GEOLOGICA CARPATHICA, 48, 4, BRATISLAVA, AUGUST 1997
THE SLOVAK PART OF THE PIENINY KLIPPEN BELT
AFTER THE PIONEERING WORKS OF D. ANDRUSOV
Department of Geology and Paleontology, Faculty of Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
(Manuscript received January 14, 1997; accepted in revised form June 24, 1997)
The progress of investigations concerning the Pieniny Klippen Belt in the last twenty years is discussed and
the actual state of opinions about its evolution presented. This most complicated zone of the Western Carpathians is
remarkable for the complete separation of the unknown Paleozoic-Triassic basement from the Jurassic-Cretaceous
strata. A nappe pile from shallow-water as well as deep-water successions resulted from the first compression. More
rigid Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous limestones were during the following transpression torn of in the lenses (klippen)
amidst the plastic sediments of the Upper Cretaceous strata („envelope“). A critical analysis of 15 successions (and
their varieties) discerned up till now in the Slovak segment is given and their mutual position within the ancient
sedimentary area is discussed. The following problems remain open: the origin of the exotic material in the Creta-
ceous and Paleogene conglomerates, the existence of a transform possessing oceanic crust, the place of Haligovce,
Nižná and Michalová Hora Successions in the sedimentary area, the presence of the Magura Succession (Grajcarek
Unit) on the Slovak territory, the possible provenance and transport of the Manín, Drietoma and Kostolec Successions
from the Central-Carpathian nappes.
Western Carpathians, Pieniny Klippen Belt, Jurassic, Cretaceous, tectonic evolution, paleogeography.
exist in the PKB. The main difference is, however, an inten-
sive basic volcanism during the Callovian–Oxfordian entirely
unknown in the PKB.
The occurrence near the Vienna Zoo thoroughly described
by Prey (1975) as the lowest part of the Kahlenberg Nappe is
now considered by the Austrian geologists as a part of the
„Kiesel-kalk Zone“, the continuation of the Ybbsitz Klippen
Belt (Faupl, personal communication). Some phenomena like
the abundant picrite dykes in the Vienna area, or blocks of ser-
pentines in the Ybbsitz Zone are foreign to the PKB. It should
be stressed that the continuation of PKB from its last outcrop
near Podbranč into the basement of the Vienna Basin was as-
certained by boreholes only up to Bištava–Šaštín–Smolinské.
It was not intercepted by the geophysical methods which could
hardly be expected due to its almost vertical position. The last
time Frasl & Uher (1996) found pebbles of exotic granites
with stilpnomelane, characteristic for the PKB „Upohlav“
conglomerates, in the wider area of Vienna (Wienerwald, Mö-
dling). Such pebbles are absent in the conglomerates occurring
farther to the West. Thus, the question of the termination of the
PKB remains open.
Main tectonic events in the PKB
The following events may be discerned in the scenario,
(some of them took place simultaneously):
1. Differentation of the sea bottom into troughs and swells
during the Jurassic.
2. Synsedimentary tectonics in the elevated areas, mainly
in the Czorsztyn Zone, their vaulting caused the formation of
filled extension clefts (neptunic dykes) and submarine scarp
breccias — Middle–Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous.
The Pieniny Klippen Belt was the favourite theme of Dimitrij
Andrusov and the main object of his study which resulted in a
monograph of five volumes (Andrusov 1931, 1938, 1945) com-
pleted in latest years by numerous publications till his death in
1976. The bibliography of D. Andrusov was published by Fusán
& Samuel (1978). Our task is to sketch the new substantial con-
tributions to the Slovak part of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, which
have changed its interpretation after these twenty years. The
Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB in the further text) is a speciality of
the Western Carpathians, D. Andrusov called it a „marvel of the
nature“. The PKB is remarkable for its extremely complicated
geological evolution conditioned partly by its position at the
boundary of the externides and internides.
Length of PKB
PKB is a narrow (maximum 15 km wide including the Peri-
Klippen Belt) but extremely long zone, according to Scheibner
(1967b) extending more than 600 km, from the outskirts of Vi-
enna to Poiana Botizei in Rumania. There are now doubts
about the appurtenance of both mentioned extreme segments
to the PKB. They are mostly considered as belonging to the
more external — Magura Unit. Birkenmajer (1985, p. 105) as-
signed the occurrence near Poiana Botizei to his Grajcarek
Zone (Magura Succession). Bombita & Pop (1991), Bombita
et al. (l992) attributed this sequence of strata to a new tectono-
facial unit called the Poiana Botizei Subunit, possessing a still
more external position than the Grajcarek Zone. Their conclu-
sion is based on the hiatus covering the Upper Aptian and Al-
bian. Such a hiatus with the absent Albian sediments does not
3. The origin of a transform containing oceanic crust in the
Peri-Klippen area close to the inner margin of the PKB
(probably in the Callovian-Oxfordian), its subduction culmi-
nated in collision. Raising of the subduction mélange above
sea level, origin of the exotic source area (Pieniny Cordillera
= Andrusov Ridge). The first input of ophiolitic detritus in
the Barremian, first abundant conglomerates with the exotic
rocks since the Albian (in the East-Slovak segment of the
PKB since the Paleocene due to the oblique collision). The
pre-Albian transform is not generally accepted.
4. Perfect décollement of the Paleozoic+Triassic strata
now deeply buried from the Jurassic nad Cretaceous strata
now forming the PKB.
5. Imbrication, nappe overthrust in the Pieninic area during
the Late Campanian. This could not have happened before the
above mentioned décollement, if it had, the existence of nu-
merous klippes containing Triassic strata would be expected.
6. Overthrust of a part of the Krížna Nappe onto the PKB
area (Drietoma Succesion) in the Podbranč–Trenčín segment
(perhaps also the Silica or Choč Nappe in the Púchov seg-
ment) in the time span Albian–Early Senonian. It is not unan-
7. Tearing up of the rigid Mesozoic strata into tectonic
lenses — klippes, mostly before the Paleogene (the lack of
Paleogene strata between the scales of Mesozoic rocks in the
western part of the PKB) but also after the Paleogene (scales
together with the Paleogene strata near the external margin
of the PKB: Púchov and Orava segments, Grajcarek in the
Pieniny Mts. and East-Slovak segment). Vaulting of the Peri
-Klippen area (inner margin of the PKB) in the Paleocene
connected with the biohermal sedimentation on that eleva-
tion, gravitational destruction of the reefs and their gliding to
the south, down the slope. Subduction of the internal part of
the Magura Zone including the root area of their nappes un-
der the PKB since the Oligocene.
8. Backthrusting in the Lower Miocene. Overthrust of the
Magura Unit onto the PKB and the PKB onto the Central-
Carpathian Paleogene. Mega-anticlinal uplift of the PKB fol-
lowed by erosion, mainly in the western segment.
9. Sigmoidal bending in the PKB connected with younger
transversal faults in the Lower Miocene.
10. Continuation of the transform movement — horizontal
shifts in the PKB during the Badenian.
11. Gravitational disturbances during the Quaternary.
Dating of the mentioned tectonic events
The strong multiphase tectonic effects in the PKB have
been explained by its position over the contact of the Bohe-
mian Massif (East-European Platform) and Carpathian
crystalline block; their contact surface was designated the
Peri-Pieninic Lineament (Máška 1961, p. 18–20; Biely
1975). The situation of the Peri-Pieninic Lineament ascer-
tained by the geophysical methods is not concordant with
that of the PKB; in its eastern part the lineament is situated
in a more external position, in the western part on the inner
side far south of the PKB (Mahe 1980) and it is now con-
sidered as a young phenomenon. The width of the original
sedimentation area of the PKB was reduced by later tecton-
ic processes to one tenth at least. Several tectonic events
persisted for a long time and were repeated in numerous
pulses; only a small part of them can be identified by our
observation. Our description is based on the following phe-
nomena: angular disconformities, extensional faults con-
taining datable filling (neptunic dykes), scarp breccias ac-
compaying listric faults, beginning of the mass input of
clastic material, especially of exotic origin proceeding
from the subduction mélange, volcanic activity (in the PKB
minimal), measurements of structural data reflecting the
tectonic history in the Cenozoic. The following course of
events resulted from such a study:
— neptunic dykes in limestones filled by
red, mostly unfossiliferous micrite (synsedimentary frac-
tures) — Nižná Succession (Mišík et al. 1995), Kostelec Suc-
cession (author´s own).
. The so-called Bolešov phase (Salaj 1987, p. 140;
1990a, p. 152) is an error. Salaj supposed a pre-Aalenian ero-
sion. He mentioned the presence of lagoonal, laminated red
and white jaspilites in the klippe Bolešov (in fact, they are
neptunic dykes of laminated micrites within crinoidal lime-
stones) and a hypersaline enviroment interpretated from the
anhydrite intercalations (none occur there). He derives the so-
called jaspilites and Mn-hardground from volcanic activity
(non-existing at that time; abundant Mn-Fe hardgrounds in the
Jurassic limestones in the Western Carpathians are exclusively
of sedimentary origin). A single specimen of „coarse-grained
sandstone of Upper Liassic age rich in clasts of ultrabasic
rocks“ was evidently mistaken for Cretaceous sandstones
where such a phenomenon was frequently observed.
Synsedimentary fractures accompaying the vault-
ing of the Czorsztyn submarine swell — neptunic dykes filled
by micrite: Vršatec ( Mišík 1979a), Kyjov (Mišík & Sýkora
1993), Krasin (Mišík et al. 1994a), Babina near Bohunice
(Mišík et al. 1994b).
Listric faults in the
Czorsztyn Succession producing submarine scarp breccias:
Krasin (Mišík, Sýkora & Aubrecht 1994), Kyjov (Mišík &
Sýkora 1993). Extensional faults with synsedimentary fill-
ing in the following klippes: Krasin, Babina, Mestečko
(Aubrecht 1992), Bolešov (not published). Neptunian dykes
with filling of that age also penetrated into the older lime-
stone strata: Kyjov, Vršatec, Drieňová (Mišík 1994a). It is
surprising that Kimmeridgean and Lower Tithonian repre-
sented a period of relative calm — the neptunian dykes filled
by the Saccocoma microfacies were not found up to now.
. A submarine scarp and neptunian dykes
with the Crassicollaria microfacies in the Jurassic lime-
stones — Kyjov and Upper Tithonian neptunian dykes in the
Bathonian limestones — Vršatec.
. Neptunian dykes of that age in
the Jurassic limestones — Vršatec and Krasin; at the last
mentioned locality also a huge scarp breccia.
. Abundant ophiolite detritus in the
Barremian Orbitolina-bearing limestone pebbles signalizes
the initial emersion of the components of a subduction mé-
lange, the final stage of the transform possessing the ocean-
ic crust and its closure during an oblique collision.
THE SLOVAK PART OF THE PIENINY KLIPPEN BELT AFTER THE PIONEERING WORKS OF D. ANDRUSOV 211
First thick strata of the „Upohlav“ conglomerates
with the polymictic exotic material and the beginning of the
flysch sedimentation demonstrate the emersion of a large
source area built of the subduction mélange (Mišík 1979b),
the raising of an “Exotic” ridge (Austrian phase — Mišík
1980a). Plašienka (1996) criticized the idea about the “Exot-
ic” ridge with the correct objection that no traces of the Albi-
an tectonic compression exist in the surrounding zone of the
PKB. However, the immediately neighbouring zone with
such phenomena could also have succumbed to subduction.
It is true that the pre-Albian tectonic event in the Peri-Klip-
pen Zone would disturb the polarity of the folding from the
innermost zone to the external zones of the Western Car-
pathians. It should, however, be remembered that the polarity
at the beginning of the flysch sedimentation (the oldest fly-
sch in the innermost and the youngest in the outermost zone)
was substantially disturbed by the earliest Tithonian flysch in
the Outer Carpathians, even in their external zone — the
Silesian Unit. A strong Pieniny tectonic phase supposed in
the older papers of Andrusov (1938, p. 49 and elswhere) was
later found to be a disharmonic folding of klippes and their
more plastic cover (Birkenmajer 1953). Andrusov (1959,
p. 277) designated later the short interruption of sedimenta-
tion — emersion between Urgonian and Albian as the Manín
phase (Manín Klippe). Borza found a submarine hiatus cov-
ering the Middle Albian in the Butkov Klippe. The hiatus
with the following „transgression“ of red pelagic Albian
marls on the Valanginian-Hauterivian limestones in the
Czorsztyn Unit was explained as a submarine one (Birken-
majer 1958). It is a very wide spread phenomenon, e.g. lo-
calities Dolný Mlyn near Lubina (Andrusov et al. 1959),
Krivoklát, Vršatec, Lednica, Kamenica (Mišík 1993), Lit-
manová (Scheibner 1969), Podhorie (Salaj 1990a, p. 136).
There are dykes with Albian filling penetrating the Batho-
nian limestones in Vršatec; a considerable pre-Albian ero-
sion took place there (Mišík 1979b).
emersion of the exotic source supplied its material during the
Turonian and Coniacian to the Kysuca Zone (Snežnica Forma-
tion). The supposed transport of the Subtatric (Central Car-
pathian) nappes onto the PKB (Drietoma, Manín and Kostelec
Succesions, olistholiths of the Wetterstein limestones near Pú-
chov) cannot be reliably proved for the present.
The imbrication of units, the stack-
ing of nappes (Pieniny Unit thrust on the Czorsztyn Unit
etc.) took place according to Birkenmajer & Jednorowska
(1987) in this time span which should be documented by the
absence of two foraminifer zones: Globotruncana ventricosa
and Globotruncanita calcarata.
The Jarmuta Formation with the olis-
tostromes and Zaskale Breccia testify to the tectonic activity
connected with the folding. They contain already clasts from
the klippes and overlie independently various successions of
the PKB and thus date the nappe stacking in the PKB. A
very slight volcanic activity was enregistered in the Maas-
trichtian sediments — localities Zázrivá (Aubrecht 1997)
and Sromowce Nižne in the Polish segment (Wieser 1985).
The pre-Eocene Laramian phase
was observed first in the
PKB as the well-known angular unconformity near Kňažia
(Andrusov 1938 and others). Priabonian sediments deposited
with angular unconformity on the PKB were found between
Krivá and Sedliacka Dubová by Gross & Köhler (1987). An
uninterrupted sedimentation from the Maastrichtian to the Pa-
leocene was described by Salaj et al. (1978) in the locality
Hradisko near Žilina. However Hansen et al. (l990) stated a
short interruption responsible for the fact that the iridium
anomaly caused by the planetary catastrophic event 66 million
years ago could not be detected there. The Laramian phase is
considered as the most important in the tectonic evolution of
the PKB. In consequence of the oblique collision several
events in the East-Slovak segment were shifted towards
younger epochs. The exotic source started to deliver its materi-
al there in the Paleocene (Proč conglomerates). Even the
whole klippes slid in the form of olistholiths in the Paleogene
sea (Gregorianka Breccia — J. Nemčok 1978, J. Nemčok et
al. 1988). The uplift of the PKB in the Paleocene followed by
biohermal sedimentation near its inner margin is documented
by a continuous row of localities with blocks of the Kambühel
Limestone (Mišík 1996; Fig. 1).
The pre-Miocene Savian phase
is connected with the fur-
ther compression, boudinage and tearing of the rigid strata
into tectonic lenses — klippes. Birkenmajer (1986) supposes
transpression along a strike-slip fault. Near the contact of the
PKB with the Flysch Belt the scales of the Paleogene flysch
(Magura Unit) were incorporated in the PKB (Middle Váh
Valley, Orava, East-Slovak segment). The Eggenburgian
strata overlie various members of the PKB with angular dis-
conformity for example near Podbranč (Mišík et al. 1985,
Fig. 1). Salaj & Began (1983, Fig. 4, 5) erroneously de-
scribed that locality as a tectonic disconformity, an over-
thrust of the Eggenburgian sequence on the klippe during the
pre-Carpatian so-called Bukovec phase. Backthrusting of the
Magura Unit on the PKB also took place.
The formation of the Párnica sigmoide (men-
tioned already by Andrusov 1926) was evidently connected
with the Central Slovak fault system. The anticlinorial vault-
ing especially of the western segment of the PKB connected
with the erosion of almost all Paleogene cover took place.
The transform movements during the Badenian were docu-
mented in the Pieniny Mts. by Birkenmajer et al. (1987) by
radiometric dating of the transversal andesite dykes disturb-
ing longitudinal ones. We want to add that during the Young-
est Miocene, Pliocene and Quatenary no large transform
movement (longitudinal strike-slip) took place. In the oppo-
site case a tearing of the Neogene sedimentary filling of the
shallow Orava–Nový Targ basin would be visible on the sat-
ellite photos. Some inferior volcanic activity also took place
in the western segment of the PKB: a Sarmatian andesite
dyke found in the borehole near Horné Sŕnie and perhaps a
further three localities (Mišík 1992). A strong volcanism af-
fected the East-Slovak segment (Vihorlat Mts.).
The first structural measurements in the PKB were carried
out by Plašienka & Marko (in Mahe 1989). A detailed anal-
ysis was made in the Vlára Valley by M. Nemčok (1991). He
distinguished five movement phases there. M. Nemčok &
J. Nemčok (1994) have studied the supposed Upper Creta-
ceous deformations. Ratschbacher et al. (1993) documented
the dextral transpression. They repeat the observations of
Extent of successions differentiated in the Pieniny Klippen Belt — their type localities are framed. Other localities mentioned in the text are without a frame.
THE SLOVAK PART OF THE PIENINY KLIPPEN BELT AFTER THE PIONEERING WORKS OF D. ANDRUSOV 213
previous authors that the fold axes display an acute angle to
the margins of the PKB. They situated internal thrusting and
strike-slip faulting of the PKB in Oligocene. According to
the structural analysis of the PKB by Kováč & Hók (1996)
in the first phase a compression caused the development of
slip-fault and fold structures (Oligocene?–Lower Miocene).
In the Lower Miocene a sinistral shear zone was formed. The
transpressional regime in the Middle Miocene was replaced
in the Upper Miocene by an extensional regime with ran-
domly oriented downslip faults.
Sliding of the klippes on the slope scree and
their gravitational disruption led to the formation of cracks
1–2 m wide, open or filled by Quaternary sediments (e.g.
klippes of the Lednica and Kamenica castles).
Successions and their varieties in the PKB and Peri-
The strong compressional narrowing led to the perfect dé-
collement of the Jurassic-Cretaceous strata from the unknown
Paleozoic-Triassic basement. The surface of their separation
was evidently represented by some Upper Triassic and/or Het-
tangian clayey-marly strata and, eventually, by Upper Triassic
evaporites. In the case of the evaporites their diapiric penetra-
tion into the younger strata could be expected. They were not
found and therefore that possibility is less possible. The PKB
consists of klippes — tectonic lenses of rigid rocks (almost ex-
clusively Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous limestones) and their
„cover“ in the morphological sense (more plastic marls and
flysch strata). The mature tectonic stade — the klippe style
was achieved by almost perfect separation of those plastic
members of the middle and Late Cretaceous age from the
klippes. There is frequently an uncertainty in the continuation
of a succession from the klippe into the „cover“ mantle strata.
In spite of this, it is now certain that sedimentation continued
through the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods almost every-
where uninterrupted till the Lower Campanian; according to
Birkenmajer & Jednorowska (1987, p. 26) two Globotruncana
zones representing the Middle and Upper Campanian are
missing as a result of folding. Maastrichtian sediments already
formed a stratigraphic cover deposited independently on the
imbricated successions of Jurassic–Lower Campanian; thus,
they represent a further sedimentary cycle. It consists mostly
of the Jarmuta Formation, the first layers already containing
clasts from the klippe successions. The presence of succes-
sions with the shallow-water as well as deep-water sediments
of the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous is a peculiar feature of
the PKB. The axial part of the sedimentation area was repre-
sented by a deep trough with the deposits of the Pieniny (or
Kysuca-Pieniny) Sc. containing radiolarites. The marginal
shallow-water successions were characterized by crinoidal
limestones — namely the Czorsztyn Sc. bordering the external
margin, Klape Sc., Kostelec Sc. and Manín Sc. („southern
geanticline“ — Scheibner 1967b, p.13) along the internal mar-
gin. In addition to these a set of successions and varieties of a
transitional character were distinguished. The successions 2–9
(see below) form the Pieninic; Mahe (1984) called them
Oravic. The successions 10–15 incorporated in the PKB used
to be joined together as the Peri-Klippen Zone (the term was
introduced by Mahe 1980). The term Vahic or Vahicum
(Mahe 1981) originally used for a hypothetical unit with the
oceanic crust in the Peri-Klippen Zone is now applied to the
area affected by Laramian folding, with the Upper Cretaceous
sediments under the thrust planes in the Inovec Mts. (Plašien-
ka et al. 1994) and Strážov Mts. — borehole Soblahov (Mahe
1986). All the successions distinguished in the Slovak part of
the PKB will now be mentioned with short comments. It is
necessary to add that instead of the term succession other
terms such as sequence, series, group, type, variety and evolu-
tion were also frequently used. The successions and varieties
defined during the last twenty years (after 1976) will be men-
tioned with their authors; the equivalent Polish term, if differ-
ent, is situated in parentheses (the term succession is shortened
to Sc., variety to Var.):
1. Magura Sc. of the Grajcarek Unit (Birkenmajer 1985),
equivalent Fodorka Sc. (Salaj 1987, p.126), 2. Czorsztyn Sc.
+ Hrabkov Var. + Vršatec Castle Var. (Mišík 1979a), Mesteč-
ko Var. (Aubrecht 1992), Krasin Klippe Var. (Mišík, Sýkora
& Aubrecht 1994), 3. Czertezik Sc., 4. Pruské Sc.(equivalent
Niedzica Sc.), 5. Orava Sc. (Haško 1978) + Podbiel Var., 6.
Kysuca Sc. (equivalent Branisko Sc.) Horná Lysá Var. (Mi-
šík et al. 1994), 7. Pieniny Sc., 8. Streženice Sc., 9. Nižná
Sc., 10. Klape Sc., 11. Kostelec Sc. + Sú ov Var., 12. Hali-
govce Sc., 13. Manín Sc. + Butkov Var. + Manín Var.+
Trenčianske Teplice Var. (all by Mahe 1986), 14. Drietoma
Sc. (Rakús 1977), synonym Bošáca Sc. (Mahe 1978), partly
Vrzávka Zone (Andrusov 1972) + Drietoma Klippe Sc. +
Stupné Sc. + Chotúč Sc. + Hoština Sc. (all by Salaj 1994a) +
Dúbravka Sc. (Andrusov 1972), 15. Michalova Hora Sc.
(new term, attribution incertain). The Jurassic–Lower Creta-
ceous strata of these successions will be shortly commented
on. The Albian to Campanian members need further discrim-
The Magura Sc.
Birkenmajer (1985, p. 105 and elsewhere)
defined on Polish territory the Grajcarek Unit with the Magura
Sc. as the most external unit incorporated in the PKB during
the late Laramian folding. This succession was not identified
on Slovak territory except by the essay of Salaj (1993). We
have some doubts about the existence of the Magura Sc. in the
PKB. It is almost identical with the Kysuca-Pieniny Sc. except
for the supposed Albian radiolarites (Gron Radiolarite) the
Albian age of which was never proved. There is the suspicion
they belong to the Oxfordian as in other localities. Another
special member should be the Ubocz Shale Member, dark,
sometimes laminated clayey shales with a poor Upper Albian–
Cenomanian microfauna, only 1.5–5 m thick. The Szlachtowa
Formation, formerly described as the Aalenian Flysch of the
Branisko Sc. with clastic material proceeding from an intra-Pi-
eniny source (Birkenmajer 1957), and later from an external
source (e.g. Krawczyk et al. 1987) was also not found on our
territory. The lack of facies transitional from such extremely
shallow-water ones as the Czorsztyn Sc. to the typical trough
facies of the Magura Sc. is an argument against this concep-
tion (Birkenmajer 1986, explained it by their subduction). It is
more probable that near the external margin of the PKB
klippes with trough facies belonging to the Kysuca-Pieniny
Sc. also occur in some places. The chess-board like disposi-
tion of shallow-water and deep-water klippes is only the result
of the penetration of fragments from the imbricated units in
various levels during the compression. From the Slovak geolo-
gists only Salaj (1990a, p. 110) supposed his Fodorka Sc. to be
equivalent to the Grajcarek Unit, however he situated it in the
„Czorsztyn Basin“ (Salaj 1990a, p. 114). In a more recent pa-
per (Salaj 1995, p. 4–7) he affirms the Fodorka Sc. was depos-
ited at the external side from the Czorsztyn Sc. and the Graj-
carek Unit still more external to it. He suppossed the black
Albian shales to be the criterion of the Fodorka Sc.
The Czorsztyn Sc.
(Horwitz 1922, p. 18, originally as the
Czorsztyn facies) was earlier called the Subpieniny facies
(Uhlig 1890). The Czorsztyn Sc. was deposited during the Ju-
rassic and Lower Cretaceous on a submarine elevation (“pe-
lagic swell“, Mišík 1993) with dominant pelagic and con-
densed facies, and frequent hardgrounds. It is remarkable for
the lack of terrigenous clastics, ooids, benthic algae and those
foraminifers which characterize the co-eval carbonate plat-
forms. It was repeatedly affected by synsedimentary tectonics
(neptunic dykes, submarine scarp breccias). There is no evi-
dence of emersion in the Czorsztyn Sc., the more in the trough
successions, so that the opinion of Mahe (1981, p. 296 and
elsewhere) about the insular character of the Pieninic is entire-
ly unsubstantial. The Czorsztyn Sc. is known from the whole
length of the PKB and represents its most typical element.
The Hrabovka Var.
(Andrusov & Scheibner 1960) should
be remarkable by a large hiatus from the Upper Triassic to the
Lower Senonian (the transgression of red Turonian marls on a
klippe of the Wetterstein facies near Púchov). This single oc-
currence was illustrated by Andrusov (1968, Fig. 28) as the
Hrabovka Klippe — an example of „klippe coiffée“. The red
Coniacian marls are depicted on the top in the transgressive
position and the Triassic lens is enveloped by the Albian-Cen-
omanian strata of the Klape Sc. It penetrated the marls due to
the compression. The Triassic klippes occur only in the sur-
rounding of the town of Púchov and now they are interpreted
mostly as the sedimentary blocks — olistholiths.
The Vršatec Castle Var.
is remarkable for the biohermal
Oxfordian limestones (Vršatec Limestone, Mišík 1979a;
Kochanová 1979). Perhaps it would also be useful to sepa-
rate as an individual variety the Mestečko Var. (Aubrecht
1992) distinguished by the lack of red nodular Czorsztyn
Limestone and, eventually, also the Krasin Klippe Var.
(Mišík, Sýkora & Aubrecht 1994), peculiar for the huge sub-
marine scarp breccia of Middle Jurassic age and by the ero-
sional lack of the Upper Jurassic limestones (except for
clasts of Oxfordian biohermal limestones in the cleft filling).
Neocomian crinoidal limestones are there in the stratigraphic
contact with the Middle Jurassic crinoidal limestones. The
Czorsztyn Sc. is very variable. Birkenmajer (1963) differen-
tiated 11 varieties (types) in the Polish part of the PKB.
The Czertezik Sc.
(Birkenmajer 1959) is a transitional
succession. It was also discerned in the Slovak part of the
PKB (Scheibner 1967b; Haško 1975a).
The Pruské Sc.
(Andrusov 1938, p. 15, equivalent Niedzi-
ca Sc.) like most transitional successions, is remarkable for
the simultaneous occurrence of the Middle Jurassic crinoidal
limestones and Callovian-Oxfordian radiolarites.
(Haško 1978). The most characteristic members
are the Kozinec Beds (Haško 1975b), layered pseudonodular
Carixian limestones with Uptonia jamesoni, Domerian
„Fleckenmergel“ with Amaltheus margaritatus and lower red
nodular limestones with Toarcian ammonites. The author has
assigned the Orava Castle Klippe and Červený Kameň
Klippe near Podbiel (formerly quoted as the Podbiel Variety
(Andrusov 1938)) to the Orava Sc. as well as the type locali-
ty Havranský vrch near Zázrivá (formerly designated by An-
drusov 1974, as the Zázrivá facies).
(Andrusov 1926). Its new variety is the Horná
(Mišík, Sýkora, Ožvoldová & Aubrecht 1994) in
the Vršatec area. The main criterion is the Horná Lysá Lime-
stone, totally different from the standard Kysuca Sc. It is a
layered limestone with brown cherts containing horizons
with crinoidal detritus and redeposited Upper Tithonian
clasts with Crassicollaria. The Berriasian-Hauterivian age of
the Horná Lysá Limestone was proved by the Radiolaria.
(Uhlig 1907) is another deep-water succession
with Callovian to Lower Kimmeridgean radiolarites. There
exist only small differences from the Kysuca Sc., e.g. the
lack of Upper Jurassic nodular limestone and therefore it
sometimes used to be united in the Kysuca-Pieniny Sc.; so it
may be followed through the whole length of the PKB.
(Began & Borza 1963) was rarely mentioned.
It differs from the Pruské Sc. only by the presence of the spotty
marls (Fleckenmergel). The Streženice Sc. was deposited ac-
cording to the authors between the Kysuca Sc. and Pruské Sc.
According to Salaj (1994a, p. 198) its sedimentation area was
situated between the Drietoma Sc. and Kysuca Sc.
(Scheibner 1967a). Its individuality was support-
ed by the identification of a new member — the Liassic (Sine-
murian-Pliensbachian) crinoidal limestones — Lutý Potok
Limestone (Mišík et al. 1995). The extent of the Nižná Sc. oc-
curring only in the Orava area was enlarged to 10 km. There
are contradictory indications as to its position within the sedi-
mentation area. The Nižná Sc. should be the most internal
zone of the Pieninic basin, the only one with the Urgonian fa-
cies (Mišík 1990, Fig. p. 26). A connection with the Klape
Sc. could be considered with regard to the Liassic crinoidal
limestones also outcropping there. It is a pity that the Lower
Cretaceous strata, necessary for the comparison, were not pre-
served in the Klape Klippe. Also Birkenmajer (1985 and else-
where) supposed mainly on the basis of the common presence
of Urgonian limestones that the Nižná Sc. was deposited near-
er to the inner border of the Pieniny trough, north of the “Exot-
ic” ridge. On the other hand, the terrigenous admixture in the
crinoidal limestones of the Nižná Sc. is very similar to the in-
ventory of clastics in the crinoidal limestones of the Czorsztyn
Sc. (Mišík & Aubrecht 1994; Mišík et al. 1995), as if the
Nižná Sc. sedimented nearer to the outer margin of the Pieniny
trough and the so-called Czorsztyn External Terrestric Ridge
served as a source for both.
The Klape Sc.
is already considered as belonging to the
southern Peri-Klippen Zone. The term Klape „Series“ was in-
troduced by Andrusov (1931, p. 18, 41) in connection with the
Liassic strata of the Klape Klippe. The contents of the Klape
Sc. was later enlarged by the attribution of the Cretaceous Fly-
sch strata by Marschalko & Kysela (1979) formerly assigned
to the Manín „Series“. Mahe (1986, p. 32) regarded the Klape
Sc. as a part of his Vahic Unit (Mahe 1981).
THE SLOVAK PART OF THE PIENINY KLIPPEN BELT AFTER THE PIONEERING WORKS OF D. ANDRUSOV 215
The determination of paleogeographical position of the Kla-
pe Sc. is handicapped by the fact that it contains only one larg-
er klippe (Mt. Klape) with merely Liassic to Bathonian strata.
The definition of the Klape Sc. is now based on difference
with respect to other successions on the middle and Upper
Cretaceous strata represented by a characteristic deep-water
flysch sequence more than 600 m thick with shallow-water
Orlové Sandstone intercalated by oyster layers (more details in
Marschalko 1986). The Klape Unit was distinguished in the
Middle Váh Valley area and its continuation to the Orava area
was found later (Began & Samuel 1975). The Klape Klippe
formed of Jurassic limestones is now regarded by several au-
thors as a large olistholith. Plašienka (1995) supposes that the
Cretaceous strata of the Klape Sc. were deposited near the in-
ner southern margin of the Krížna sedimentation area. The rea-
sons against it were quoted in a discussion (Mišík 1996, in the
same place also the reply by Plašienka 1996). His explanation
concerning the source of intraformational conglomerates with
exotics does not solve the problem because they are not limit-
ed only to the section with the Klape Sc.; they can be followed
along the whole length of Eastern Alps, as well as in the East-
Slovak and Ukrainian segments of the PKB. Salaj (1990b) dis-
cerned in the Klape Sc. the so-called Šebeš anová Sc. with the
Klape Klippe and Udiča Sc. His hypothesis (Salaj 1990a,
Fig. 5) about the common sedimentation area of the Klape Sc.
and Nedzov Sc. (Nedzov Nappe of the Silicic Unit by other
authors), mainly on the basis of the occurrence of olistholiths
of Triassic Wetterstein limestones near Púchov, did not find
(Birkenmajer 1958a). The Albian to Senonian
conglomerates in the Klape Sc. and with a lesser thickness
also in the neighbouring zones (Upper Turonian–Coniacian
conglomerates of the Snežnica Formation of Kysuca Sc.,
Cenomanian conglomerates of the Manín Sc., Albian con-
glomerates of the Tatric Unit and Krížna Nappe and Pale-
ocene conglomerates of the East-Slovak segment of PKB)
contain clearly exotic rocks. Ophiolite detritus occurs al-
ready in pebbles of the Barremian shallow-water limestones,
then glaucophane-lawsonite rocks, special type of granites,
Upper Jurrasic shallow-water limestones etc. (Mišík & Sýko-
ra 1981), limestone pebbles with Anisian, Ladinian, Carnian
and Norian conodonts (Mišík et al. 1977). The material pro-
ceeds from the emerged parts of a subduction mélange (Miš-
ík 1979b; Mišík & Marschalko 1988). The source area was
named the Pieniny Cordillera (Andrusov 1938), Klape Cor-
dillera (Mahe 1980; Salaj 1987), Pieniny Exotic Ridge (Miš-
ík & Marschalko 1988), Andrusov Ridge (Birkenmajer
1988). According to the measurements of transport direction,
diminution of clasts and conglomerates thickness the source
was situated near the inner margin of the Klape sedimenta-
tion area in the neighbourhood of the Manín area (Marschal-
ko 1986). Birkenmajer (l985, 1988, p. 16, 17 and elsewhere)
supposed that the source was represented by the so-called
Exotic Sc. deposited in the area of the future Andrusov Ridge
and he placed it between the Haligovce Sc. and Klape Sc.
area. We do not consider the term Exotic Sc. to be correct, as
among the exotics many coeval shallow-water as well as
deep-water facies occur together (Mišík & Marschalko 1988,
p. 100, 101) and they certainly cannot be attributed to one
single succession. The inventory of rocks represented in peb-
bles was submitted by Mišík & Marschalko (1988). It can
now be completed by other exotics: dolomite pebbles con-
taining authigenic feldspars with frequent Roc Tourné twin-
ning (Mišík 1994b, p. 104), redeposited authigenic quartz
grains with zonally oriented mica inclusions (Mišík 1995),
further conodont zones found in pebbles of Triassic lime-
stones (Birkenmajer et al. 1990), Dasycladaceans from the
Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous limestones up till now
unknown from the Western Carpathians (Soták & Mišík
1993), ophicalcite pebbles (Sikora & Wieser 1979), other ex-
otics of volcanites and plutonites (Birkenmajer & Skupinski
1990). Further exotics from the Senonian conglomerates
were described by Birkenmajer & Wieser (1990); geochemi-
cal characteristics of granites submitted by Uher et al.
(1994), Uher & Broska (1996), Uher & Marschalko (1993)
studied the typology of zircons proceedings from acid erup-
tives; Uher & Pushkarev (1994) described other pebbles of
granites and rhyolites and documented by radiometric meth-
ods their Early Permian age. The last paper about the grani-
toid exotics is from Frasl & Uher (l996). Trace elements
from the magmatic rocks were studied by Šimová (1987),
who also described a pebble of eclogitoid rock (Šimová
1982). The age of glaucophanes from the pebbles of glau-
cophanized metabasalts was dated by
Ar method on
155.4±0.6 million years, then Callovian-Oxfordian (Dal Piaz
et al. 1995). The chemical composition of glaucophanes was
studied by Martin (1991) and detrital glaucophane grains
from the Albian in the westernmost locality — in the base-
ment of the Vienna Basin, borehole Smolinské-27 by Sýkora
et al. (l997). The discussion about alternative explanations of
the origin of exotic material than from the above mentioned
intrabasinal source is in the paper by Mišík & Marschalko
(1988): transport of pebbles by currents from the Dinaric or
Transylvanic, large left-lateral movements from the last men-
tioned area, river transport from the innermost units of the
(Andrusov 1938, p. 16, description Rakús
1965). The situation of its sedimentary area still remains un-
certain. Andrusov (1938, p. 10) considered that it belonged to
a higher Subtatric nappe; Andrusov & Scheibner (1960) as-
signed the Kostelec Sc. to the Subtatric successions folded in
the PKB. The similarity of the Liassic limestones in the
klippes Kostelec and Klape indicates their spatial connection
in the sedimentary area. Mahe (1986, p. 259) considered both
as huge olistholiths in the Klape Sc., later he supposed that
these olistholiths came from the Tatric Unit (Mahe 1989,
p. 103). Sú ov Var. was established by Borza (1970) as a sup-
posed transition between Manín Sc. and Kostelec Sc.
The sedimentation of the Haligovce Sc. was
placed by Birkenmajer (1985, p. 97 and Fig. 3; 1988, p. 14)
between the Exotic Sc. and Pieniny Sc. areas, i.e. he situated
it on the northern slope of the Andrusov Ridge. He support-
ed the opinion by the presence of the Upper Cretaceous Glo-
botruncana marls (Jaworki Marls), Senonian flysch-like Sro-
mowce Formation and Urgonian Limestone recalling the
Nižná Sc. Andrusov (1974, p. 15) considered that the Hali-
govce Unit belonged to the Manín Nappe. All Slovak geolo-
gists hold this opinion. Mahe (1986, p. 250) also wrote that
Haligovce Klippe is a part of the Manín Nappe. The Hali-
govce Sc. contains comparable members to the following
strata in the Manín Sc.: Campanian red Globotrucana marls
(Hrabové Formation), Turonian-Senonian flysch (Žadov For-
mation — Kysela et al. 1982) and also Urgonian limestones.
Further common feature are blocks of Paleocene Kambühel
biohermal limestones (locality Aksamítka) bordering the
whole inner margin of the PKB (Mišík 1996, Fig. 1). The
further serious argument is the presence of the Albian phos-
phato-glauconitic limestones with Calcisphaerula innomina-
in the Haligovce Klippe (Mišík 1990, p. 47), deposited on
the Urgonian limestones after a hiatus, thus in the same man-
ner as in the Manín Sc. (Mt. Butkov) and High-Tatric Unit
(e.g. underneath Mt. Giewont). There is also a hiatus in the
shallow-water successions of the Pieninic (Czorsztyn Sc.,
Niedzica Sc.) but after it the Albian red marls follow on the
Neocomian limestone surface. No such hiatus is known in
the Branisko Sc. (Kysuca Sc.) considered by Birkenmajer
(1.c.) as the neighbour to the Haligovce Sc. The position of
the sedimentary area of the Haligovce Sc. south of the Pien-
inic is supported by the occurrence of abdundant authigenic
feldspars (thermal affection) absent in the Pieninic, but fre-
quent in the Central-Carpathian successions. They even oc-
cur in the Paleocene slightly sandy limestones in the Hali-
govce Klippe which is the locality with the youngest horizon
with authigenic feldspars in Slovakia (Mišík 1994b). At the
end Birkenmajer (1985, p. 97) also admitted that „the pres-
ence of Myjava-type Paleocene might suggest a close rela-
tion with the Klape–Myjava Basin“. It is remarkable that the
separation of the Jurassic-Cretaceous members from the Tri-
assic ones, which is typical for the Pieninic, did not take
place in the Haligovce Sc. and so the Haligovce Klippe also
contains Triassic strata.
(Andrusov 1938). The opinions about its posi-
tion in the sedimentation area are contradictory. Andrusov
(1972 and elsewhere) considered it as the innermost nappe
of the PKB and situated its sedimentation area externally
from the Tatric. In his older papers (e.g. Andrusov 1945) he
pointed to the similarity of High-Tatric Sc. and Manín Sc.
and used the term Manín–High-Tatric zone. Salaj & Samuel
(1966) quoted the Manín Unit as an independent tectonic
unit of the first order and situated its sedimentation area be-
tween the PKB and Central Western Carpathians, i.e. be-
tween the Pieninic and Tatric. The position of the Manín area
externally from the Tatric was also accepted by Rakús (1975,
1977) and Mišík (1980b). According to Salaj (1994b, p. 29)
both the Manín and Kostelec units belong to the Manín
Zone. He distinguished in the Manín Unit, the Manín Sc. and
Podháj Sc. The Podháj Sc. includes the Cretaceous members
(its Jurassic is unknown); it should be transitional between
the Manín Sc. and Klape Sc. (Šebeš anová Sc.). Mahe
(1948) at first joined the Manín Unit with the Tatric one in
the so-called Manín-Inovec Unit. Later he began to stress the
close relations between the Manín and Krížna units (Mahe
1978 and all more recent papers). The situation of the sedi-
mentation zones roughly from the North to the South was ac-
cording to him as follows: Tatric Sc., Manín Sc., Belá-Krížna
Sc. The evidence of the common Manín and Krížna sedimen-
tation area based on: the presence of an exceptional facies —
Albian cherty limestones with Colomiella recta in the
Krížna-Belá Sc., Manín Sc. (klippes Butkov and Skalica)
and near Bošáca (Drietoma Sc. folded in the PKB); the com-
parable hiatuses and hardgrounds in the Albian strata of the
above mentioned localities (Borza et al. 1979, 1980); the
frequent occurrences of basic volcanic rocks in the Lower
Cretaceous of the Krížna Nappe in the Strážov Mts. and in
the neighbouring Manín Unit (cf. Mišík 1992, Fig. 2); the
difficulty of separating the Albian-Cenomanian flysch of the
Krížna Unit from that of the Manín Unit in the territory
where both are in mutual contact as in the Bukovinka syn-
cline (Mahe 1986). Michalík & Vašíček (1980) also consider
their Nozdrovica development to be a transition between the
Krížna Sc. and Manín Sc. with the same calciturbiditic hori-
zons. Mahe (1978) supposed that the thrust of the Manín Sc.
over the Tatric Unit even beyond its frontal part had already
occurred during the Albian and, after the deposition of the
Upper Cretaceous strata on the pre-Albian sequence of the
Manín Sc., it was backthrust in the opposite direction. The
main reasons for the independence of the Manín Sc. from the
Krížna Sc. are the following: the sedimentation in the Manín
Sc. continued up to the Senonian which is not the case in any
varieties of the Krížna Sc. In the classical area Manín–But-
kov (Manín Unit s.s.) a complete décollement of the Juras-
sic-Cretaceous strata from the Triassic took place as is typi-
cal for the PKB. If the Manín Unit s.s. was transported over
the Tatric (Mesozoic of the „Envelope unit“) there would be
no reason for the absence of the Triassic members in it (the
Krížna Nappe in the neighbouring area does not display the
„troncature basale“ as the Choč Nappe does which, in its
most distal position, is represented only by its highest, Juras-
sic–Lower Cretaceous members, as on the Polish side of the
Tatra Mts.). The conglomerate intercalations with exotics in
the Manín Sc. are of the Cenomanian age, but in the Krížna
Sc. they belong to the Albian; for the Cenomanian of the
Manín Sc. the contourites are characteristic, they are absent
in the Cenomanian of the Krížna Sc. (Marschalko & Kysela
1980, p. 37, 60). The Vlkolínec Breccia occurring in the
Krížna Nappe of the Strážov Mts. (Jablonský & Marschalko
l992, Fig. 3) is absent in the Manín Sc. The facies of the red
nodular limestones in the Manín Gorge which started from
the Bathonian in the Butkov Klippe lasted till the Middle Ti-
thonian; it never represents such a time span in the Krížna
Unit. The Cenomanian of the Manín Sc. (Praznov Beds)
contains horizons with Exogyra shell beds, Orbitolines and
redeposited corals, that were never found in the Krížna Sc.
The last mentioned difficulty would be eliminated if we accept
that nappe transport already occurred during the Albian. But
the accompanying signs of such a submarine overthrusting
(breccias formed by blocks broken from the nappe fronts) are
missing in the Albian-Cenomanian of the Tatric Unit. Besides,
the pre-Paleogene backthrust of the Manín Unit is hardly com-
prehensible from the point of view of geodynamics.
The name was introduced by Rakús (1977,
p. 32). It spreads out in the PKB between Myjava and
Pruské. Drietoma Sc. is a single succession in PKB contain-
ing the Upper Triassic (Keuper and Rhaetian). It is remark-
able for thick strata of dark shales, partly spotted („Flecken-
mergel“). Mahe (1986, p. 251) did not regard it as an
THE SLOVAK PART OF THE PIENINY KLIPPEN BELT AFTER THE PIONEERING WORKS OF D. ANDRUSOV 217
individual succession and designated it as the Bošáca Var.
Began et al. (l966) classified these occurrences as the Manín
Sc. s.l. Borza et al. (1980) considered the Bošáca or Drieto-
ma Sc. as identical with the Krížna-Belá Sc. for their surpris-
ingly similar Lower Cretaceous strata. Andrusov (1974 and
elsewhere) regarded the klippes with Keuper and Rhaetian as
part of the Kysuca Sc., but he admitted that some elements of
the Manín Nappe could continue as far as Bošáca and
Moravské Lieskové. These middle Cretaceous strata of the
Manín Nappe were designated by him as the Vrzávka Zone
(Andrusov 1972, p. 232, Salaj 1990b, p. 159). Salaj (1994a)
discerned within the Drietoma Unit the Drietoma Klippe
(Drietoma Sc. s.s. till the Lower Albian); the higher
members, Middle Albian–Cenomanian, are called by him the
Further, he distinguished the Chotúč Sc. and for
the higher members (Lower Albian–Maastrichtian) the so-
called Hoština Sc. (l.c. p. 215–217). He supposed a com-
mon sedimentation area for the Kysuca Sc. and Drietoma Sc.
till the Lower Albian (Salaj 1994a, p. 199). The establishe-
ment of the „Dúbravka Unit“ near Nové Mesto nad Váhom
(V. Andrusov 1968, 1972, p. 232) was based on the discov-
ery of exotic pebbles (quartz porphyries) in a conglomerate
intercalation within the Albian strata attributed to the Krížna
Unit. Since such exotic pebbles were later also found in the
Albian of the Tatric Unit and Krížna Nappe (Mišík et al.
1981), the Dúbravka Unit lost its reason to exist. The above
mentioned continuous occurrences of the Jurassic dark marly
limestones and shales are evidently identical with the Drieto-
ma Sc. It is necessary to stress that the Drietoma (Bošáca)
Sc. is really very similar to the Krížna Sc. and the simplest
explanation would be that it represents a part of the Krížna
Nappe thrust over and folded within the PKB. The difficul-
ties are with the timing of the tectonic transport, as the
Krížna Nappe in the Core Mountains overthrust the Cenoma-
nian and in the Western Tatra Mts. even the Lower Turonian
of the Tatric Unit. Perhaps, the Central-Carpathian (Subtat-
ric) nappes did not advance in a continuous front, but in sev-
eral segments, separated by transversal faults, they might
move more rapidly. Perhaps, the Triassic olistholiths near
Púchov might be explained in that way, too. However it was
already stressed that no sedimentological features supporting
the transport of the nappes in that time were observed in the
Albian sediments. It would be useful to check once more the
ages of the strata surrounding the problematic klippes and
olistholiths (they might, penetrate in them as „pseudodiapirs“
injected from the lower horizons) and through a detailed com-
parison of lithology and microfacies demonstrate the supposed
identity of the Drietoma Sc. with the nearest occurrences of
the Krížna Nappe in the Core Mountains.
Michalová Hora Sc.
(new name). The Michalová Hora
Klippe near the village of Maríková is represented by a special
succession. It contains the northernmost occurrence of Keuper
in the PKB — reddish quartzites and a small outcrop of dolo-
mites already mentioned by Andrusov (1959, p. 16 and else-
where); perhaps the dolomites also belong to the Keuper. The
following member are crinoidal limestones (Liassic or Middle
Jurassic) and then a new member identified by us — white mi-
crooncoidal limestones with Globuligerina. This lithofacies
from the time span Middle Jurassic– Oxfordian was unknown
in the PKB until now. It also occurs in several smaller klippes
in the surrounding of Maríková. These white limestones were
erroneously regarded as Triassic (Illyrian-Ladinian) by Salaj
(1991, p. 296). In a more recent paper (Salaj 1995, p. 3) he
supposed that the so-called Triassic olistholiths near Dolná
Maríková had been transported from the NW where in the
basement of Biele Karpaty Unit (Flysch Belt), near the south-
ern margin of the North-European Platform a Mesozoic of
Central-Carpathian type should exist. The occurrence of the
Keuper is the single common feature of the Michalová Hora
Sc. and Drietoma Sc. If the Liassic age of the crinoidal lime-
stones will be proved, the relationship to the Kostelec Sc. or
Klape Sc. should be suggested. Andrusov (1959) regarded the
locality as part of the Czorsztyn Sc., but this was rejected by
Salaj (1995), because the Upper Cretaceous red Pustelniak
(“Púchov“) Marls are missing there. The problem can be
solved only by further study.
Our first intention was to quote and comment on all contri-
butions to the sedimentology, microfacies, paleontology and
published geological maps of the PKB in the last twenty
years but this turned out later to be beyond the spatial possi-
bilities of a paper in Geologica Carpathica. We hope it will
be added in another place and testify that we fulfill the mes-
sage of Academician Andrusov with honour.
The author thanks Prof. K. Birkenmajer
(Geological Institut, Polish Academy of Science) and Dr. J.
Michalík (Geological Institute, Slovak Academy of Science)
for critical reading of the manuscript.
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