates an equilibration within a hybrid system.
6. trapping of early crystallized plagioclase xenocrysts
(Barbarin 1990) from granite magma in the MME environ-
ment with typical calcic margins (Pl. III: Fig. 1).
7. boxy cellular plagioclases (composed of more calcic and
more sodic feldspars) (Pl. III: Fig. 2). Hibbard (1991) noted
that cooling of a more mafic system can be, at a certain stage,
ideal for the development of such plagioclases. This type of
plagioclase has been found in the microgranitic matrix (bore-
The last two types of interaction can be explained using a
simple binary albiteanorthite system (Fig. 5). An acidic melt
with a composition L
begins to crystallize at the temperature
, coexisting with a plagioclase P
. Gradual crystallization
and lowering of the temperature results in a compositional
modification to the L
and coexistence with a more sodic pla-
. This system is intruded by a more calcic and hot-
ter dioritic melt with a composition D and the temperature
. The resulting hybridic melt L
has a more calcic compo-
sition and a higher temperature T
, compared to the L
more calcic plagioclase with a composition P
of it at the T
liquidus temperature. The P
plagioclase with a
composition close to An
crystallized in the form of tiny
laths and represents a dioritic matrix, or has formed more cal-
cic thin margins fringing the older plagioclase xenocrysts, or
has resorbed the older, more acidic plagioclases, accompa-
nied by formation of the boxy cellular plagioclases.
The plagioclases with the An
(more calcic ones could not
be identified due to alterations), as well as the occurrence of
boxy-cellular plagioclases in granite we consider to be miner-
alogical indicators of mixing in the granites. Interrupted zoning
and resorption in plagioclases of the first generation of granite
(observed by Klinec et al. 1980 and Határ et al. 1989), may not
only be a result of decreasing pressure, but also of an increase
of temperature, caused by more mafic and hotter magmas.
The mafic magma could have been primarily derived from
a more basic mantle source. The MME magma could also
have been modified by mixing of mafic magma with a small
amount of acidic magma of crustal composition, or could
have been contaminated with crustal material. In any case, its
temperature exceeded that of the granitic magma, which con-
forms with a higher temperature source, located at greater
A similar problem refers to the granite. The above mentioned
mineralogical indicators for the mafic and felsic magma inter-
actions support the concept of a hybrid origin of the granitic
magma. At a shallower level the extent of interaction was time-
limited due to both, considerable differences between the two
contrasting magmas and by the small volume of the mafic
member. However, in deep areas of felsic magma ascent the
conditions should have been favourable for a complete mixing
(Barbarin & Didier 1992), which would result in formation of a
chemically homogeneous product. The generation of a hybrid
magma due to mixing of contrasting magmatic members could
only have taken place if their rheologic properties were com-
patible (Huppert et al. 1984; Barbarin & Didier 1992). De-
creasing temperature induces the crystallization of basaltic
magma and an increase in its viscosity to match that of the gra-
nitic magma (inversion temperature T
of Fernandez & Barbar-
in 1991). The overstepping of the T
due to rapid crystalliza-
tion of small MME in the Rochovce Granite probably resulted
in their behaviour as relatively rigid objects within a more plas-
tic environment; this is why the elliptic features, resembling
boudins, were formed. The larger MME, whose viscosity was
lower, whilst the crystallization process slower, behaved as liq-
uid bodies in the granite magma.
The Sm/Nd isotope characteristics for the Rochovce
Granite differ in several aspects from the isotopic data ob-
tained for Hercynian granitoids and sedimentary-metamor-
phic lithologies of Central Europe (Liew & Hofmann 1988)
and also for Hercynian granitoids of the Western Car-
pathians (Kohút et al. 1995). These are as follows:
1. The apparent crustal residence ages for the Hercynian
granitoids, metamorphics and sediments range between
1400 and 1700 Ma (rarely more than that), which is a result
of melting of mainly Proterozoic lithologies with some con-
tribution from a Paleozoic component. The value for the
Rochovce Granite is ~1100 Ma, some 300 Ma younger
compared to the above mentioned values of Liew & Hofmann
(1988), but still in the lower part of the T
span of the West-
Carpathian Hercynian granitoids (Kohút et al.1995). This
Fig. 5. Schematic representation of changing in plagioclase com-
positions in the albiteanorthite binary system, as a function of
granitic and dioritic magma mixing (for a more detailed explana-
tion see text).
136 HRAKO, KOTOV, SALNIKOVA and KOVACH
difference should either be attributed to a contribution of ju-
venile material introduced into the magma chamber (Upper
Cretaceous mantle input), or to an extensive entry of Paleo-
zoic crustal material, while the recycled crustal source ma-
terial of Proterozoic age played an important role.
2. The initial
value is higher compared to that in grani-
toids of Central Europe. This value approaches the values for
small amphibole-bearing plutons with granodiorite-dioritic
composition, which occur in association with the gabbros.
Such plutons are known from the area of Odenwald-Spessart,
where they represent a mixture of mantle and crustal material
(Liew & Hofmann 1988). Compared to
Nd(T) for the West-
Carpathian granitoids, the value for Rochovce Granite falls
again within the lower limb of this span. If we recalculate our
value to the same age as the recalculated Sm/Nd isotopic val-
ues of the West-Carpathian Hercynian granitoids, our sample
will have a positive
Nd value (~+0.4), which indicates larg-
er input of mantle material into source region of the Rocho-
vce granite magma.
Didier (1987) argued that the granites containing two
types of enclaves, the first, rich in micas, of metamorpho-
genic origin and the second, mafic microgranular, of mag-
matogenic origin, belong to the mixed type (crustal-man-
tle) granites. The provenance of such granites should be
sought in the lower crustal levels at the contacts with the
In Rochovce the granite magma ascended to a consider-
able level. The ultimate depth of the granite emplacement
estimated on the basis of contact mineral parageneses
should be of the order 100200 MPa (Korikovsky et al.
1986; Vozárová 1990). Its prolonged crystallization history
allows us to assume that this magma remained hot for a rel-
atively long period of time. It lacked water and originated in
the deeper crustal horizons. This assumption agrees with the
findings, observed in these enclaves, that an abyssal source
was responsible for the generation of the Rochovce Granite.
The magma differentiates derived from the mantle could, to
a certain degree, also participate as the co-sources of this
magma. The results of Nd-Sm isotope study have shown
that the source also contained some crustal material with an
old history. The upper mantle played an important role in
the generation of the Rochovce granite magma as a source
of heat, and to some extent perhaps as a source of material.
Upper Cretaceous coarse grained to porphyritic, granites
with phenocrysts of pink potassium feldspars and accessory
mineral association: allanitetitanitemagnetite(+maghemite)
zirconapatitethorite, from Rochovce contain micaceous
enclaves with metamorphogenic origin and mafic microgran-
ular enclaves (MME) with predominantly dioritic composi-
tions. The micaceous enclaves are quartz-free, biotite-plagio-
clase gneisses (more than 40 % biotite and more than 45 %
plagioclase with An-content up to 60 %, rarely more), which
are probably restites. They contain corundumhercynite
magnetite mineral association. These minerals were formed
as a result of a high temperature dehydration-melting of bi-
otite, indicating, that the temperature of the granite magma ex-
C at the time the micaceous enclave melted.
Interactions between dioritic MME and granitic magmas
show, that MME magma was hotter and chilled in a colder
granite magma environment. This happens after crystalliza-
tion of quartz, plagioclase (+biotite, amphibole) of the first
stage crystallization of the granite magma, but before the
crystallization of quartz and K-feldspar of the last genera-
tions. The MME with monzonitic to syenitic compositions
are also present. Various textures in MME and granite indi-
cate the mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas.
The closeness of the
Nd(T) values of the granite and the
MME results from isotopic equilibration. It demonstrates the
presence of re-equilibration processes during the high tem-
perature magmatic regimes. The initial
Nd (3.0) value in
granite allows us to assume that some mantle material has
been added into the magma chamber. The apparent crustal
residence age T*
= 1100 Ma indicates an old, Precambrian
history of the crustal source material. The upper mantle par-
ticipated in the generation of the Rochovce granite magma as
a source of heat, and to some extent as a source of material.
Acknowledgements: Authors are grateful to Dr. Siman and
Dr. Koneèný for microprobe analysis. We also thank Dr.
Petrík and Ing. Radvanec for their comments. Careful re-
view by Dr. Bernard Barbarin improved the content of this
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