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The first stratigraphic constructions of the Miocene of West-
ern Ukraine are related to the middle of the last century. The
base of stratigraphic division of Miocene section was being
worked out during dozens of years by some generations of
geologists and paleontologists (Laskarev 1903, 1934; Lom-
nitsky 1874; Teisseyre 1900; Štúr 1859 etc.).

The development of the stratigraphic scheme of the Miocene

in its modern form was completed by the works of Vyalov 1951,
1965, 1981), Glushko (1954), Goretsky (1954, 1964), Grish-
kevich (1961), Kudrin (1953, 1966), Utrobin (1958), Voloshi-
na (1958), Venglinsky & Goretsky (1979), Pishvanova (1972)
and Pishvanova & Gruzman (1980). Below a description of
Miocene stratigraphy is given, based on the results of the in-
vestigations of these scientists.

The proposed Unified stratigraphic scheme also includes the

results of the latest investigations in stratigraphy and paleon-
tology, data from drilling and geological-geophysical works.

In the explanatory note the results of stratigraphic investi-

gations and of the study of organic remnants (Foraminifera,
nannoplankton, mollusks, spores and pollen) are general-
ized. The question on the location of the Miocene lower
boundary is not considered in the explanatory note, because
a special article was devoted to this question (Andreyeva-
Grigorovich & Gruzman 1994).

Organic remnants of Neogene deposits


Foraminifera is one of the main fossil groups by which the

stratification of the Carpathian flysch and molasse of Car-
pathian Foredeep is defined. Associations of the Oligocene
and Miocene Foraminifera are represented by plankton and
benthos. Agglutinated forms are developed sporadically.

The zonal scale by plankton for Oligocene and Lower Mi-

ocene of the Flysch Carpathians was worked out by Gruzman
(1984), for the Carpathian Foredeep molassa — by Subotina
(1960), Pishvanova (1972) and Trofimovich.


In this work the scale of Martini & Worsley (1970) is used.

The zone boundaries are established by the appearance of in-
dex species. The change of nannoplankton associations is
taken also into consideration.

Miocene nannoplankton of the Central Paratethys in the

Ukraine limits was studied by Andreyeva-Grigorovich (An-
dreyeva-Grigorovich & Stupnitsky 1976; Andreyeva-Grigor-
ovich & Turchinova 1985; Andreyeva-Grigorovich & Gruz-
man 1994), Kulchytsky (1981) Lyulyeva & Prysyazhnyuk
(1990) and Savitskaya (1995).






























Geological Department, Lviv University, Grushevskogo 4, 290005 Lviv, Ukraine


Geological Research Institute, Sq. Mitskevich 8, 290601 Lviv, Ukraine


Natura Museum NAN, Teatralna 15, 290000 Lviv, Ukraine

(Manuscript received February 16, 1996; accepted in revised form December 12, 1996)


Detailed biostratigraphic schemes of Neogene deposits of the Transcarpathian Basin, Carpathians, Carpathian

Foredeep and sedimentary cover of the south-western margin of East-European Platform (the Central Paratethys) are
compiled and supplemented by new data. The lower boundary of the Miocene of the Central Paratethys is based on
planktonic microorganisms (nannoplankton, foraminifera, dinocysts). This boundary lies in the upper part of the
Lower Krosno and Middle Menilite “subformations”. New lithostratigraphic units are established on the basis of
paleontological data: Grushiv and Zhuriv Formations, and two membered division of the Badenian stage are estab-
lished. Scheme correlation with the stage scales and biostratigraphic standards (nannoplankton, foraminifera) of the
Tethys, the Central and Eastern Paratethys, and also with the adjacent territories of Poland, Rumania, Slovakia, Hun-
gary and Russia was carried out.

Key words:

 Neogene, Paratethys, Carpathians, Transcarpathian Basin, Carpathian Foredeep, stratigraphic scheme,


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124                                                                        ANDREYEVA-GRIGOROVICH et al.


Great contributions to study of the mollusk fauna were

made by Lomnytsky (1886), Nedzvedzky (1901), Friedberg
(1914, 1911-1928, 1938), Kovalevsky (1935), Czarnotsky
(1935), Goretsky (1954, 1964), Kudrin (1953, 1966), Zhyzh-
chenko (1952), Grishkevich (1961), Korobkov (1951), etc.


The results of the study of ostracods laid the foundation for

the stratigraphic division of the Pannonian-Pliocene forma-
tions (Sheremeteva 1958) and they were also successfully
used during comparison of Sarmatian rocks of the Transcar-
pathians with complexes of the same age from adjoining ter-
ritories (Buryndina 1974).

The ostracod fauna is most significant for the detailed

stratification of the Pannonian and Pontian deposits. The
scheme of stratigraphic division of the Pannonian and
Pliocene was based on the results of the study of ostracods
by Sheremeta (1958) and Vyalov (1981).

Spores and pollen

Palynological investigations of the Neogene deposits of

the Carpathian Foredeep and Transcarpathian Basin began in
the 1950s. The whole section of Neogene deposits of the
Carpathian Foredeep was systematically studied by Shvareva
in the 1950s – 1960s (1972) and by Ivanina and Portnyagina
— in 1990s. Details of the Upper Miocene-Pleistocene of the
Transcarpathian Basin were studied by Rybakova (1975) and
Syabryay & Shchekina (1983).

Leaf flora

Floristic remnants (imprints of leaves) in the Neogene of

western regions of Ukraine were preserved in the deposits of
the Carpathian Foredeep and Transcarpathian Basin and the
adjoining part of East-European Platform. They have been
known since the end of the last century, but they were not
studied in detail.

The purposeful collection and study of flora began in 1958

in UkrNDGRI. Since 1974 it has been carried out in the
State Museum of Natural History of the National Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine.

Flora from the deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (loca-

tions Kosiv, Verbovets, Shotynka, Myshyn, Dzhurov, Rosh-
nyato) was dated as Upper Badenian (Shvareva 1983). For
the Pliocene, the flora was published monographically (Iliin-
ska 1968).

Lithostratigraphic features of Neogene deposits

Transcarpathian Basin


The Grushiv Formation (Petrashkevich & Loz-

ynyak 1989) is the lowest division of the Neogene in the
Transcarpathian Basin. It is a mass of lime argillites with in-

terbeds of sandstones with a total thickness of about 250 m.
The formation is related to the Oligocene-Early Miocene
age (Rupelian-Egerian). Its age analogues are considered to
be Lazhivsko (Gurevich 1956) and Dunkovytsi Formations.


The Burkalo Formation is spread along

the north-eastern flank of the deep. It is composed of grey
sandstones, aleurolites and sandy carbonate clays, in which
more than 100 species of mollusk with the characteristic
Pecten pseudobeudanti

 Dep. & Rom., P. cf. burdigalensis

Lamk. with numerous Tellina, and rich complex of foramin-
ifers with fish scales, shark teeth and single imprints of
leaves were established. These are undoubtedly the typical
marine deposits of the subcoastal zone. Its thickness reaches
80 m. To Burkalo Formation it is possible to relate a 7 m
thick bed of dark-grey argillites and clays with the interbeds
of sandstones which was identified just under the so-called
“Klobukh” tuff. In the rocks, a peculiar fauna of fresh-water
and salt-water mollusks has been found: Galba sp., Coretus
cf.  cornu  Brogn.,  Gyraulus sp., Terebralia bidentata Defr.
This witnesses to the fact that sedimentation took place un-
der conditions of an isolated shallow-water basin.


The Tereshul Formation is observed along the

north-eastern margin of the deep. It is formed by variegated
(cherry-red, greenish and grey) argillites, aleurolites, sand-
stones and coarse-pebbled conglomerates with rare interbeds
of tuffs and tuffites, and also with streaks and nests of gyp-
sum and anhydrite. The thickness of the formation reaches
100–450 m. The rocks are bedded incomformably on differ-
ent horizons of pre-Neogene formations, and also on the
Burkalo Formation. In separate sections of the formation
badly preserved foraminifers from the family Globigerinidae
of Early Miocene and also redeposited Cretaceous and Pa-
leogene forms have been found.


The Badenian rocks are subdivided according to

lithofacial features into separate formations (upwards): No-
voselitsa (Lower Badenian), Tereblya and Solotvyno (Middle
Badenian), Teresva and Baskhiv ones (Upper Badenian).

The Novoselytsa Formation is bedded transgressively on

Mesozoic and Paleogene deposits of the deep basement and
on Miocene rocks of the Burkalo and Tereshul Formations.
On the present day surface it is traced as a continuous narrow
stripe along the deep north-eastern margin. Its thickness
changes from some dozens to 980 m.

The formation consists of light-green to bluish-white rhy-

olite-dacite tuffs and tuffites with interbeds of grey argil-
lites, marls, aleurolites and tuffogenous sandstones. In some
sections in the formation’s middle and lower parts, thin
beds of conglomerates are found. Their various pebbles are
fastened by light-green tuff cement. Sometimes veiny volca-
nic formations of acid composition are present. A rich com-
plex of foraminifers typical for Candorbulina universa Zone
is characteristic of this formation. In the “transitional group
of strata” between tuffs and overlapping clays the Uvigerina
asperula Zone is singled out, and also a complex of mol-
lusks and brachiopods which point to the typical marine
conditions of the sedimentary basin.

The Tereblya Formation is laid conformably on the Novos-

elytsa one and is represented by terrigeneous-chemogenous
formations. Within it one can clearly see the lower mainly

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     REGIONAL STRATIGRAPHIC SCHEME OF NEOGENE FORMATIONS                                             125

clayey Lower Tereblya “subformation” and the upper halog-
enous Upper Tereblya “subformation”.

The thickness of the lower “subformation” varies from a

few metres to 360 m.

The grey and white crystalline salt of the Upper Tereblya

“subformation” with packets and lenses of grey clays is bed-
ded as massive bodies in salt cheeks and because of this its
thickness changes from the first metres up to 1197 m. In the
formation clays a poor complex of small foraminifers is met.

Flysch-like interbedding of dark-grey argillite-like clays

and light-grey sandstones, aleurolites, with occasional hori-
zons of tuffs and tuffites, are characteristic of the Solotvyno
Formation. Near Solotvyno the horizons (16–20 and 90–
110 m) of rhyolite-dacite tuffs are widely spread. In the west-
ern direction these horizons are gradually wedging out.

From organic remnants Foraminifera, Radiolaria, single

mollusks, echinoids, fish and insect skeletons were found
here. The formation’s thickness varies from some dozens to
1220 m.

The Teresva Formation in the Solotvyno part of the deep is

mainly on the present day surface, and in Mukachevo part of
the region it is overlapped by thick formations of the Upper
Miocene and Pliocene.

The formation’s lower layers in Danylovo-Solotvyno part

are composed of sandy-clayey rocks with a great number of
pyroclastic formations, among them the most known is the
Nankovo horizon of rhyolite-dacite tuffs. Towards the north-
eastern margin of the deep the formation becomes more
sandy and enriched with lenses and thick horizons of con-
glomerates. In the formation the following “subformations”
are distinguished (from below): the Glod, Nankovo, Shan-
drovo, Nyachiv, Tyachiv and Vulkhivets “subformation”.

In the south-western direction, the coarse- and medium-

pebbled rocks gradually change into more fine-clastic and
clayey formations, so the Teresva Formation becomes litho-
logically monotonous. The Teresva Formation contains rich
remnants of mollusks, echinoids, foraminifers and numer-
ous imprints of leaves.

In the Ruski Komarivtsi area a thick (more than 600 m) in-

trusive body of granodiorite-porphyries is connected with
Upper (and partly Middle) Badenian deposits. The maximum
thickness (1770 m) of the Teresva Formation is found in well
Apshytsa-1, and in average it is 500–700 m.

The Baskhev Formation completes the Upper Badenian

section of the Transcarpathian Basin. It is composed of two
lithofacial types of sediment: shallow-water, littoral and
comparatively deep-water ones. The first of them is com-
posed of clayey-sandy rocks with thick conglomerates, and
the second one is composed of clays and the interbeds of
aleurolites and sandstones. Littoral deposits contain rich
complexes of marine, salt-water and fresh-water mollusks,
and also foraminifers (zone Ammonia galiciana = Ammonia
beccarii). The formation thickness is 30–150 m.


The rocks of the Sarmatian complex are con-

formably bedded on the Badenian formation, but up the sec-
tion they are gradually replaced by Pannonian in one case,
and in the other — they are eroded, or with a stratigraphic
break are overlapped by Dacian-Romanian or Eopleistocene
deposits. On the basis of lithological and especially paleon-

tological differences, the Sarmatian rocks are subdivided
into the Lower Sarmatian Dorobrativ and Lukiv Formations
and the Middle Sarmatian Almash Formation.

The Dorobrativ Formation consists of clays with interbeds of

aleurolites, sandstones, tuffs, tuffites and sometimes of con-
glomerates. The formation contain rich mollusk complexes
with Ceratoderma inopinata and foraminifers (Anomalina
badenensis Zone). The formation thickness reaches 300–800 m.

The Lukiv Formation is lithologically close to the Doro-

brativ Formation. In its composition grey carbonate clays
prevail with interbeds of aleurolites, sandstones, tuffs, sel-
dom limestones, conglomerates, siderites and dolomites. The
rocks contain a great number of mollusks (Cardium transcar-
pathicum Zone), foraminifers (Quinqueloculina sarmatica
and Q. reussi Zones), ostracods and numerous imprints of
leaves. The formation’s thickness is 50–300 m.

The Almash Formation. In its lower part clays with inter-

beds of aleurolites, sandstones, occasionally tuffs and tuffites
are widely developed. The upper part is formed by clays with
thick groups of light-grey sandstones and the interbeds of
limestones and coquina, with lenses of coal and interbeds of
siderites, dolomites, liparite tuffs and tuffobreccia. The for-
mation contains a rich fauna of mollusks, foraminifers (Po-
rosonion subgranosus Zone with Articulina problema and
Bolivina sarmatica Subzones), ostracods, fish skeletons, Di-
atomeae, plant remnants. The formation’s thickness is 30–
180 m.


The Iziv Formation is composed of grey,

greenish-grey clays with interbeds of sandstones, tuffs, tuf-
fites, limestones. The rocks contain hardly any foraminifers,
but ostracods are widely spread, and the marine mollusk
complexes are replaced by the salt-water littoral species of

 and Melanopsis. The formation’s thickness varies

from 50 to 500 m.


The Kosheliv Formation overlaps conformably

the Iziv Formation and is formed by various-grained sand-
stones with the interbeds of sandy clays, with lenses and in-
terbeds of lignite. The uppermost part of the formation is rep-
resented by variegated (red, greenish and grey) clays and
conglomerates. The rocks contain ostracods and fresh-water
mollusks (Planorbis sp., Ancylus sp.). The formation’s thick-
ness varies from 100 to 500 m.


and Romanian. The deposits of the Ilnitsa, Gutyn

and Buzhor Formations are related to these two stages.

The Ilnitsa Formation includes grey, greenish, sometimes

red clays, tuffs, tuffites, tuffosandstones, lignites, lime-
stones, siderites and lava andesites. These rocks uncon-
formably overlay the Kosheliv Formation. On the older Mi-
ocene formation of the deep its total thickness reaches 500
m in the western part of Mukachevo area of the deep. The
Ilnitsa Formation stratigraphically unconformably are over-
lain by variegated clays with pebble beds of the Eopleis-
tocene Chop Formation.

The Carpathians and Carpathian Foredeep

Molassa Neogene formation of the Carpathian Foredeep

overlays in the most cases the flysch deposits with stratigraph-
ic unconformity; here and there a gradual transition is ob-

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126                                                                        ANDREYEVA-GRIGOROVICH et al.

Fig. 1a
















Zone Anomalina


Zone Quinquloculina

sarmatica, Q. reussi

Zone Porosononion





 Planorbis grandis

Melania escheri


 Congeria ungula-caprae, C.

subglobosa, Melanopsis bouei etc.,

Congeria partschi, C. hoernesi,

Melanopsis impressa, M. fossilis,

Limnocardium halavatschi

Cardium pium, C. finitima,

C. sarmaticum, C. politiognei,

C. plicatofittoni, Tapes naviculatus

 Cardium transcarpaticum

(=Cardium gleichenbergense).

C. plicatum, Modiola sarmatica,

Mactra eichwaldi etc.

Cerastoderma inopinata,

Cardium volhynicum. Abra alba,

A. reflexa, A. reflexa elongata,

Ervilia dissita, Modiolus

naviculoides maximus etc.

Candona albicans,

C. convexa,C. combiba,

Cyclocypris laevis,C. globosa,

Iliocypris bradyi, I. gibba,

Limnocythere inopinata,

Darvinula stevensoni

 Candona lobata, C. labiata

C. balcanica,  C. acuminata

C. dorzoarcuata

Hemicytheria reniformis, H. tenuistriata,

H. schneideri, Leptocythera nodigera

 L. lacunosa, Laxoconcha granifera


Hemicytheria lorenthei, H. pokorny,

H. foliculosa, Leptocythere lacunosa,

Eucypris sieberi, Herpetocypris obscissa,

H. reticulata, H. aspera, Paracypris

lunata, P. rakosiensis

Xestoleberis luteae, X. elongata

Hemicytheria sarmatica, H. subangusta,

Leptocythere plana, L. tenuis, Ciprideis

seminulum, C. punctillata etc.

Glyptostrobus europaeus, Populus

balsamoides, Salix varians, Alnus

nogradiensis, Castanea atavia,

Parrotia pristina, Rhus quercifolia,

Acer trilobatum, Gingko adiantoides

Pterocarya castaneifolia, Phyllites,

Fagus, Carpinus, Castanea,

 Zelkova ungeri

Salix denticulata, Carya denticulata

Carpinus grandis, Fagus orientalis,

F. haidingeri, Castanea atavia, Myrica

deperdita, Pterocarya castaneifolia,

Zelkova ungeri, Platanus aceroides,

Rhus quercifolia, Vitis teutonica

Populus melanaria, Liqidambar europaea,

Parrotia pristina, Rosa petraschkevitschii,

Gleditschia allemanica, Rhamnus media,

Hedera helix, Salix angusta, Carpinus

marmaroschica, Castanea atavia

Acer subcampestre, Platanus aceroides

 Chop Formation:

Mottled clays, sandstones

pebble gravel (= 600 m)

Buzhor Formation: Basalts, andesite-basalts,

microdolerites (100 m)

Koshelevo Formation: Variegated clays,

conglomerates, clays (80–450 m)

Iziv Formation: Clays, sandstones,

aleurites, tuffs, rarely marls,

limestones, lignites

(30–400 m)

Almash Formation: Clays, aleurolites,

sandstones, marls, tuffs (50–480 m)

 Lukiv Formation: Clays, sandstones,

aleurolites with horizons tuffs (400 m)

 Dorobrativ Formation: Clays, sandstones,

aleurolites, rarely conglomerates,

horizons tuffs, volcanic rock (700 m)

Hutin Formation: Andesites,

basalts, dacites, liparites

(> 500 m)

Ilnitsa Formation:

Clays, aleurolites,

sandstones, tuffs,

lignites (500 m)

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     REGIONAL STRATIGRAPHIC SCHEME OF NEOGENE FORMATIONS                                             127

Fig. 1b

Fig. 1a-b. 

 Regional stratigraphic scheme of Neogene deposits of T

ranscarpathian Basin.

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128                                                                        ANDREYEVA-GRIGOROVICH et al.

served. In the Chechva Basin (Marginal skyba) the Menilite
series, by which the flysch complex ends, gradually looses the
flysch indications and comes to the Polyanitsa Formation.


In the Oriv and Marginal skybas and in the Bo-

ryslav-Pokuttya Nappe the Oligocene-Neogene boundary
comes in the floor of the Upper Menilite “subformation”. In
the southern skybas of the Skyba zone and in the Silesian
(Krosno) zone this boundary is fixed in the section of Kros-
no Beds at the stratigraphical level that comes above the
Holovets horizon of stripped limestones. The data of An-
dreyeva-Grigorovich & Gruzman (1994) indicate that the
upper part of the Upper Menilite and Krosno beds belongs
to the Miocene.

Menilite Formation. The most powerful and full section out-

crops in the Marginal skyba along the river Chechva, where
three “subformations” are clearly distinguished: Lower Meni-
lite, Middle Menilite (Lopyanka) and Upper Menilite ones.

In the floor of the Upper Menilite “subformation” a 2–10

horizon of black flints is traced, above which the succession
(400 m) of black argillites with interbeds of sandstones and
aleurolites is bedded. In the middle part a succession (500 m)
of dark grey, mainly limed argillites with separate interbeds
of sandstones is found. In the succession top the horizon
(70 m) of Chechva dacite tuffs, tuffites, tuffigenic argillites
and aleurolites is bedded. Above it black bitumenic argillites
with the interbeds of sandstones, aleurolites and rarely marls
are found. In the Upper Menilite Beds Globigerinoides tri-

 (Reuss) appears, and this makes it possible to relate

them to the bottom of the Miocene.

The Krosno Formation is represented by the rhythm inter-

bedding of grey micaceous sandstones and aleurolite with
argillites. The lower part belongs to the Egerian, upper part-
to the Eggenburgian or perhaps the Ottnangian.


Polyanitsa Formation. In the basin of the

Chechva River in the Marginal skyba between the Polyanitsa
and Upper Menilite deposits the main transition is observed.
In the Boryslav-Pokuttya Nappe in the floor of the Polyanit-
sa Beds conglomerates (Rushor) appear; they lay with
scouring at different horizons of the Menilite deposits.

The Polyanitsa Formation is composed of grey, yellowish-

grey and brown argillites and clays, which are interbedded with
sandstones. In the upper parts of the section small pockets and
streaks of gypsum appear. The total thickness reaches 600 m.

The presence of the typically Miocene species Globorota-

lia minutissima

 Boli, Globigerina woodi connecta Jenkins,

Globoquadrina langhiana

 Cita & Gelati and also the poor

complex of the nannoplanktonic zone NN 2 – NN 3 indicate
that the Polyanitsa Formation belongs to the Lower Miocene.

Vorotyshcha Formation. Its division (Vyalov 1951, 1965)

into two “subformations“: Lower Vorotyshcha and Upper
Vorotyshcha seems to be the best established. In the eastern
part of the deep the Sloboda conglomerates stratigraphically
correspond to the middle part of the Vorotyshcha Formation;
here the Upper Vorotyshcha salt-bearing formations facially
replace the Dobrotiv Beds.

The Lower Vorotyshcha “subformation” is represented by

a succession (600–800 m and more) of grey gypsed lime
clays with interbeds of sandstones and the breccia-like
sandy-clay rocks, cemented by rock-salt. In the separate

parts potassium salts appear. In the whole section two parts
are distinguished: the lower one — terrigeneous and the up-
per one — salt-bearing.

At the north-west the total thickness of Lower Vorotyshcha

deposits sharply decreases and is not more than 100–200 m.

In the Lower Vorotyshcha deposits a poor fauna of


Bolivina and Globigerina is observed. The

number of them sharply decreases along the section. Near the
village of Ivan Franko, nannoplankton corresponding to the
zone NN2 according to the Martini scale (Eggenburgian)
have been identified.

The Sloboda conglomerates are represented by coarse and

fine pebbles and include interbeds of gravelites, various-
grained sandstones and in some times by the groups of strata
of salinized sandy-clay rocks in the lower part of the section.
The total thickness ranges from a few metres up to 1000 m
and more.

Upper Vorotyshcha “subformation”. It is mainly composed

of salt-bearing breccias and clays with the interbeds of sand-
stones and aleurolites, and also by the beds and lense-like
bodies of rock and potassium salts. The total thickness is
400–800 m.

The Stebnyk potassium-bearing region is located in the

zone of the Upper Vorotyshcha salt-bearing deposits; occur-
rences of potassium salts are known between Blazhiv and
Popeli and between Modrych and Drogobych. By the way,
near Stebnyk three potassium-bearing horizons have been
discovered with thicknesses from 60 to 100 m.

The deposits are faunistically characterized badly, and the

majority of investigators conditionally refer to them as Up-
per Eggenburgian.

The Dobrotiv Formation is a grey flyschoid succession

(600–800 m) of sandstones, aleurolites and argillites. Various
texture signs, including the imprints of traces of vertebrates
feet (birds, artiodactyla and felines) are very characteristic of
the deposits.

To the north-west from the Bystritsa Nadvirna, the Dobro-

tiv Formation is conformably bedded on the Sloboda con-
glomerates and is overlain by the Stebnyk Formation.


The Stebnyk Formation is formed by the

rhythm interbedding of red, pink, greenish-grey argillites,
aleurolites, sandstones, rarely conglomerates and marls. In
the area of Drogobych and Dobromyl the Stebnyk Formation
is mainly composed of different-grained sandstones with
thicknesses often reaching 3–5 m. To the south-east of
Drogobych the sections become more clayey.

Between the rivers Chechva and Lyuchka the Stebnyk Beds

are represented by the flyschoid alternation of sandstones,
aleurites and argillites, among which separate interbeds of
copper sandstones appear.

The total thickness of Stebnyk deposits varies from 500 to

3000 m. Such great changes of thickness give birth to doubt
about steadfast character and stable stratigraphical volume of
the formation. Especially debatable is the stratigraphical vol-
ume of the so-called “Lanchyn facies” of the Stebnyk Forma-
tion. Its deposits (thickness to 200–300 m) are represented by
blue-grey clays with interbeds of sandstones.

The Stebnyk Beds contain little paleontological evidence, but

they are assigned to the Ottnangian. A nannoplanktonic com-

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     REGIONAL STRATIGRAPHIC SCHEME OF NEOGENE FORMATIONS                                             129

Fig. 2a

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130                                                                        ANDREYEVA-GRIGOROVICH et al.

Fig. 2b

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     REGIONAL STRATIGRAPHIC SCHEME OF NEOGENE FORMATIONS                                             131

Fig. 2c

Fig. 2a-c. 

 Regional stratigraphic scheme of Neogene deposits of Carpathian Foredeep.

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132                                                                        ANDREYEVA-GRIGOROVICH et al.

plex analogous to the zone NN 4 Martini (Andreyeva-Grigorov-
ich & Stupnitsky 1976) was discovered in the lower part of the
section near Nadvirna and it indicates the Early Miocene age.


The Balych Formation is represented by a suc-

cession (up to 600 m) of grey and greenish-grey lime sandy-
clay rocks. In the lower part of its section the interbeds of
pink and coffee clays and argillites are often observed. In
these deposits the finds of Globigerina are known which up
the section change into Quinqueloculina — Quinqueloculina
distorta Zone (Pishvanova 1972), ostracods and small gastro-
pods. Pishvanova (1972) noted that in the lower part of the
Balych Formation the Globigerina bollii Zone can be distin-
guished. At the same stratigraphic level, together with Globi-
gerina bollii

 Cita & Premoli-Silva, Khrushchov (1980) also

mentioned finds of the following species: Biorbulina bilobata
Orb.,  Praeorbulina glomerosa Orb., Orbulina universa
(Iede.) (single ones). This may indicate that the enclosing
rocks are Lower Badenian. Despite this fact the majority of
geologists are eager to assign the Balych Formation to the
Karpatian, though this question needs more detailed study.


In the section of upper molasse in Lower Bad-

enian two formations are distinguished: the Bogorodchany
Formation (in the Sambir Zone) and the Zhuriv Formation
(in the Bilche–Volytsa Zone); then in Upper Badenian — the
Tyrassian Formation and the overlying Kosiv Formation.

The lower part of the Bogorodchany Formation is com-

posed of marls, lime argillites and acid tuffs, where there are
many globigerinides (Orbulina suturalis Zone). The upper
part is represented by grey clays and argillites which have
rare interbeds of sandstones and marls. In the deposits nu-
merous Uvigerina are observed (Uvigerina asperula Zone),
and also Lagenida and Buliminida. From mollusks there are

 cf. cristatum Bron. and Pseudoamussium corne-

um denudatum

 (Rss.). The total thickness of the formation

does not exceed 150 m.

The Zhuriv Formation is transgressively deposited over

the basement of the molasse complex of the Bilche–Volytsa
Zone. Its lower part is formed by grey and greenish glauco-
nite sandstones. The middle part is represented by alternation
of sandstones, argillites and marls. The section ends with a
packet (3–5 m) of dark lime argillites and marls which in-
clude planktonic foraminifers of Orbulina suturalis Zone and
nannoplankton of NN5 Sphenolithus heteromorphus Zone.

The total thickness of the Zhuriv Formation reaches a few

dozen metres.

The Tyrassian Formation is composed of gypsum and an-

hydrites with interbeds of clays and limestones; in separate
places in the section interbeds and groups of strata of rock-
salt, and even of potassium salts appear. The thickness and
lithological composition of the deposit greatly vary (from
10–40 m to 100–300 m).

In some dark-grey argillites the planktonic foraminifers

and the associations of nannoplanktonic zone NN5 are met.

Kosiv Formation. In the south-eastern part of the fore-

deep, where the formation reaches the maximum thickness
(up to 200 m), in the section four parts are distinguished:
Verbovets, Prut, Kolomiya and Kovalivka beds.

The formation is represented by aleuritic grey clays which

alternate with separate interbeds of loose aleurolites, sand-

stones, tuffs and tuffites. In the deposits (especially in the
Verbivtsi and Prut beds) mollusks (Chlamys, Ervilia, Spiria-

 etc.) and foraminifers are found. Four zones: 1 — Globi-

gerina decoraperta and Spirialis; 2 — Bogdanowiczia pocuti-
ca and Bulimina-Bolivina; 3 — Cassidulina crista, and 4 —
Ammonia galiciana (= Ammonia beccarii) in strict sequence
can be established on the basis of foraminiferal fauna.

In the basins of the rivers Pistynka and Rybnytsa, the Ko-

siv Formation consists of a succession (to 100 m) of clays
with interbeds of various-grained sands and sandstones,
gravelites and conglomerates (“Pistynka conglomerates”),
which were formed in fresh-water lagoons. Stratigraphically
these deposits correspond to the Bugliv Beds. Probably their
upper part already belongs to the bottom of the Sarmatian. In
the north-western part of the foredeep in the region of Dobro-
myl-Khyriv the thickness of the so called “Radych conglom-
erates” can be regarded as their stratigraphic analogue.


In the Carpathian Foredeep, Sarmatian depos-

its are mainly spread in the Bilche-Volytsa and Sambir zones.

The Dashava Formation unites a thick complex (from a

few hundred to 4000 m) of grey clay deposits with interbeds
of aleurolites, sandstones, tuffogenic rocks (tuffs, tuffites,
bentonite clays). In separate parts of the section the number
of sandstones grows, and they compose about 50 % of all the
rocks. Here and there conglomerates appear.

The Dashava Formation is usually divided into two

“subformation”s: a—the lower one, more sandy (Anomalina
badenensis Zone), and b—the upper one with a larger con-
tent of tuffogenic rocks (Quinqueloculina reussi Zone). De-
spite the facial variability of the Dashava deposits, the pres-
ence in the section of tuffogenic rocks makes it possible to
divide them into separate horizons. In particular, Vishnyakov
et al. (1979) worked out the unified synonymics of the hori-
zons and proposed the detailed scheme of correlation. In the
Lower Dashava “subformation” they distinguish 17 horizons
(synonymics from ND-17 to ND-1); in the Upper Dashava-
14 (synonymics from VD-14 to VD-1) sand-clay horizons

The Sarmatian age of the Dashava Formation is proved by

the foraminiferal fauna and by fauna of bivalve mollusks,
gastropods and ostracods.

South-western margin of East-European Platform


Nagoryany (Oncophora) Beds (Goretsky

1962). The Miocene section in the platform begins with ma-
rine shallow-water coastal formations which are bedded
transgressively on a Mesozoic basement. They are repre-
sented by various-grained grey and greenish quartz-glauco-
nite sands with lime sandstone interbeds (10–15 cm). The
lower part includes pebbles of silicites, white quartz and
Devonian sandstones. In some places sands are replaced by
organogenic sandy-clay limestones. These deposits include
a rich complex of mollusks — Rzehakia (Oncophora) socia-

 (Rzehak), Nucula nucleus (Linne) etc. Foraminifers and

algae are also find. The thickness of the Nagoryany Beds
does not exceed 2 m.

The Berezhany fresh-water beds are deposited with a

break on the Nagoryany ones and are represented by fine-

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     REGIONAL STRATIGRAPHIC SCHEME OF NEOGENE FORMATIONS                                             133

grained light limestones, marls and green clays. Organic rem-
nants of fresh-water ostracods, oogonium chare alga and
fresh-water gastropods are often found. These deposits are re-
lated to the upper part of the Karpatian, on the basis of their
location under beds of the Lower Badenian with Amussium

(Reuss). The thickness of the beds reaches 7 m.


The Baraniv Beds (the first Lithothamnium

horizon) are deposited with unconformity on the Berezhany
Beds or older formations. The beds are formed by greenish-
grey glauconite lime sands and sandstones with a rich mol-
lusk fauna. Lithothamnium nodules are characteristic of
these deposits. Sometimes this horizon is wholly composed
of Lithothamnium limestones. The thickness of the beds does
not exceed 1 m.

The Mykolaiv Beds unite rocks which are laterally quite

variable in lithological composition. They were deposited
between two Lithothamnium horizons (Baraniv and Naraev
beds). These beds include: the Mykolaiv quartz and quartz-
glauconite sands and sandstones; Znesennya deltaic quartz
sands with silicified wood; Pidgaytsi bryozoan marls;
Sverzhkovets detritus bryozoan limestones; Pomoryany-
Zolochiv Beds — dark-grey and greenish clays and quartz
sands with interbeds of brown coal.

In Mykolaiv Beds the foraminiferal complex with Can-

dorbulina universa 

Jedlitschka (Orbulina suturalis) has

been identified, and this makes possible to correlate the
country rocks with the Zhuriv and Bogorodchany Forma-
tions of the Carpathian Foredeep. The maximum thickness
of the Mykolaiv Beds is 30–40 m.

The Naraev Beds (the second Lithothamnium horizon)

are composed of Lithothamnium limestones which represent
the accumulation of Lithothamnium nodules and other alga.
Sometimes these beds are composed mainly of lime detritus,
and in the direction to the bank line they change into sand-
stones with separate algal nodules. Besides numerous rem-
nants of alga the Naraev Beds contain pectenides, oysters and
foraminifers. The thickness of the beds varies from 1 to 25 m.

The Rostochya Beds — a thin (some cm) layer over the

Ervilia horizon, composed of quartz and quartz-glauconite
sands and sandstones. The fauna of these deposits is analo-
gous to the complex of the Baraniv Beds. This fact caused
some difficulties in the stratification and correlation of Mi-
ocene sections.

The Kryvchytsi (Ervilia) Beds — a thin (10–15 cm) layer

of light-grey limestone or lime sandstone which is overfilled
with shells Ervilia pusilla Eichwald. The mollusks Chlamys,
Cardium, Modiolus, Hydrobia

 are also found. In spite of its

small thickness the Ervilia horizon plays an important mark-
ing role in stratification of the Miocene section of the plat-
form. The Kryvchytsi Beds are partly replaced by the Ros-
tochyn Beds.

The Kaiserwald Beds are spread over a large territory and

are represented by a thick (more than 30 m) mass of quartz-
glauconite sands and sandstones with a marine fauna of mol-
lusks and foraminifers. To the south and the south-west they
are substituted by Ratyn limestones, which, in their turn, part-
ly correspond to gypsum and anhydrites of Tyrassian Forma-
tion. This formation is deposited transgressively on Lower
Badenian formations or on the pre-Miocene basement.

The Pidgirtsi Beds — quartz and quartz-glauconite sands

with a thickness of 10–20 m, which contain marine fauna of
mollusks, echinoids, foraminifers. They correspond to the upper
part of the Kaiserwald Beds in the riverside parts of the Basin.

The Ternopil Beds (the third Lithothamnium horizon) are

developed only in the north-east of the territory. They are
represented by limestones with Lithothamnium nodules
which are cemented by green-grey glauconite sandstones. In
the upper part of these deposits limestones are interbedded
with clay glauconite sands. The thickness of the beds is 5–
8 m. The fauna complex of the Ternopil Beds is composed,
apart from Lithothamnium, of remnants of gastropods, bi-
valve mollusks, bryozoans, serpulites and colonial corals. In
the north-east the third Lithothamnium horizon is replaced
by the green glauconite sands of the Vyshgorod Beds.

The Bulgiv Beds are represented by grey and green-grey

quartz sands with shell detritus. Laskarev, who distinguished
the Bugliv Beds in 1897, divided them into three parts: low-
er part (horizon V, modern Vyshgorod beds) with Tortonian
(Badenian) fauna: middle part (horizon G) with Tortonian
and Tortonian-Sarmatian fauna; upper part (horizon D) with
Sarmatian fauna.

The investigators which studied the Bugliv Beds after

Laskarev (?), interpreted their lithological volume and strati-
graphic position differently. For a long time the question of
the age of these formations was discussed — Tortonian (Bad-
enian) or Sarmatian? The supporters of both variants sup-
ported their constructions quite confidently, but the question
was not solved. In 1966 the problem of the Bugliv Beds was
discussed at a special symposium. The materials from it were
published. In the article of Vyalov & Grishkevich (1970) the
question of the age and lithological volume of Bugliv Beds
was analysed in details. The authors identify the Bugliv Beds
(s.s.) in the volume of horizon G only, which includes the
complex of mollusks with Venus konkensis Sokolov media
and the microfaunistic association with Ammonia beccarii
(Linne). Horizon D with the coplex of foraminifers with
Anomalina badenensis

 (Orbigny) was excluded by them

from the Bugliv Beds and related to the Sarmatian.


The Volyn Beds with scouring are deposited

on the Bugliv and older formations (Paleozoic and Cam-
brian). It consists of a polyfacial complex of carbonate,
sandy and sandy-clay deposits. They are limestones of differ-
ent composition and genesis, grey and yellow sands with a
rich fauna of Sarmatian mollusks and redeposited Badenian
forms, oolithic sandstones or limestones, alteration of marls
and limestones, conglomerate interbeds. The thickness of the
Volyn Beds reaches 35 m.


The stratigraphic constructions of past years, the results of anal-

ysis of the latest geological, geophysical, paleontological and sedi-
mentological data and materials from drilling on the Neogene of
the Transcarpathian Basin, Folded Carpathians, Carpathian Fore-
deep and the south-western edge of the East-European Platform
are the basis for the proposed regional stratigraphic scheme of the
Neogene of the western regions of Ukraine (Fig.1a,b;Fig.2a-c).

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134                                                                        ANDREYEVA-GRIGOROVICH et al.

Fig. 3.

 The correlation of stage and zonal scales of Neogene deposits of the Tethys and Paratethys (*Andreyeva-Grigorovich & Nosovsky

(1976), Nosovsky & Andreyeva-Grigorovich (1987) Andreyeva-Grigorovich & Gruzman (1994)).

background image

     REGIONAL STRATIGRAPHIC SCHEME OF NEOGENE FORMATIONS                                             135

This scheme solves a number of questions on the classification

and correlation of the Neogene formations on a modern level.

1 — Correlation of the biostratigraphic subdivisions of the

Neogene of the Western Paratethys with the Mediterranean scale
is fulfilled by the foraminifers and nannoplankton (Fig. 3).

2 — Correlation with the Eastern Paratethys is done on

the basis of nannoplankton.

3 — Correlation of the Neogene of the Outer Carpathians

with the formations of the same age in the Polish and Ruma-
nian parts of the region is carried out. For the Inner Car-
pathians such correlation is done with the sections of Hunga-
ry, Slovakia and Rumania.

4 — The connections of Sarmatian basins of the Western

and Eastern Paratethys are established.

For the Folded Carpathians and Carpathian Foredeep:
5 — The Paleogene-Neogene boundary is substantiated

paleontologically by planktonic foraminifers, nannoplank-
ton and dinocysts. On the basis of the latest materials this
boundary lies in the floor of the Middle Krosno and Upper
Menilite “subformations”.

6 — By planktonic foraminifers and nannoplankton the

zones in Egerian–Upper Badenian are distinguished.

7 — Division of the Upper Badenian–Lower Sarmatian ac-

cording to benthos foraminifera is done in greater detail.

8 — Stratification of the lower molasse of the Carpathian

Foredeep is specified: correlation of the Sloboda conglomer-
ates with the middle part of the Vorotyshcha Formation is
substantiated (according to the present ideas these conglom-
erates are the age analogue of the Polyanitsa and Vorotysh-
cha Formations). The coarse-cobbled horizon in the floor of
the Polyanitsa Formation in Pokuttya is distinguished with
the name of Rushor conglomerates.

9 — The supposition of the facial replacement of the Balych

Formation by the Stebnyk Formation upper horizons is expressed.

10 — In the floor of the upper molasse complex under the

Tyrassian (gypsum-anhydrite) Formation in Bilche-Volytsa
Zone of Carpathian Foredeep the thickness, composed by
glauconite sandstones below and dark clays in the top, is dis-
tinguished as the Zhuriv Formation.

11 — The Badenian stage in the Miocene sections of the pre-

Carpathians is divided into two substages; the upper one begins
with the gypsum-anhydrite horizon (Tyrassian Formation).

For the Transcarpathian Basin:
12 — The formations of Carpathian regiostage are distinguished.
13 — In the deep Solotvyno part the lowest level of the

Miocene section (Egerian-Eggenburgian) is identified —
dark-coloured terrigeneous deposits being distinguished as
the Grushiv Formation.

14 — The stratigraphic scheme of the Pannonian deposits

is made more detailed.

15 — A new structural-facial division of the deep pre-

Neogene basement is proposed.

16 — The flora of the Upper Badenian formations (Teres-

va Formation) from the sections of the rivers Bolshaya
Ugolka and Teresva (Burkalo spring) is monographically


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